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On January 27-29, 1999, the Faculty of History of the Lomonosov Moscow State University hosted the "XI Sergeyev Readings" dedicated to the memory of a prominent Russian antiquarian, Professor B. S. Sergeev, who for a number of years headed the Department of Ancient World History. The readings were conducted jointly with the Russian Association of Antiquities Scholars. The conference was opened by the Deputy Dean of the Faculty of History of Moscow State University, Professor L. S. Leonova, who made an introductory speech. At the plenary session on January 27, six reports were heard. The head of the Department of Ancient World History, Professor V. I. Kuzishchin, made a report on the creative path of the recently deceased E. S. Golubtsova, Chairman of the Russian Association of Antiquaries, who for many years headed the Department of Ancient History of the Institute of Universal History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Academician G. M. Bongard - Levin, editor-in-chief of this publication, head of the Center for Comparative Studies of Ancient Civilizations, made a report on the analysis of the activities and long-term work plans of the editorial board of the leading scientific journal of specialists in ancient history-Vestnik Drevnoi Istorii.

S.I. Kucher (Moscow) in his report "The people and power in ancient China", taking as a starting point the position of the "Shi Ching" that all the riches of the earth are the property of the ruler, and all the inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom are his servants, compared it with the actual reality of the first millennium BC, recorded in other sources, including features of Legist and Confucian texts. After analyzing the concepts of both teachings, the author came to the conclusion that even in autocratic legalism, a lot of attention was paid to the people, their rights and a quiet life, with a certain restriction on the ruler's self-will; in Confucianism, the relationship between power and people should have been based on mutual rights and obligations, care and trust, respect and love. The speaker suggested calling this form of government an "egalifraternal monarchy". L. P. Marinovich (Moscow) in his report " Did the ancient Greeks despise labor?" the author focused on the attitude to the work of artisans, emphasizing the importance of the development of slavery in the V-IV centuries BC. The author noted that there were a number of professions that were despised as slaves, those engaged in them were aware of the humiliation of their position, finding justification in poverty; it was not the work itself that was despised, but the dependent position of the artisan. Selling products - the product of his labor, hiring for money as a specialist or a day laborer, a person seemed to sell his body. The work of a craftsman established a relationship of personal dependence between him and the buyer, which is even more true in relation to hiring, whether it is the professional work of a craftsman or the unskilled work of a hired worker. V. N. Parfenov (Saratov) in the report "August and Germany" pointed out that the need to strengthen the new political regime required August to implement a program of new territorial seizures, which, apparently, provided for the eventual conquest of the entire inhabited world. But the implementation of this ambitious plan ran into difficulties not foreseen by Roman military specialists and Augustus himself, and was finally thwarted by a successful anti-Roman uprising in Germany. However, the fundamental changes in Rome's European policy were made not by Augustus, but by Tiberius, who experienced the futility of continuing wars of conquest. In the report of Yu. B. Circina (Novgorod) "Treaty of Rome with Hasdrubal" it was said that the surviving information about the treaty of Rome with Hasdrubal reflects two diplomatic acts: an earlier agreement, which Polybius speaks of, and a later treaty, set out by Livy, which provided for the border between the Roman and Carthaginian possessions along the Iberus and the inviolability of Saguntum. The reasons for concluding this treaty were on the Roman side - the desire to prevent the Carthaginians from joining the Gauls of Cisalpine Gaul on the eve of the planned war with them, and on the Carthaginian side - to ensure Roman neutrality when Hasdrubal planned a monarchical coup in Carthage.

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The section History of ancient Asia held two sessions, where 15 reports were heard. The session was opened by the report of M. M. Dandamaeva (Saint Petersburg) "Ideas of ancient authors about the origin of the peoples of the East". The speaker noted that in matters of ethnogenesis and ethnology in general, antiquity could not overcome the barrier separating mythology from science. Questions of ethnogenesis and kinship of peoples, unlike many other areas of ancient science, apparently were not formulated at the theoretical level and did not form a system. The report of A. A. Nemirovsky (Moscow) "On the history of Hurrian ethnogenesis" was devoted to a group of toponyms on the north-eastern periphery of Mesopotamia with similar names in English -, in the author's opinion, going back to the eponymous Hurrian tribe of the third millennium A.D. Nikitin (Moscow) in the report " Ethnic composition of the trade colonies of Ashur in Asia Minor (XIX B. C. E.) " considered the correlation of the most influential, Assyrian group of merchants of the Ashur trading colonies system, primarily Kanish, with groups of immigrants from other ethnic groups. Safronov (Moscow) in his report "The problem of dating the Trojan War in the light of Hitto-Achaean relations and the movement of the sea peoples" placed the Trojan War between the first wave of the "sea peoples" and Ramesses III, during the reign of the latter's immediate predecessors. This time interval corresponds to the date of the fall of Troy on the Parian marble (1209 BC). A. S. Vasiliev (Moscow) in his report "On the historical content of the tradition of Horma" turned to the Old Testament narratives about the battles of the ancient Jews with the inhabitants of Palestine in the area of Horma (Num. 13-14, Deut. 1: 43-44; Num. 21: 1-3; Sud. 1: 17; Nav. 12: 14). The author identifies two traditions about Horma that were initially independent of each other: the legend of the victory at Horma, which belongs to the "conquest" tradition of the tribe of Shimeonites, and the legend of the defeat at Horma. The report of S. S. Solovyova (Moscow) "Guerra of Arabia" examined the history and fate of this most important center of the Arabian sea and land trade, the death of which was associated, in the opinion of the speaker, with an unfavorable geological situation. Blinov (Zhukovsky) in his report "Lacuna in the Russian translation of the Third Book of Ezra" showed that in the Russian translation of this text there is a lacuna of 70 verses between 35 and 36 verses of the seventh chapter. In addition, the Third Book of Ezra (Ezra) is written not on behalf of the priest Ezra, son of Seraiah, as is commonly believed, but on behalf of the legendary prophet Ezra, son of Husiah, who lived a century earlier. In the report, l .Ya. Kardit (Moscow) "Symbolism and emblematics of the ancient East in the lectures of Academician N. P. Likhachev" it was noted that N. P. Likhachev's sphragistic studies are of fundamental importance for expanding the source base of symbolism and emblematics as special historical disciplines. S. V. Kuznetsov (Moscow) in the report " Some aspects of the military history of the Scythians N. V. Sokolov (Moscow) noted that the weakening of the Scythians by the third century BC due to wars with the Sarmatians and internal contradictions can be demonstrated archaeologically in the report " The problem of interpretation of data from the numismatic pantheon of the Great Kushans (II century based on the newly drawn epigraphic material, he concluded that the Kushan "numismatic pantheon" reflects a certain cult system (perhaps a kind of actually Kushan syncretic pantheon), and not an arbitrary set of deities. A. A. Shabalin (Moscow) in the report "The Jain community of Mathura in the I-III centuries AD" He proposed defining Jainism in the first and third centuries. S. V. Laptev (Moscow) devoted his report "The seven-bladed Sword and the Problems of Korean-Japanese relations in the fourth century A.D." to the sword from the Inokami-jinja temple, which may have had a ritual character. The inscriptions on the sword and its unique shape indicate very close contacts between the Korean state of Baekje and Japan. E. I. Kononenko (Moscow) in his report "Once again about the Sumerian feast" suggested considering the feast scenes in the Mesopotamian glyptic of the third millennium BC as a plot unit, which was along with the "frieze of the fighting" and the scenes of the battle. processions are one of the forms of expression of ritual actions. Gavrilin (Moscow) in his report "Anatolian prototypes of architectural terracotta friezes of the Archaic era" demonstrated the Anatolian origin of the Mediterranean friezes of the Archaic period, indicating the intensive interaction of different regions of the Mediterranean. The report of N. M. Nikulina (Moscow) "On the functional and symbolic in the architecture of the ancient world (III-I millennium BC)" was devoted to the problem of its constructive and figurative development on the example of one of the most significant parts of the building - the architectural support.

At the XI Sergeyev Readings, there was an Egyptological section, where 15 reports were presented. As part of the conference, the department hosted an exhibition of photographs reflecting the work of the first Russian archaeological expedition in Giza (Egypt).

The morning session was dedicated to this expedition and opened with messages from three of its participants. The head of the Russian expedition, Doctor of Historical Sciences E. E. Kormysheva (Moscow), made a big report "Russian archaeological expedition in Giza" about the research in the rock tomb of the time of the Ancient Kingdom, which belonged to the priest Khafraankhu. She described the results of three field seasons in Giza (1996-1998), which made it possible to study the underground rooms of the tomb of Khafraankh and to clear another tomb with two burials adjacent to it. M. A. Chegodaev (Moscow) in his report "The Tomb of Khafraankh: epigraphic observations" focused on questions about the unusual rearrangement of hieroglyphic characters in the name of the tomb's owner and features of writing its titles (usage

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indirect genitive), which provides important criteria for dating the tomb. In the report "Gizeh Amphorae: Problems of Origin "O. V. Tomashevich (Moscow) examined a beautiful vessel found in the burial chamber of Khafraankha, probably brought from the Eastern Mediterranean and containing precious vegetable oil. Such a find is undoubtedly very valuable and indicates the richness of the buried person. A natural continuation of the theme of the Ancient Kingdom was the report by S. V. Arkhipova (Moscow) "Rank and position of Egyptian nomarchs in the era of the VI-VIII dynasties", which showed how the titulature of nomarchs reflected signs of corruption in the administrative apparatus: the replacement of posts by rank, the assignment of ranks of higher officials to their subordinates, and centrifugal movement in the field.

Two reports were based on the analysis of Pyramid Texts.

O.I. Pavlova (Moscow) in her report "Recitation of 205 Texts of the Pyramids and Chapter 178 of the Book of the Dead: an experience of comparative theological analysis "proposed a new version of the translation of their 123 paragraphs and on its basis suggested that the idea of the consubstantiality of the Deity, expressed by naming its various aspects and qualities by special names, was E. Y. Ermolinskaya (Moscow) in her report "Problems of the early history of the cult of Thoth" considered the issues of genealogy and the lunar aspect of this god. In the Pyramid Texts, the attributes of Thoth (knife, wing, sharp feathers) are, in her opinion, characteristic lunar symbols. O. A. Vasilyeva (Moscow) in her report "The episode of the' Conspiracy of Set 'in Plutarch's treatise' On Isis and Osiris ' "compared Plutarch's version with that of Diodorus and other Egyptian and ancient sources. Showing Plutarch's deep knowledge of the Nile Valley mythology, she suggested possible borrowings from Manetho. Belova in her report "New research on the royal cache in Deir el-Bahri" spoke about the latest work on clearing the monument, carried out by the expedition of the University of Munster, in which she happened to take part. In T. A. Sherkova's report "A sample of the world in the iconography of pre-dynastic Egypt", based on the analysis of images on painted vessels of the type C of the Nagada I culture, ornamental motifs were interpreted from the point of view of mythological narratives recorded by pictorial codes about the creation of the cosmos by mythological creatures.

E.G. Tolmacheva (Moscow) read the report "The heron Cult in ancient Egypt". In her opinion, the Jebaut heron was probably a deity of the ancient Egyptian capital of Buto, a symbol of Lower Egypt. A. A. Krol's report (Moscow) was entitled "On the ideology of the Tsarist Jubilee in ancient Egypt". The author believed that the cheb-sed festival is based not so much on ritual and mythological ideas, but on political and ideological ones. The main conclusion of the report of S. S. Agapov (Moscow) "The Oracle in the judicial practice of the Egyptians in the era of the New Kingdom" was the following: the sentence of the deity was passed on the basis of the results of a preliminary investigation and fully corresponded to the norms of Egyptian law. Members of the ordinary court (kenbet) were responsible for investigating and controlling the oracle's decision. V. V. Solkin's report (Moscow) "Revival of the traditions of the Ancient Kingdom in ancient Egyptian art during the reign of Seti I" was devoted to the "deliberate archaization" in the art of the beginning of the XIX dynasty, combined with the Amarna heritage. A rare topic from the history of art was touched upon by S. V. Ivanov (Moscow) in his report "Aegis amulets in ancient Egypt", drew attention to the aegis - amulets imitating a wide necklace topped with the head of a deity. According to the speaker, having appeared in the era of the New Kingdom, these amulets were popular among foreigners who lived both in Egypt and outside it. The final report was delivered by V. V. Lebedinsky (Moscow) "Underwater archaeological research in the Mediterranean basin before the Second World War".

The section on the history of ancient Greece included 32 reports. A number of reports were devoted to the results of archaeological research in the Northern Black Sea region. V. D. Kuznetsov (Moscow) reported on the features of the policy organization of Bosporus settlements in his report "Policy on the Bosporus". The report "The South-eastern periphery of the Bosporus in the VI-1st centuries BC" was made by A. A. Malyshev (Moscow). In his report on "Periodization of the history of Cimmeria (Asian Cimmerian)", A. A. Zavoikin (Moscow) proposed his own scheme of chronological classification of the archaeological material of this Black Sea region. A. P. Abramov (Moscow) presented "Patreia Hillfort: topography and periodization", and S. V. Mokrousov (Moscow)- "Settlements of the Eastern Crimea of the VI century A.D.". Yu. V. Gorlov (Moscow) presented " Semibratskoe hillfort. Experience in decoding aerial photographs".

In his report "Chora of the Bosporus in the classical and Hellenistic periods", S. Y. Saprykin (Moscow) came to the conclusion that the increase of the chora under the Archeanactids and especially under the Spartokids went along the way of expanding the agricultural territory of Panticapaeum and other polis. Such a category of lands as the royal lands can only be discussed with the coming to power of Mithridates VI. Report by N. V. Zhuravleva (Moscow) " Antique lamps of the Northern Black Sea region. Results and prospects of the study" was devoted to a brief review of the historiography of studying this category of material. In the report of G. V. Trebleva (Moscow) " Roman legions in the Northern Black Sea region (according to archeology)" it was noted that the penetration of the Romans into this territory went through the Asia Minor and Danube provinces. In the report of I. Y. Bulkin (Saratov) "The stages of Roman military penetration in the Northern Black Sea region (1st century BC - 3rd century AD)" were highlighted

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four stages of Roman expansion. In the report of I. M. Bezruchenko (Moscow) "Dorian migration: mythology and archeology", it was noted that archaeological data confirm the mythological tradition about the circumstances of the" return " of the Heraclids at the end of the Mycenaean era. Ya. I. Zverev (Moscow) in the report "Sources of Herodotus on the history of Athens of the Archaic period" noted that the main sources for Herodotus are: There was information from the Filaids, Alcmeonids and Gefirei, as well as oral tradition from the dema Dekelei. I. V. Melanchenko (Moscow) in his report "Aristotle on Early Greek legislation" concluded that the activities of early legislators were aimed at restoring traditional communal principles.

P. V. Kovalev (Moscow) in his report "On the possible participation of the first Pythagoreans in the Pisistratian edition of Homer's poems" suggested that the Pythagorean Zopyrus Heracliotus and Kerkop the Pythagorean (?)might participate in the work of the commission. and Orpheus of Croton. In the report of V. A. Dorofeeva (Moscow) " Hospitality unions between representatives of the aristocracy (based on Xenophon's "Anabasis")", it was noted that private hospitality unions united their participants, gave rise to a sense of belonging to a new society, so their role in the crisis of the polis increases.

O. M. Savelyeva (Moscow) in her report "Reliability of character and situations in Lysias 'speeches" came to the conclusion that Lysias ' style of eloquence with rare organicity reflects his psychological makeup and ethical principles of personality at the turn of the V-IV centuries BC. dedicated to the interpretation of the inscription IG 112 207. G. T. Zalyubovina (Moscow) in her report "Sacrifices in the life of the Greek Polis" identified and analyzed seven types of sacrifices. The report of T. B. Gvozdeva (Moscow) "The Night procession in the structure of the Panathenaic holiday" is devoted to the rites associated with the birth story of Erichthonius, the founder of Panathenaea. A.V. Strelkov's report "Athena and Hephaestus" (Moscow) analyzed the possibility of restoring the names of these two deities in one of the fragments of the Athenian Coin Decree. In the report of E. V. Dorokhina (Moscow) "Mytho-ritual aspect of the eastern pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia", it was noted that the myth plot underlying the images of this pediment - the chariot race of Pelops and Oenomaus - reflects the ancient rites of competitions between the old and new kings and competitions for the bride, which is associated with the cult fertility.

The report of L. L. Selivanova (Moscow) "Hypnos and Thanatos-twin brothers (postmortem experience of Er)" considered the criteria of death, the social status of those who returned to life, the place and role of these people's stories in the religious picture of the kingdom of the dead and in the everyday life of the ancient Greeks. In the report of I. E. Surikov (Moscow) "The Greek novel and the Greek understanding of character", the data of romance novels of the first centuries AD were compared with the understanding of the character of Theophrastus.

The report of N. S. Talashova (Ivanov) "F. F. Zelinsky on the role of antiquity in society" dealt with his views on antiquity. In his report "The practice of land lease in parchments from Avromanos and Dura-Europos", I. K. Zverev (Moscow) analyzed the institute of emphyletic lease in the Near and Middle East of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The report of S. V. Novikov (Moscow) "Hellenistic and post-Hellenistic Persis" considered the history of this region, which, according to the author, became practically independent from the Seleucid power already in the 90s of the third century BC. S. V. Kudryashov (Moscow) in the report "The phenomenon of a coup d'etat, a polysemantic interpretation of Aristotle" considered the theoretical approach to the development of the Russian Empire. Aristotle's analysis of the problem of coups d'etat. I. R. Blokhina's report "Plato and the Sicilian Tyrants" (Tambov) was devoted to Plato's relations with Dionysius the Elder and Dionysius the Younger.

In the report of Y. E. Balakireva (Moscow) "Comments on" Extracts from the acts of Alexander the Great "anonymous author", conclusions were drawn about the sources of this work, the time of its creation and its main idea. V. A. Gaibov and G. A. Koshelechka (Moscow) presented the report "Main results of excavations of the ancient settlement Gebekly-depe in the Merv oasis (Turkmenistan)".

In the report of A. S. Balakhvantsev (Moscow) "The Riddle of Andragorus", it was concluded that gold and silver coins with the legend have nothing to do with the last Greek - Macedonian satrap of Parthia. Andragoros never rebelled against the Seleucids, who retained control of Parthia until 238 BC.

I. V. Kulikov (Moscow) delivered a report on the topic "Genre, properties and purpose of the Hermetic text of CH III: reading experience and limits of interpretation".

During the work of the section on the history of ancient Rome, 20 reports were heard and discussed. V. V. Dementieva (Yaroslavl) in her report "The Roman interregnum as an extraordinary Republican institution" described the interregnum as an element of the system of emergency structures formed in parallel and synchronously with the creation of ordinary executive authorities and defined the nature of the powers of the interrex as a magistrate with the empire. (Moscow) in the report "Letters of Scipio the Elder as a historical source" concluded that the Romans concluded peace treaties according to a pre-thought-out scheme and the peace with Carthage was the first in a chain of similar treaties. The report of V. N. Tokmakov (Moscow) "Preparation for war in early Rome" concluded that the collegium was involved

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T. V. Kondratieva (Moscow) in her report "Again to the interpretation of the inscription of Emilius Paulus from 189 BC" concluded that the reason for the appearance of this document is Rome's interest in depriving the Gast community of economic and political power. in the report " On the issue of agonalities: connection with the veneration of Janus in archaic Rome " concluded that the agonalia were among the oldest sacred festivals of the pre-Roman period and that they originally belonged to the archaic cult of Janus. Ya. V. Melnichuk (Moscow) in his report "The cura morum function of Roman censors of the V-I centuries BC" considered the problem of the emergence of whitefish morum and the main stages of its development. A. A. Pavlov (Moscow) in his report "On the question of changing the character of the Plebeian tribunate at the final stage of the class struggle (339-287 BC)" showed that it was during this period that the tribunate was transformed from an organ of the Plebs ' revolutionary struggle into a state-controlled organization. organ of the N. G. nobilityedit Mayorova (Moscow) in her report "Jus fetiale in the system of Roman law" considered the question of the application of the principle of jus and justitia by fetials in the system of international relations in tsarist and early republican times. M. G. Abramzon (Magnitogorsk) in his report "The Domitii family and the temple of Neptune in the Flaminian Circus", based on numismatic data, expressed the version that that the consul of 32 BC Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus could, presumably in 35-32 BC, carry out the reconstruction of the temple of Neptune, built by one of his namesake ancestors. The report of A. S. Balakhvantsev (Moscow) "Ordo and estate in Rome (I century BC - I century)" clarified the content of these two concepts and emphasized that none of the Roman ordines should be confused with estate. Rima" showed that the recruitment process took into account a number of requirements dictated by the idea of unity of social and moral qualities of new recruits. Gvozdeva (Moscow) in her report "De positione terminorum controversion as part of actiones finium regundorum" concluded that the group of lawsuits" on drawing borders "is reduced to disputes about the border and about the site itself, and the controversion" on setting terms "occupies an intermediate position in the process between" de fine "and" de fine".de loco " position. In the report of A.V. Kolobov (Perm)" The "Military territory" of the Principate era: reality or a historiographical myth?" it was suggested that during the period of the principate, this was the designation of land used by a military unit. M. N. Shchetinin (Novgorod) in the report "Provincial policy of Augustus" showed that the main principle of this policy was the preservation and support of the urban system. A. A. Elagin (Omsk), in the report " Personal connections of Emperor Trajan and the viceroy of Bithynia (according to Pliny the Younger) "concluded that the emperor's personal ties with the viceroys were useful for managing Rome and the provinces. A.V. Korolenkov (Moscow) in the report" Did Sertorius own Betica?" He showed that Sertorius only managed to master Baetica for a short time in 80 BC. Ibatullin (Ufa) in his report "Ammianus Marcellinus: name and origin" suggested that the historian's ancestors were Romanized Anatolians, and his family was long associated with Roman power. N. I. Romanenko (Moscow) in the report "Augustiani: a phenomenon of the era of Nero" came to the conclusion that their activities contributed to the development of the Roman Empire. demonstrations and propaganda of loyalty to the imperial power.

E. V. Amosova (Novgorod) read the report "The Conflict of Christianity and Paganism", E. I. Silvestrov (Moscow) in the report "P. Th. II. 29. 1: to the problem statement" interpreted the edict of Emperor Justinian 362.

At the final plenary session on January 29, five reports were heard. The report of A. A. Vigasin (Moscow) "Dialogue with death "was devoted to the"Legend of Savitri". The author tried to show that the version of the legend preserved in the Mahabharata was formed in a certain tribal environment of Northwestern India (Malavas, Shalva). Its plot was based on the solar myth (Chitrashva - "the one with shining horses", interpreted as Surya). Savitri's dialogue with the god of death, Yama, was based on consonances, hints, and the magic of names, just like the poetry of the Rig Veda. In the spirit of ancient Aryan ideas, the epic text associates" truth "(satya) with sunlight and identifies with being (sat - " existing "and"true"). In the report of T. V. Blavatsky (Moscow) "On some features of the development of Attica in the XI-VII centuries BC", the interrelation of the development of the material and spiritual life of a wide circle of the population of Attica with the growth of political consciousness was noted, which was reflected in the change in the political structure of the state. Report of IL. Mayak (Moscow) "Priestly texts in the work of Aulus Gellius" was devoted to Gellius ' reports on written priestly creativity concerning the activities of priestly colleges, sacred institutes, and the explanation of sacred terms. Based on the analysis of the text, the author identifies various layers of information used by Gellius: 1) retelling the relevant data preserved by Roman scholars (historians, lawyers, antiquaries); 2) retelling the priestly ordinances themselves; 3) quoting the original texts of priestly ordinances and prayer formulas. Y. K. Kolosovskaya (Moscow) presented a report on the concept of "barbarian" in the Roman history of the time of the Empire. The author believes that for the Roman world, the barbarians appear as a society opposite and hostile to Rome. However, gradually the emphasis shifts, and instead of the idea of barbarians as rude and uncivilized people, others come first, in which the world of barbarians appears as a world of a different and special culture. In the report of Yu. G. Chernyshev (Barnaul) " Kumy-Rome-Pergamum-Heliopolis

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(On the question of the Blossian mission) "the question of the nature of Stoic Blossian's" consultative " activities was considered. As in the case of Tiberius Gracchus, so in the case of Aristonicus, Blossius, an opponent of the Roman nobility, could proceed from the ideas that he had formed about the need for a more equitable (close to equalizing) distribution of land ownership.

Then the section chairs summed up the results of the work done. At the closing of the conference, Professor V. I. Kuzishchin, Head of the Department of Ancient World History at the Moscow State University Faculty of History, made a closing speech.


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