Libmonster ID: U.S.-1393
Author(s) of the publication: T. L. Wilkul

UDC 222.6: 093.3: 94 (477). "H-HSH"

Examples of quoting the biblical books of the Eightfold in the Old Russian chronicles-such expressions as "wise and well-meaning men"are considered. "Rus' has fun to drink" , etc. Researchers of the Old Russian era often rely on later versions of the Old Slavic Bible when studying the Biblical influence on medieval historical writing, which leads to incorrect conclusions. However, the precise textual form of biblical quotations is important for understanding the implications of chroniclers and the very meaning of historical messages. Accordingly, it is proposed to use early biblical texts that are more or less similar to those that were available in the XI - XIII centuries. Under this. Fragments of the early chronicles and the Slavic Eightfold are compared and analyzed from this angle.

Keywords: Ancient Russia, medieval chronicles, Old Slavic Bible, XI-XIII centuries.

Starting with such a complex topic, it should first of all be noted that the idea of the biblical influence on the early Ancient Russian chronicle is well established and generally well accepted in the scientific community. It is recognized that direct quotations from the Bible and allusions give an understanding of the idea and meaning of the chronicle message or its individual details. Accordingly, the article presented to the reader does not pretend to open a new field in the field of scientific ideas, but rather to outline more precisely the individual parameters of the study. The scope of the journal format determines both the volume and nature of the material-a comprehensive analysis of sources, unfortunately, is not possible, so a chain of examples is proposed that illustrate the author's statements and assumptions.

It is necessary to clarify the term "early chronicles", since it gets along in two meanings. When a researcher takes into account hypothetical, that is, reconstructed chronicle vaults by scientists, then the limit of the definition of "early" can be the boundary of the XI-XII centuries.. and this series will begin with the "ancient" and "most ancient" Kiev or Novgorod vaults, and end with the" Tale of Bygone Years "("PVL") and the initial part of the Novgorod First Chronicle. Somewhat closer to reality, there is another definition of early chronicle-when the end of the 13th century is taken abroad, covering pre-Mongol works and part of what was written after the Mongol invasion, including the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle (GVL). It seems that this approach is more justified, because the chronicles earlier than the " PVL "are purely hypothetical constructions, and even the "novella" itself has come down to us as part of collections of the XIV-XVI centuries.

Tatyana Vilkul-Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher at the Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Research Sector on the History of Kievan Rus E-mail: t-vilkul-1@yandex.ru

1 such collections consist of several more frequent ones. For example, the Ipatiev chronicle includes three components: "PVL". Kiev chronicle of the XII century and GVL. Sometimes they are so simple,

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they changed immediately and dramatically with the invasion, although this was in a certain sense the starting point of a different story. It is this second definition that is accepted here, and accordingly, my chain of exempla includes quotes from"PVL". Kievan chronicles of the 12th century and Galician and Volyn chronicles of the 13th century.

A certain impetus for writing this article was the question of a researcher who deals with the later periods of the Old Russian period: is it possible to "purge" the early chronicles of Biblical quotations? Apparently, this is impossible, and the point here is not in the" increasing " complication of the life of those studying the history of Ancient Russia - it is in a radical change in ancient and modern instructions. Modern people, including scientists, are attuned to a secular perception, as well as to highlighting the history of the national as a particularly significant one. In the history of the Ancient Age, the opposite phenomenon is observed: biblical stories act as a general form, into which scribes, so to speak, pour "domestic"examples. Unfortunately, as has been repeatedly pointed out, we often ignore numerous Biblical quotations and paraphrases, or we separate bookish and secular literature, while subordinating the Bible story to secular 2. Meanwhile, the adherence of Old Russian chroniclers to bookish and, in particular, biblical models was generally recognized in pre-revolutionary literature and sometimes was not denied even in the first decade of the existence of the Soviet Academy of Sciences3 what was also reflected in the practice of publishing chronicles-you should look at the reconstruction edition of A. A. Shakhmatov's" PVL " with a lot of certain biblical quotations (researchers still use this publication)1. however, later, due to a specific ideological restructuring of the foundations of the humanities, this recognition was completely forgotten by itself. Revive

it would seem that this is sometimes necessary, because scientists who are used to hypotheses begin to accept the reconstructed picture as the "natural state of things".

- Danilevsky I. N. Eschatological motives in the Tale of bygone years // At the source: Collection of articles in honor of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Sergey Mikhailovich Kashtanov: At 2 o'clock-Vol.1. Moscow, 1997, pp. 172-220 (in Russian). The Tale of Bygone Years: Hermeneutical foundations of the study of chronicle texts. - Moscow. 2004 (in particular, introduction and first chapter). This is well shown, for example, by A. P. Tolochko on the example of the analysis of the undated part of "PVL". where we are talking about the settlement of Slavic tribes. The story of Noah and his sons, on the one hand, and the "glades, Drevlyans, Northerners", on the other, is most often perceived as two separate stories, but these fragments were written by the same person who used two biblical models in describing the Slavic settlement-the story of the settlement of the descendants of Noah and the twelve tribes of Israel (See: Tolochko O. P., Tolochko P. P. Kievan Rus. - K., 1998. - pp. 17-19. 31-35: Toloehko O. P. The Primary Chronicle's 'Ethnography' revisited: Slavs and Varangians in the Middle Dnieper Region and the Origin of the Rus ' State / / Franks. Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and State Formation in Early Medieval Europe. - 2007. - P. 169 - 188.

3 cm, for example. . one of the most interesting articles on this topic: Peretz V. K voprosu o literaturnykh istochnikakh drevnoi ukrainskoy letopisi [On the question of literary sources of the ancient Ukrainian Chronicle]. - K., 1928. - N76. - part II. - pp. 213-219.

Shakhmatov A. A. 4 The Tale of Bygone Years. - Vol. 1: Introductory part: Text: Notes. Petrograd, 1916 (reprint: Shakhmatov A. A. Istoriya russkogo letopisaniya [History of the Russian Chronicle].2. St. Petersburg, 2003, pp. 527-977). See also the publication "PVL". recently published thanks to the efforts of Yu. A. Artamonov, but prepared by S. A. Bugoslavsky in the interwar years: Bugoslavsky S. A. The Tale of Bygone Years.His own. Textology of Ancient Russia, vol. 1, Moscow, 2006. although this method of publication has not become a standard, compare, for example, the series "Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles" ("PSRL"). In modern editions of the chronicles, the biblical component is also not highlighted (see, for example, The Povest ' vremennykh let: an Interlinear Collation and Paradosis / Ed. D. Ostrowski [Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts. - Vol. X. - Part 1-3. - Cambridge, Mass., 2003)]. D. Ostrovsky rightly points out that that Old Slavic Biblical textual studies have significant problems of their own, and that bible studies have been resumed relatively recently (see: Ibid. - Part 1. - P. LII1).

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such a field of research as the biblical influence on ancient Russian historical literature began at the end of the Soviet era, and we owe much to the works of I. N. Danilevsky. For some time, the topic was very popular, interesting and important developments appeared, but now it seems that the enthusiasm of scientists has somewhat faded. One of the reasons seems to be that most of the Old Slavonic bible texts are still unpublished and researchers are forced to use the Ostrog (XVI century). Elizabethan (XVIII century) Bible or the Synodal Russian translation of the XIX century. 5 Over the past two decades, most of the large and accurate biblical quotations in the annals have been discovered and the meaning of the Bible is still unknown. they are established (first of all, this concerns the "PVL", because the later chronicle of the XII and XIII centuries. in this regard, it enjoys less attention from scientists). Thus, the fund of suitable biblical borrowings for analysis has actually been exhausted, and the determination of finer details with this approach is impossible, therefore, new progress is slowed down. Using the simplest analogy: This is if modern researchers translated documents written in Old Slavonic or Old Polish or Old Ukrainian into Ukrainian/English/Russian and then worked exclusively with translations. In principle, even in this case, certain conclusions can be drawn easily, but the subtleties do not fall into the field of view of the scientist, a lot of valuable information is lost. In other words, it seems that the time has come to work with authentic Old Slavic Bible texts - more or less with those that were unknown to our fellow chroniclers.

A few more words about why you should not also use the late Church Slavonic versions of the Bible: Ostrog, Moscow printed in 1663 and Elizabethan. By and large, they did not depart too far from the Old Slavic translation. In particular, Ostrogskaya is based on the text of the 15th-century Genadiev Bible, which generally belongs to the late group of the Russian edition. However, the version of the Russian edition is not identical to what we see in the Chronicles 7. In addition, the Gennadiev Bible was compared with the Latin Vulgate, which has nothing to do with the texts of the Old Russian era. In Ostrogskaya on all this layered corrections for

5 The author of this article should admit to using the Ostrog Bible in earlier works. Only now, when textual features are gradually being clarified, in particular in the part of the Eightbook, did the significant difference between the early and late texts become clear, as discussed below.

6 of course, in the text of a research studio on bible borrowings written in Chinese, it is customary to quote the Chinese translation of the Bible, in German - German, in English-English. It is not acceptable to quote German or English translations in Chinese, or vice versa. If you are closer to the domestic realities: in the Ukrainian-language text-the synodal Russian translation. Because this approach means that the researcher does not distinguish between source and translation, which is a basic concept for a historian.

7 in total, there are three editions of the fourth (non-liturgical) text of the Octateuch: Russian, South Slavic and chronographic (see: Vilkul T. L. The Old Slavic Book of Exodus: The text in the chronographic edition, with discrepancies from the second editions according to the lists of the XIV-XVI centuries. (in print)). Apparently, the editorial offices of the chetyi text were formed later by the " PVL " and the Kiev Chronicle Code. GVL in this regard has not yet been studied, however, according to A. S. Orlov et al., this chronicle is indicated by the influence of the Jewish chronograph (see, for example: Orlov A. S. on the Galician-Volyn chronicle / / works of the Department of Ancient Russian Literature (hereinafter - TODRL). - 1947. - Vol. 5. - p. 15 - 35). According to my observations, the Jewish chronograph uses a chronographic version, and the quotations from the chronicles do not bear the characteristic features of the Russian version.

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one of the earliest Greek editions of Septuagint 8, which has significant discrepancies with the Greek list/lists used in its time. that is, mainly in the IX-X centuries, Western and South Slavic scribes translated Bible books. The Moscow Old printed Bible of 1663 is almost identical to the Ostrog Bible. As for the Elizabethan version, it was revised and corrected, including the Hebrew text, which was not available to the Old Slavic scribe.9 As a result, if we, for example, have about 100 published significant words and expressions in the text of the Book exit in the Old Slavic translation, then in Ostrog most of the gaps (about 90) are filled in. Often the names do not coincide (especially vivid examples are found in the Book of Joshua) and designations, significantly updated language of presentation. So, again we are faced with an inaccurate comparison. There is a risk to say that the Old Russian author used a quote that was generally unknown to him, or known in another version 10. But an even greater risk is to avoid the actual borrowing of biblical texts, which are made at the level of microcitates, and where an important role is played by taking into account nuances.

As already noted, researchers used later versions of the Bible or translations into modern languages not from a good life. Not all books of the Old Slavic Bible have been published. If we limit ourselves to the framework that is set for this article - the Eight Books-five books out of eight have been published.,

8 by Aldin. 1518 edition (see: F. Thomson). The Slavonic Translation of the Old Testament/ / Interpretation of the Bible. - Ljubljana, 1998. - P. 676-677 (in addition, the compilers of Ostrogskaya had access to the Krakow Bible, checked not only with the Greek, but also with the Hebrew text)).

Mikhailov A.V. 9 Experience of studying the text of the Book of Genesis of the Prophet Moses in the Old Slavic translation. - Part 1: Parimei text. - Warsaw, 1912. - C. CLXVII.

10 In particular, with regard to the Ostrog Bible,in many cases it more or less accurately copies the Old Slavic translation. At the same time, on the contrary, there are quite a lot of fragments that are radically different from the original text. Most importantly, the researcher cannot predict in advance one or another way of concluding the Ostrog Bible; this requires a comparison of all known versions. As for the restored lacunae, the most interesting example is probably the handling of the loss of one of the Decalogue positions. All Old Slavonic lists do not contain Ex. 21. 6, that is, we have not 10, but only 9 (!) commandments. The loss is restored in the Ostrog Bible ("if anyone is angry with his father or mother..."). As for the restatements, I will give only two examples, where Ostrogskaya provides quite good reading and, however, has nothing to do with the Old Slavic translation, as it is reconstructed on the basis of textual observations. In the first case, it is likely that the Russian version of the Greek text has been corrected. In Exodus 21: 10, we see the government regarding marital relations: "And let her see give her." The rare "sminoe eya", a translation of "την óóιλιαν ακτς" (payment for family and marital relations), was preserved only in the lists of the South Slavic edition. In Ostrogskaya, however, the " economical "and rational reading of" vno eya "is contained(in Elizavetinskaya, a new translation is also correct, although it is obvious: "messages of her"). Meanwhile, in the Russian edition the corrupted "smeshnoe eya", in the chronographic edition" izmenno eya "in one group of lists and" eya eya " in another group. In all cases, the copyists somewhat messed up the designation, making a mechanical error or trying to somehow explain the dark place. But the compiler of Ostrogskaya introduced a new word, which was quite appropriate in meaning. Otherwise, Deut. 23.19 / 18 all Old Slavonic manuscripts give the reading "izmenniya filth", while in the Septuagint we see "αλλαγμα κκ#957;
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