J. J. BODJUL. Bessarabia's Reunion with Russia and the Historical Destinies of the Moldavian People
May 1972 marked the 160th anniversary of Bessarabia's reunion with Russia. This major event crowned the age-old aspirations of the Moldavian people, signifying as it did the practical realization of their unflinching desire to deliver themselves from the fetters of Turkish oppression and to unite with great and powerful Russia. The article graphically shows the progressive consequences of Bessarabia's reunion with Russia, analyzing in detail the deep-going changes that occurred in Bessarabia during that period. The destinies of the Moldavian and of all the other peoples inhabiting Russia were radically altered by the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution. At the close of 1917 and in the opening months of 1918 Soviet power was established in Bessarabia, but shortly afterwards it was occupied by monarchist Rumania and remained under the latter's sway for 22 years. Throughout this long period the working people of Bessarabia continued to fight steadfastly against the oppressors.
Bessarabia's reunion with the Land of Soviets in June 1940 and the formation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic marked a crucial turning point in the history of the Moldavian people. The article highlights the profound political, economic and cultural transformations effected in Moldavia in the three decades since its reunion with the fraternal family of Soviet socialist republics.
I. P. OLEINIK. The Soviet Union's Economic, Scientific and Technological Cooperation with the Other Socialist Countries
The article is devoted to problems of the rise and development of multilateral economic, scientific and technological cooperation between the U.S.S.R. and the other socialist countries, to the role played by this cooperation in developing the productive forces of the countries belonging to the socialist world community, in consolidating their unity and fraternal solidarity. The author makes a point of stressing that this cooperation has passed three major stages in its development: the military-political cooperation in the early postwar years; cooperation within the framework of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) founded in 1949; the development of socialist economic integration (since the summer of 1971). It is noted in the article that the CMEA has become a veritable laboratory for evolving and testing diverse forms and methods of effecting multilateral cooperation. A tremendous part in the steady development and deepening of economic cooperation among the socialist countries was played by the policy cf systematically coordinating the national economic development plans drawn up by the CMEA member states.
The advent of the stage of socialist integration is objectively determined by the attainment of a high level of economic development by the CMEA countries, by the requirements of intensifying production in the process of building a developed socialist society, of rendering economic cooperation more effective. The article analyzes the principal forms of economic, scientific and technological cooperation practised by the socialist countries.
N. S. KINYAPINA. Russia Fights for Liquidation of Limiting Conditions of the Paris Peace of 1856
The article deals with a cardinal problem of the Russian foreign policy in the 19th century-that of the Near East, the essense of which after the Crimean War was the liquidation of neutrality of the Black Sea. The author analyses the principles of the Russian foreign policy course, the character of her relations with European governments and Turkey and motives that had caused the necessity of liquidation of limitations on the Black Sea. The author draws the attention of a reader to an attitude of different sections of Russian society to foreign policy actions that were being taken by the state and analyses political disagreements in the government originated due to its actions in the Near East. The article also analyses the positions of West European states and Turkey, in connection with a circular note issued by A. M. Gorchakov, and resolutions of the London Conference of 1871. The results of the Conference are appraised as an important diplomatic victory of Russia, which made it possible for her not only to secure the southern border, but to consolidate her positions on the international arena. The article is based on the materials of the Russian Foreign Policy Archives, Central State Archives of the October Revolution, as well as on Russian and foreign publications.
R. T. ABLOVA. Georgi Dimitrov and the Anti-Fascist Resistance Movement in Bulgaria
The article highlights the activity of Georgi Dimitrov, the outstanding leader of the Bulgarian people and of the international Communist and working-class movement, and the work done by the Foreign Bureau of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party operating under his leadership in guiding the anti-fascist struggle of the Bulgarian people in the years of the second world war. Working in the Soviet Union, Georgi Dimitrov and the Central Committee's Foreign Bureau maintained permanent contact with the outlawed Communist Party of Bulgaria operating deep underground, guiding the work of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party illegally functioning in the country. Groups of intrepid Communists were dispatched to Bulgaria to organize the partisan movement there, draw up documents and recommendations on the strategy and tactics of partisan warfare, and expose the anti-popular policy of the monarchist-fascist authorities in radio broadcasts, in the leading newspapers and other press publications.
The explicit directives issued by Georgi Dimitrov and the concrete materials circulated by the Foreign Bureau of the Bulgarian Communist Party's Central Committee played a conspicuous part in stimulating and extending the scope of the working people's armed struggle against the monarchist-fascist regime, in supporting the heroic struggle waged by the Soviet people against nazi Germany.
G. V. FOKEYEV. The Struggle to Eliminate the Consequences of the 1956 - 1957 Aggression Against Egypt
The article examines the events connected with the effort to eliminate the consequences of the Anglo-Franco-Israeli aggression launched against Egypt in 1956 and to secure the withdrawal of Israel's troops from the occupied Egyptian territory. These events and certain other problems directly resulting from the aggression have many features in common with the present-day problems created by Israel's aggression launched against Arab countries in 1967.
It will be recalled that the withdrawal of Isarael's forces after the 1956 aggression was delayed for three months and was effected only in March 1957. The sustained efforts to secure the withdrawal of these forces, which were further complicated by the Israeli government's stubborn attempts to annex part of the captured Egyptian territory, are examined by the author in conjunction with relevant problems of international, notably inter-Arab, relations in the Middle East and North Africa. The author draws attention to the decisive part played by the Soviet Union in terminating the aggression against Egypt and eliminating its consequences. Much importance is attached by the author to an analysis of Soviet-American relations in the Middle East.
N. A. PANKOV, R. R. SAAKOV. The International Movement for Friendship and Cultural Relations with the U.S.S.R.
The article traces the history of the international movement to promote friendship and cultural relations with the U.S.S.R. over a period of fifty-odd years-from October 1917 to the present time. The authors single out three principal stages in the history of this movement, the first stage embracing the years 1917 - 1941, the second embracing the period from 1941 to the mid-1950's, the third-from the mid-fifties to the present time. While the first stage has been thoroughly investigated in Soviet historiography, the remaining two stages have not been given the attention they deserve. This prompted the authors' attempt to trace the origin and development of a broad international movement embracing Friendship Societies abroad and similar associations founded on a voluntary basis in the U.S.S.R. during World War II and in the postwar period.
The article emphasizes that the movement for friendship and cultural relations with the U.S.S.R. importantly contributed to the development and expansion of inter-state political and cultural relations. This world-wide movement whose activity is highly progressive in character is becoming an increasingly potent factor in bringing the peoples closer together in the struggle for peace and friendship.
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