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I. S. YAZHBOROVSKAYA. The Great October Revolution and the Turn of the Nations in Central and South-Eastem Europe Towards Socialism
The turn to socialism which occurred in a number of countries which had formed the "second capitalist echelon" (marked by exceedingly aggravated social contradictions) is seen as a natural result of their social development. The author looks at the mechanisms, specific features and the results of the revolutionary processes of 1917 - 1923 and the 1940s in their organic link with the Great October Socialist Revolution and the subsequent world revolutionary process.
G. A. GERASIMENKO. The Zemstvos during the October Revolution
The article deals with a little-studied question of the position of zemstvo selfadministration during the October revolution. The situation obtaining at that time had two sides: the struggle to transfer all power to the Soviets and the position taken by various bodies of power to oppose the Soviets and to contend for power. Gerasimenko traces the course of struggle of the zemstvo selfgovernment bodies to seize power in various regions and demonstrates the causes of their defeat.
L. A. PINEGINA. On the Cultural Prerequisites of the Great October Revolution
The author outlines the cultural prerequisites of the socialist revolution, identifies their democratic and socialist elements and describes the cultural heritage. Much space is given to that part of the cultural heritage in literature, publicist writings and theatre which was created by representatives of the working class.
I. I. ZHIGALOV. The Great October Revolution and Britain
The article discusses the failure of the British bourgeoisie's imperialist designs to topple down Soviet power in Russia, the internationalist solidarity of the British working people in their struggle against anti-Soviet intervention, and the establishment of the Communist Party of Great Britain. The author uses his analysis to identify the key moments of the Russian socialist revolution's influence on the British public.
Academician A. L. NAROCHNITSKY, L. N. NEZHINSKY. Topical Aspects of Studying the History of Soviet Foreign Policy and International Relations
The authors analyse the topical problems of studying the history of Soviet foreign policy and international relations in the light of the materials of the 27th CPSU Congress. They point to the urgency of deeply probing into the key issue of the day: preservation of peace and prevention of thermonuclear war. They demonstrate the necessity of identifying the prerequisites of the new political thinking and the new philosophy of peace forwarded by the 27th CPSU Congress.
L. N. GUMILEV. The People and Nature of the Great Steppe. An Attempt at Clarifying Some Details of the Nomads' History
Nomad cattle-breeding went through numerous ebbs and flows: draughts reduced the grasing area while humid periods in the steppe raised the productivity thus urging cattle-breeders to unite into states (such were the states of the Hunns, Turks, Uigurs and Mongols). The author regards military clashes between the nomads and China, Iran and the Arab Khalifate as small-scale military campaigns in the border regions rather than as wide-scale migrations. He sees the only exception in the 13th-century Mongolian conquests which were the result of internal crises in China and the Khalifate. In those cases, too, the nomads could not perpetuate their rule.
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