Last June (2007) leading specialists of some scientific research institutions located in Siberia held a "round table" in the RAS SB Semiconductor Physics Institute dedicated to "Nanotechnologies, nanomaterials and nanoelectronics". It was opened by Academician Gennady Kulipanov, Vice Chairman of the RAS SB. He summarized results of the activity of Siberian scientists who worked to develop an infrastructure of nanotechnologies*, effective use of funds allocated for these purposes by the RF Ministry of Education and Science.
In his turn, Academician Alexander Aseev, Director of the Institute, gave an estimate to the general situation in the field of development of nanotechnologies in Russia and in the world. According to his data, from the forecasted sales volumes of nanoproducts for the next 8 - 10 years making up 1 trillion dollars, around 30 percent will fall on nanomaterials, no less than 25 percent - on nanoelectronics, 15 percent - on public health and pharmaceutics nanoproducts, about 10 percent - on production of nanostructural catalysts** and life support products, i.e. increase in productivity of cultivated plants, water treatment, development of renewable energy sources, manufacture of nanoarticles for transport, etc.
In Russia priority of development of nanotechnologies is defined by the RF President's Message to the Federal Assembly. Besides, RF Ministry of Education and Science has developed the Program for Handling Problems in the Field of Nanotechnologies and Nano-
* See: Ya. Renkas, "Innovations in the Mainstream", Science in Russia, No. 3, 2007. - Ed.
** See: A. Sinitsyn, "Versatile Enzymes", Science in Russia, No. 4, 2007. - Ed.
materials till 2015 financed at the cost of budgetary and extrabudgetary funds in the amount of 20 - 30 bin rubles a year. The State Duma has approved the law "On Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies".
However, it is worth mentioning that our country is only starting to discuss aims and priorities of nanotechnology development. Current situation in this field can be characterized by a recent report made by Mikhail Fradkov, former Prime-Minister: "If business does not take interest in nanotechnologies, it will lose everything and at best will only work at the well managed by our friends and partners".
Nevertheless, Aseev pointed out that Russian scientists, in particular, specialists working at the Institute, have reached success in different significant scientific and technical fields. What is meant here are technologies of molecular beam epitaxy* of self-assembly of nanoobjects, creation of nanolithography complexes, electronic and probe microscopy of atomic resolution. As examples of concrete results obtained by the scientists of this institute, the director named development of photodetectors based on semiconductor structures with quantum holes, singlephoton emanator on single quantum point, epitaxial nanoheterostructure microwave transistors, "silicon-on-insulator" nanotransistors, nanosensors and prototypes of metal materials**. In its turn, improvement of proposed technologies and electrical engineering will enlarge possibilities of computers and communication means accompanied by sharp reduction of their size. Rapid progress is expected in the field of electronics, traditionally highly developed in Russia***: power, microwave electronics, electrooptics, photoenergetics, and sensor technologies. There is an opportunity to gain success in such spheres of scientific and technological progress as terabit storage, spintronics, and quantum calculations.
Participants of the round table listened to Svetlana Zheludeva, Dr. Sc. (Phys. & Math.), Deputy Director of A. Shubnikov RAS Institute of Crystallography (Moscow). Among recent developments of her colleagues one can name compact X-ray sources created on the basis of fullerene nanotubes, nanoporous membranes, other high-technology products. Significant results have been achieved in cooperation with specialists of the RAS SB Institute of Nuclear Physics named after G. Budker: scientists elaborated and equipped the RRC "Kurchatov Institute" with research stations of synchrotron radiation source.
Major General Anatoly Krailyuk, Deputy Head of the RF Defense Ministry Administration, made a very interesting report on the current situation dedicated to the use of nanotechnologies, nanomaterials and nanoelectiral engineering for the solution of problems set before national power ministries. Scientists are supposed to work out microrobotic workcells of different application, that would be able fundamentally change the character of main types of military and combat activity of the army and navy.
The speech of Academician Alexander Andreev, RAS Vice-President, enlivened round table climate: he offered to introduce levels of complexity of nanotechnologies - from nanostructured powders to substances with radically new quantum properties. Academician Valentin Vlasov (RAS SB Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine) dedicated his report to nanomaterials and nanodevices, developed on the basis of nucleic acids, which opens prospects to create molecular sensors and tools and, finally, molecular machines****. Besides, practical application has been found for magnetic nanoparticles, microbiochip technologies, devices worked out on the basis of microchannel silicon-base matrices.
In an after-report discussion speakers focused on methods of use of nanotechnologies for express analysis of structure of separate DNA molecules - carriers of genetic information*****.
* See: A. Sergeyev, "From Petawatt Lasers on to Neuroimaging", Science in Russia, No. 3, 2007. - Ed.
** See: "Nanostructural Protection of Materials", Science in Russia, No. 4, 2007. - Ed.
*** See: Ye. Suvorov, "Plasma Physics and High-Power Electronics", Science in Russia, No. 3, 2007. - Ed.
**** See: V. Vlasov et al., "Gene-Targeted Drugs", Science in Russia, No. 2, 2005. - Ed.
***** See: Ye. Balanovskaya, O. Balanovsky, "Russian Genofond in Retrospect", Science in Russia, No. 2, 2007. - Ed.
Academician Fyodor Kuznetsov defined prospects for application of nanomaterials in a postsilicon electronics (RAS SB Institute of Inorganic Chemistry named after A. Nikolaev). He pointed out capacities of single organic molecules, molecules of fullerenes and chalcogenide clusters* as the most promising in the field of information treatment.
Among the most interesting scientific works of Nikolai Lyakhov, RAS Corresponding Member (RAS SB Institute of Solid Body and Mechanical Chemistry), dedicated to the synthesis of nanomaterials via chemistry of solids are: formation of carbon or boron nitride encapsulated nanoparticles of metals, reduction of corrosion rate, manufacture of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics on the basis of composites, increase of discharge capacity of lithium batteries in the course of nanomodification, use of complex nanocomposite materials to store hydrogen**.
Professor Valery Bukhtiyarov and Academician Valentin Parmon (RAS SB Catalysis Institute named after G. Boreskov) made comments on the dimensional effects in catalytic actions performed by applied nanoparticles of metals. They also gave examples explaining removal of harmful impurities from exhaust gases, hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, creation of hydrogen and methanol fuel elements***.
Vladimir Fedin, Director of the RAS SB Institute of Inorganic Chemistry named after A. Nikolaev, considered possibilities of a new approach, envisaging application of organic coordination polymers and molecular containers to solve such nanotechnological problems as storing and treatment of gases, construction of highly effective catalysts, creation of modern and efficient pharmaceutical substances****. Academician Vladimir Boldyrev (RAS SB Institute of Solid Body and Mechanical Chemistry) in his emotional speech emphasized: size of particles of drugs influences therapeutic action mechanism*****. He revealed results of research work, carried out by Siberian scientists, relative to creation of new drugs, possessing antiviral and antibacterial properties, on the basis of nanoparticles of silver and bismuth.
In general, the reports of all round table participants proved that RAS SB scientific and research establishments have necessary infrastructure to successfully develop nanotechnologies, nanomaterials and nanoelectronics, have skilled specialists, including young scientists. These scientists have already obtained a series of breakthrough achievements in the field of scientific and technical progress.
Nanotechnologies, Nanomaterials and Nanoelectronics, "Science in Siberia", No. 24, 2007
Prepared by Yaroslav RENKAS
* Chalcogenides - compounds of chalcogens (oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium and polonium) with more electropositive chemical elements - oxides, sulfides, selenides, tellurides. -Ed.
** See: V. Azatyan, "Harnessing the Hydrogen Flame", Science in Russia, No. 1, 2007. - Ed.
*** See: V. Parmon, "Controlled Conversions", Science in Russia, No. 5, 2007. - Ed.
**** See: M. Paltsev et al., "From Molecules of Disease on to Health Molecules", Science in Russia, No. 1, 2006; G. Georgiev, A. Sobol, "Antitumor Drugs: A New Approach", Science in Russia, No. 2, 2007. - Ed.
***** See: N. Kaletina, G. Kaletin, "Trace Elements as Biological Regulators", Science in Russia, No. 1, 2007. - Ed.
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