Libmonster ID: U.S.-1500
Author(s) of the publication: Surikov I. E.

Among the nearly nine thousand ostracos (potsherds preserved from the famous Athenian ostracophoria), found in the 1960s by German archaeologists on the outer Pottery and only now gradually introduced into scientific use, there are, as recently turned out, three ostracons directed against a certain Arifron, son of Xanthippus 1. D. Lewis identified this Arifron as Pericles ' brother, known from written sources (the name and patronymic coincide) 2, which led him to a number of conclusions, which indeed naturally follow from such an identification. First of all, the name of Arifron on Ostracus confirmed the researcher in the opinion that Ostracus and Ceramicus, as has been suggested more than once in recent years 3 , should be dated to the 470s BC, the time after the campaign of Xerxes, linking them to the hypothetical second ostracism of Alcmaonides Megacles, son of Hippocrates (Lys. XIV. 39). The arguments put forward earlier in defense of such a revision of dating did not seem particularly strong; a number of experts, including the author of these lines, preferred to adhere to the traditional chronology, referring the monuments under consideration to the 480s BC. 4

The appearance on ostrak of the name of Arifron, son of Xanthippus and brother of Pericles, could be a decisive argument. Indeed, in the 480s, Arifron, being a minor, could in no way be among the "candidates" for exile. In addition, according to Lewis, only after the death of Xanthippus himself was it possible for his son to appear among such "candidates". The last mention of Xanthippus in the sources (Herod. IX. 120-121) occurs in the spring of 478 BC (Thuc. I. 89.2) 5 . Another conclusion suggested by Lewis is that initially, as a political successor, Xanthippus is one of the most powerful figures in the Athenian empire.


Willemsen F., Brenne S. 1 Verzeichnis der Kerameikos-Ostraka // MDAI (A). 1991. 106. S. 150. In the previous list of ostracism with Ceramics, published by R. Thomson (Thomson R. The Origin of Ostracism. Copenhagen, 1972), these shards are not yet listed.

Lewis О.М. 2 Megakles and Eretria // ZPE. 1993. 96. S. 51.

Bicknell P.J. 3 Was Megakles Hippokratous Alopekethen Ostracized Twice? // L' Antiquite classique. 1975. V. 44. N 1. P. 172-175 (at the same time, Bicknell rejected his own previously expressed views, see idem. Studies in Athenian Politics and Genealogy. Wiesbaden, 1972. P. 64-76); Willemsen F. Ostraka einer Meisterschale // MDAI(A). 1991. 106. S. 144; Brenne S. "Portraits" auf Ostraka//MDAI(A). 1992. 107. S. 162; idem. Ostraka and the Process of Ostrakophoria // The Archaeology of Athens and Attica under the Democracy. Oxf., 1994. P. 21-22.

Williams S. M. E. 4 The Kerameikos Ostraka / / ZPE. 1978. 31. S. 103-113; Phillips D. J. Observations on Some Ostraka from the Athenian Agora / / ZPE. 1990. 83. S. 138; Long M. L. Ostraka. Princeton, 1990. P. 5; Surikov I. E. Ostraka kak istochnik po Istorii ranneklassicheskikh Athenii [History of Early classical Athens]. Issue No. 3. Omsk, 1995, p. 109; onk. On the occasion of ostrak's new publication / / VDI. 1996. N 2. p. 145. The greatest expert on the history of ostracism, A. Raubitschek, did not come to an unambiguous opinion on this issue: Raubitschek A. E. Megakles, geh nicht nach Eretria! //ZPE. 1994. 100. S. 381-382.

5 According to J. R. R. Tolkien Davies' death occurred in the mid-470s (Davies J. K. Athenian Propertied Families, 600-300 B.C. Oxf., 1971. p. 459 f.).

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B.C. - it was Arifron who was considered, and not the later famous Pericles, who at that time was not yet under threat of ostracism6 .

Thus, three small potsherds entailed a whole chain of implications. Obviously, in order to determine the degree of their reliability, we must first find out how justified Lewis's interpretation of the name Arifron na ostrac is, whether we can (and should) unconditionally identify him with the brother of Pericles (RA. 2204), or whether there are any alternatives at our disposal. The only way to verify this is to analyze the evidence of sources about Arifron. There is very little such evidence; much of it has already been collected in the prosopographic collections of Kirchner and Davies, so it remains only to summarize these data.

Arifron is usually considered the eldest son of Xanthippus. In favor of this, indeed, is the fact that he was given the name of his paternal grandfather. However, we cannot definitely say that Arifron was older than Pericles. In 472 BC, shortly after the death of Xanthippus, Pericles, rather than Arifron, performed the liturgy (choregia for the production of Aeschylus ' Persians, IG. II 2 . 2318. 9-11); apparently, it was he who received the main part of his father's inheritance. According to Plato (Ale. I. 104b, 118c, 124c; Prot. 320a), Pericles, and not Arifron, was the guardian of Alcibiades, who was orphaned in childhood, 7 and his younger brother Clinius; however, Pericles left the latter to be raised by Arifron for some time. True, orator Antiphon (fr. 67 Blass, ar. Plut. Ale. 3) calls Arifron Alcibiades ' guardian, but does so in an extremely biased and discrediting context. "You shouldn't... to believe all this blasphemy coming from an enemy who made no secret of his hatred for Alcibiades" (translated by S. P. Markish), Plutarch notes, retelling this anecdote. The biographer himself (Plut. Ale. 1) names both Pericles and Arifron as Alcibiades ' guardians (in that order). Lysias also speaks of the "guardians" of Alcibiades (XIX. 52).

Thus, it is impossible to determine with certainty which of the two sons of Xanthippus was the eldest. In fact, it doesn't really matter, since in any case it is clear that Pericles and Arifron were almost the same age. Everywhere they perform together, like people of the same age. In principle, it is impossible to exclude even that they were twins.

The most important thing for us would be to know with possible accuracy the time of the birth of the Arifron. However, the scanty preserved data on his life (and we have given absolutely everything) do not allow us to do this. We have to go by indirect considerations, resorting to a number of chronological calculations. The date of Pericles ' birth, if known, could help us, but unfortunately, it is not completely clear about this either .8

We will assume that neither Pericles nor Arifron could have been born before the marriage of their parents, Xanthippus and Hagarista (Herod. VI. 131). In this case, the first priority is to determine the time of this marriage. J. Davies places it around 496 BC, without giving a special argument .9 In our opinion, this dating is correct and there are arguments in its favor. As you know, the usual age of marriage for a man was considered to be thirty years old 10 ; earlier marriages you-


6 There are four ostracons named after Pericles (Long. Op. cit. P. 98; Willemsen, Brenne. Op. cit.S. 155), two of which were published by M. Lang. One of these two dates back to the middle of the fifth century BC. The other has a more archaic paleography, which has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted.

7 Alcibiades ' father Clinius was killed at the Battle of Coronea in 447 BC (Plut. Ale. 1; for the date of the battle, see Strogetsky V. M. Polis and Empire in classical Greece. Nizhny Novgorod, 1991, pp. 151-152).

s From 494 AD (Davies) to 500 AD or even earlier (Fornara Ch. W., Samons L. J. Athens from Cleisthenes to Pericles. Berkeley, 1991. P. 24).

Davies. 9 Op. cit. P. 459 f. Accordingly, Davies dates the birth of Arifron to 495 AD.

Just R. 10 Women in Athenian Law and Life. L. - N.Y., 1988. P. 151.

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some people were surprised if they were not forced by circumstances (Dem. XL. 4, 12-13, 56). The wife was usually younger than her husband, often much older . Therefore, it is necessary to establish the year of birth of Xanthippus. It is possible to do this, and attempts of this kind have already been made: for example, according to Schaefer and Engel, Xanthippus was born around 520 B.C. 12, Davies adheres to a broader dating - 10-15 years before 520 13

At one time, P. Bicknell put forward a very interesting hypothesis, according to which Xanthippus was an Alcmeonid on his mother's side .14 This idea was suggested to the researcher by the fact that in the text of the epigram preserved on the most famous ostracon from Agora 15, Xanthippus is called (desecrated, cursed). This epithet (in its later form) is applied by ancient authors to the Alkmaeonids in connection with the Kilonova filth 16 . Recently, Bicknell's hypothesis received a new, very strong confirmation (the indubitable Alkmaeonide Megaclus is named in several ostrak languages and can be considered proven.

Around 546 BC, the Alcmaeonids were driven out of Attica by Peisistratus and were only able to return after the tyrant's death, i.e. not earlier than 527, when Hippias turned to a policy of reconciliation with the noble families .18 The family to which Pericles and Arifron later belonged remained in Athens under Peisistratus and enjoyed the favor of the ruler, as will be shown below. Thus, the marriage of Arifron, the father of Xanthippus, with an unnamed member of the Alcmaonid family could have been concluded at the earliest, in 527, so we have a terminus post quern for the birth of Xanthippus-526 BC, and this is what is important for us in this case. Adding thirty years, we find that the earliest possible date for the marriage of Xanthippus and Hagarista is 496. Davisa was absolutely correct, and therefore Arifron, even if he was the first-born, was born in 495 BC or later.

Let's try to check the received date, so to speak, on the other hand, by considering the chronology of the nearest descendants of Arifron. The only known source of his son wore (in honor of his maternal great-grandfather) the name of Hippocrates (RA. 7640). This Hippocrates was twice a member of the College of strategists during the first period of the Peloponnesian War (in 426/5 and 424/3 BC) .19 In the course of his second strategy, he died commanding an Athenian contingent at the Battle of Delia. [20] His three young sons, Telesippus, Demophon, and Pericles (Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 1001) - upon reaching the age of majority, they sued their guardian (obviously on the issue of inheritance), and the speech for the guardian was written by Lysias (Lys. fr. 124 Sauppe), whose judicial activity began, as is known, in 403 BC.


11 Accordingly, the birth of Hagarista Davis (Op. cit. p. 368 ff.) dates back to 520-510.

Schaefer Н. 12 Xanthippos // RE. Reihe 2. Hibd 18. 1967. Sp. 1343-1346; Engel R. Xanthippos // Der Kleine Pauly. Ht 26. 1975. Sp. 1400-1401.

Davies. 13 Op. cit. P. 459 f.

Bicknell. 14 Studies... P. 83; idem. Athenian Politics and Genealogy: Some Pendants // Historia. 1974. Bd 23. Ht 2. S. 162-163.

15 This monument already has a fairly significant bibliography. From recent works, see Merkelbach R. Nochmals das Xanthippos-Ostrakon / / ZPE. 1986. 62. S. 57-62; Figueira T. J. Xanthippos, Father of Pericles, and the Prutaneis of the Naukraroi / / Historia. 1986. Bd 35. Ht 3. S. 257-279.

Thuc. 16 I. 126. 11; cf. Andoc. I. 130-131; Lycurg. Leocr. 117. См. Rauhitschek А.Е. The Ostracism of Xanthippos // American Journal of Archaeology. 1947. V. 51. N 3. P. 257-262; Leveque P., Vidal-Naquet P. Clisthene l'Ath6nien. P., 1964. P. 113-117; Piccirilli L. Temistocle, Aristide, Cimone, Tucidide di Melesia fra politica e propaganda. Geneva, 1987; Cromey R.D. The Mysterious Woman of Kleitor // American Journal of Philology. 1991. V. 112. N 1. P. 87-101.

Brenne. 17 Ostraka... P. 16-17; Surikov. About the new publication ... pp. 143-144.

Littman R.J. 18 Kinship and Politics in Athens 600-400 B.C. N.Y., 1990. P. 106- 117; Camp J. Before Democracy: Alkmaionidai and Peisistratidai // The Archaeology of Athens and Attica... P. 7.

Fornara Ch.W. 19 The Athenian Board of Generals from 501 to 404. Wiesbaden, 1971. P. 47 ff.

Thuc. 20 IV. 101. 2; Xen. Mem. III. 5.4; Plut. Nic. 6; Paus. III. 6.1; IX. 6.3.

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(the case of Eratosthenes) 21 . Judging by the fact that all three of them were acting together as one litigants, the brothers were almost the same age.

The statute of limitations for inheritances and guardianship cases in Athens was limited to five years (Dem. XXXVIII. 17-18) 22 However, it is not clear from the time the ward reached the age of majority (18 years) or from the date of obtaining the right to initiate legal actions (20 years).

In order to verify the above thesis about the date of Arifron's birth, we will make the maximum number of one-sided assumptions that are not in his favor. Let us assume, first, that the trial of the children of Hippocrates dates back to the very beginning of Lysias ' career as a logographer, i.e., to 403 BC. e. Let us assume, further, that the statute of limitations was counted from the moment when the youngest of the brothers turned 20 years old, and, finally, that the claim was initiated just before the statute of limitations expired. In this case, the birth of the youngest son of Hippocrates will occur in 428 BC. e. Most likely, in fact, he was born several years later, very shortly before the death of his father, since the coincidence of all three assumptions proposed by us is unlikely. Thus, Telesippus, the eldest of the sons, was hardly born before 430 BC. This allows us to determine the approximate time of birth of his father-460, or at most a few years earlier. The date of Hippocrates ' first known strategy, 426/5, also dates back to the same date.At that time, Arifron's son should have been in his early thirties, according to Athenian practice.

The marriage of Arifron himself, according to these calculations, should occur in the mid-460s, which again implies the time of his birth-in the mid - 490s.Analyzing the chronology "from below", we came to the same date as considering it "from above".

So Arifron, son of Xanthippus and brother of Pericles, was born around 495, and not earlier. In this case, the natural question is: could his name have appeared on ostraka s Keramika, even if we refer them to an unknown ostrakoforia of the 470s? The lowest possible date for such an ostracophoria would be the ostracism of Themistocles, known from written sources, which ranges from 473,23 to 470,24

The appearance as a" candidate " for exile of a twenty-year-old boy who has just acquired civil rights, or even a minor of 25, is highly unlikely. However, it is known that Cimon, the son of Miltiades, was threatened with ostracism before reaching the age of thirty .26 But Cimon was a figure on a completely different scale from Arifron. In the 480s, after the death of his father, the young Philaeides, according to Plutarch (Cim. 4), was already "in disrepute in the city"-for a variety of reasons that are not the place to dwell on here. In particular, gossip about his cohabitation with his sister played a role (the existence of such gossip was recently confirmed by the publication of an ostracon with the inscription "Let Cimon, the son of Miltiades, take Elpinica and go away" 27).

So it is unlikely that Arifron, the son of Xanthippus mentioned in ostraca, is identical with the brother of Pericles. You should try to find a more acceptable identification, and how to


Sobolevskii S. I. 21 Lysii i ego rechi [The Fox and his Speeches]. Speeches. 2nd ed. Moscow, 1994, p. 37.

22 For the statute of limitations, see Gluskina L. M. Social institutions, economic relations and legal practice in Athens of the IV century BC based on the judicial speeches of the Demosthenes corps // Demosthenes. Speeches in three volumes, vol. 2, Moscow, 1994, p. 424.

Lenardon R.I 23 . The Chronology of Themistokles' Ostracism and Exile // Historia. 1959. Bd 8. Ht 1. S. 48; Piccirilli. Op. cit. P. 13.

Badian Е. 24 From Plataea to Potidaea. Baltimore, 1993. P. 88.

25 If, following P. Bicknell, Ostracus and Ceramicus are dated to a year or two after the victory over Xerxes (WasMegakles - .. p. 175).

Surikov. 26 Concerning the new publication... p. 145.

Surikov I. E. 27 Zheni v politicheskoi zhizni pozdnearkhaicheskikh i ranneklassicheskikh Afin [Women in the Political Life of Late Archaic and Early Classical Athens]. Dokl. konf. Moscow, 1996, pp. 46-47.

page 76


shows onomastics, within the same family. Arifron is an exceptionally rare name in Athens, recorded only among the Buzigs until the Hellenistic era. The only real alternative here is Arifron, the father of Xanthippus and grandfather of Pericles (RA. 2203), known only by his first name 28 . We do not know the patronym of this Arifron, but we do know something else: in the family we are considering, the custom of calling the eldest son by the name of his grandfather was very meticulously observed (in addition to the examples given above, we also recall that the eldest son of Pericles was named Xanthippus - also after his grandfather). In other words, it is very likely that the full name of Pericles ' grandfather was "Arifron, son of Xanthippus". No information about his life and activities has been preserved, but if we proceed from the date of his marriage that we have justified, he must have been born around 560-555 BC.

It is to this Arifron (the only one known from narrative sources in the sixth century) that it is customary to refer its mention in an interesting but rarely attracting the attention of researchers text - a fragment of the philosophical dialogue of an unknown author of the late classical or Early Hellenistic era, preserved on one of the Oxyrhynchian papyri (R. Ohu. IV. 664) .30 The dialogue takes place at the court of Peisistratus, and the subject, as far as can be judged, is the merits and demerits of tyranny as a form of government. As one of the actors, along with the tyrant himself, a certain Arifron is brought out, according to his own words, who recently visited Periander in Corinth. Unfortunately, the linked text breaks off immediately after that.

From some of the nuances of Arifron's remark, it can be concluded that he was with the Corinthian tyrant (who died, as is known, in 585 BC) in the last years of his reign, and hardly in his early youth. Therefore, he was born no later than 620-615 BC, but not earlier, since in the 550s he still talks with Peisistratus. This Arifron, therefore, cannot possibly be identified with the grandfather of Pericles, but was undoubtedly descended from the same family, and was, judging from the difference in age, the grandfather of this latter, who bore, as was customary among the Buzigs, the same name as the grandson.

Of course, a reasonable question arises: how correct is the use of such a unique monument as the philosophical dialogue with its inevitable licentia poetica for the purposes of historical and genealogical reconstruction? Answering this question, it should be pointed out that even in the dialogues of Plato - a thinker who did not differ in the acribia characteristic of Aristotle and the peripatetics - prosopographic material is usually absolutely reliable. In addition, if we assume that the author of the fragment in question did not have an authentic source at his disposal, it will be completely incomprehensible where the name Arifron, which did not belong to any major figure in Athenian history, comes from at all. We should also add that the proximity of the Buzigs to the Pisistratids implied in the text mentioned above can also be traced from other sources. Thus, according to the late Antique rhetorician Himerius (Or. XXXIX.2), Anacreon in one of his poems mentioned Xanthippus (father of Pericles) 31 . Anacreon, on the other hand, held the position of court poet to Hippias and Hipparchus when he was in Athens (Plat. Hipparch. 218 bc).

Based on the above, we can try to construct the following refined stem of Pericles ' ancestors:


Herod. 28 VI. 131, 136; VII. 33; VIII. 131; Arist. Ath. pol. 22.6; Diod. XI. 27.3; Paus. III.7.9.

Figueira. 29 Op. cit. S. 257 ff.

30 The publishers of the fragment, Grenfell and Hunt, refer the dialogue to the circle of Aristotle (The Oxyrhynchus Papyri / Ed. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt. Pt IV. L., 1904. P. 72).

Hafner G. 31 Anakreon und Xanthippos // Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts. 1956. Bd 71. Ht 1. S. 1-28.

page 77


Let's try to verify the proposed hypothesis. Could Arifron, the grandfather of Pericles, have been referred to as ostraca? In the 480s, he should have been about 70 years old - a solid age. However, there are more than a hundred references to Hippocrates, the son of Alcmaonides, on Ostrak from the same time .32 And this Hippocrates, who belonged to the family of the Alcmeonids, was born , as shown by A. Raubicek on the basis of epigraphic data 33, around 560-550, i.e., exactly at the same time as Arifron. Thus, even a political figure in sufficiently advanced years could easily be so hated by some of his fellow citizens that they wanted to expel him. By the way, along with the name of Hippocrates, we find on ostrak the name of his son - Megacles, the son of Hippocrates, the son of Alcmaonides . Another example of the same kind is Andocides, the son of Leogoras, and Leogorus, the son of Andocides, 35 who are undoubtedly father and son, belonging to the famous family of the orator Andocides in Athens. In other words, contrary to Lewis, representatives of two generations of the same family could simultaneously be among the" candidates " for ostracism. But if we put the Ostrak of Ceramicus back to the 470s, the appearance of Arifron, the grandfather of Pericles, on them will be almost impossible. If he was still alive at this time, he must have been over eighty years old. It is unlikely that such a profound elder could arouse anyone's concerns.

We emphasize that our proposed identification of the Arifron is hypothetical (although, as far as can be judged, it has serious grounds). If the hypothesis is confirmed, it will entail two important consequences. First, several new personalities will be added to the Attic prosopography corpus. At the same time, we are not talking about some insignificant family, but about the Buzig family, specifically about the branch to which Pericles belonged. A number of interesting touches will be added to the early history of this genus. Secondly, and this is especially important for the author of this work, it will add a strong argument in favor of the traditional, but now disputed dating of Ostrak with Ceramics to the 480s BC. Obviously, it is most reasonable to attribute these monuments to the ostracophoria that Megacles, the son of Hippocrates (487), became a victim of.

Long. 32 ___ Op. cit. P. 50-61; Willemsen, Brenne. Op. cit. S. 151.

Raubitschek А.Е. 33 Dedications from the Athenian Acropolis. Cambr. Mass., 1949. P. 338-340.

Willemsen, Brenne. 34 Op. cit. S. 153.

35 Ibid. S. 149, 152.

page 78


ARIPHRON'S NAME ON OSTRAKA: AN INTERPRETATION I.E. Surikov

Ariphron son of Xanthippos mentioned on three Kerameikos ostraka cannot be Perikles' brother (PA 2204), as D.M. Lewis suggested, even if one assumes a later date of the Kerameikos deposit. Ariphron in question, born ca 495 B.C., was about 20 years old in 470 ies, and it would have been quite improbable to find him among the nominees at an ostrakophoria. The only alternative is Ariphron, Xanthippos' father (PA 2203), whose patronymic, although unknown, was most likely Xanthippou. This Ariphron was in his seventies during the first ostracisms - an age by no means impossible for a nominee (c/. Hippokrates, son of Alkmeonides). But an appearance of his name on ostraka in 470 ies is hardly conceivable. So 480 ies (and probably 487) is a preferable date.


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