Libmonster ID: U.S.-1391
Author(s) of the publication: A. N. CHUMAKOV

The new book by Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences A. Gromyko "Lessons of World Politics: Order or Law and Order? "(Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nestor-Istoriya, 2016, 240 p.) is far from accidental and, undoubtedly, very significant in modern global studies. The book is of genuine interest not only for its extremely relevant subject matter, but also for the fact that it belongs to the pen of a well-known scientist, diplomat, director of the Institute of Africa of the USSR Academy of Sciences / RAS from 1976 to 1992.

Anatoly Andreevich Gromyko was one of the most prominent representatives of Russian global studies back in the period of its formation as an interdisciplinary field of scientific knowledge in the early 1970s.

At the origins of domestic globalistics were:

-at the head of philosophical and methodological studies of global problems - Academician I. T. Frolov;

mathematics-the prognostic direction was developed under the leadership of academician N. N. Moiseev;

- in the field of studying global problems of the information society, the most authoritative was Academician A. P. Vinogradov;

global modeling was developed at the Institute for System Research of the USSR Academy of Sciences: its organizer and director-D. M. Gvishiani;

-Mikhail Budyko, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was a pioneer in the study of anthropogenic influence on the planet's climate;

- the global aspects of education were actively developed by Academician I. F. Obraztsov;

- the foundations of global forecasting were laid by such scientists as Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences G. G. Shakhnazarov and Professor I. V. Bestuzhev-Lada;

- academician Yu. A. Ovchinnikov made the most important contribution to the study of the problem of food security;

- academician M. A. Styrikovich held a leading position in studying the problems of global energy development;

global problems of international integration were studied by Academician O. T. Bogomolov1.

In this remarkable galaxy of outstanding scientists, thanks to whom Russian global studies still occupies one of the key positions in the world today, a worthy place belongs to A. A. Gromyko. He was already a leader in such an important area of global research as the problems of Africa and developing countries2.

Thus, in the fundamental collective monograph, which at the beginning of 1985 summed up the first "results of activities in the field of integrated study of various aspects of global problems", as well as outlined "prospects for future research and development", A. A. Gromyko in his article "Global problems of our time and Africa" accurately diagnosed a situation that was far from obvious at that time that "global problems have their roots in local problems, grow organically out of them, but at the same time require for their solution not isolated, scattered efforts of individual countries, but systematic joint activities of the widest possible range of states"3. Based on extensive factual material and concrete data, A. A. Gromyko predicted at that time that " the African continent will enter the new millennium as the most backward and poorest region in the world... Overpopulation and the associated unemployment, poverty and hunger will keep Africa in the position of a disaster area on a global scale," he noted, and pointed out that overcoming the backwardness of countries freed from colonial dependence "appears as one of the most important tasks of the current stage of human development."4

Years passed. During this time, many works were written (including Anatoly Andreevich) concerning the problems of overcoming socio-economic backwardness and, in general, the world order in the context of globalization.

But the topic remains far from exhausted. Moreover, in the context of modern world events and trends, it becomes even more relevant. And a peer-reviewed book is another proof of this.

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Written in an academic style, and at the same time with a bright expressive language, the book attracts attention with a lot of interesting, often exclusive facts, generalizations and conclusions of a person who has the experience of not only a major scientist, but also a hereditary diplomat, who now analyzes the historical milestones of world development, in general, from the height of his past years., and our country in particular.

The work is not devoid of discussion and controversial points, which will be discussed later, but this is rather the advantage of this kind of literature, if the author does not withdraw - and this is exactly the case - from discussing complex issues and expresses his point of view.

Already at the very beginning, A. A. Gromyko asks the potential reader vital questions, inviting him, thereby, to participate in the upcoming conversation. "Do you, dear reader, feel anxious about people's future?" - he says. "Will the Earthlings survive? How long will human civilization last as we know it..? " (p. 5).

Coming from a person who has devoted his entire life to overcoming socio-economic inequality, such questions initially lead to very serious thoughts. Indeed, in the modern world, despite the endless talk about it, there is a huge gap between the excess wealth of a relatively small minority living in exorbitant luxury, and the blatant poverty of the majority of the world's population.

More than three decades have passed since this topic became the center of public attention, but basically nothing has changed. A. A. Gromyko speaks about this again with great concern for the future, when he writes that poverty and hunger accompany humanity today. "Almost half of the world's population," he notes, " lives on $ 2 a day, and more than a billion live on $ 1 or less... Poverty is widespread not only in developing countries, usually the poorest, but also in developed countries, even rich ones, where it would seem that it should not exist." And concludes: "All of us today are witnesses of this global social conflict. It has two poles-the rich billion northerners and the poor billions of southerners " (p. 142, 145).

Thus, in the modern world, under the influence of globalization, two main trends have clearly revealed themselves. On the one hand, integration is increasing in various spheres of public life, especially in the economy, education, and science. On the other hand, there is a growing differentiation between poor and rich, developed and undeveloped, stable and unstable. The book also provides many other proofs of the plight of socio-economic inequality, when there is no doubt that not only the real situation on the planet is not getting better, but also the dynamics of their changes do not give grounds for optimism.

However, it's not just that there are no appropriate decisions and actions. Much more important is how this situation is perceived at the level of mass consciousness, in general, not to mention the ruling elites and those who make decisions on which the fate of many millions, if not billions of people depends.

Unfortunately, the situation here is no better, as A. A. Gromyko says in a language that almost goes beyond diplomacy: "One cannot help but be surprised at the indifference with which we all relate to the extinction of millions of unfortunate people from hunger and disease." But he continues further: "Who cares about the extinction of people somewhere out there, "beyond the horizon", if endless wars are being waged on Earth, and militarists, intimidating fellow citizens with each other, go in heroes and are hung, even in peacetime, with orders and medals?.. Is it worth worrying about some kind of global poverty if people are used to destroying each other by the millions? Such is life. Such a train of thought is becoming commonplace for political and state elites" (p. 144).

The problem of war and peace is one of the main topics discussed in the book, which is especially relevant in the context of the occasional statements not only from North Korea, but also from other states about the possibility of a nuclear strike, not to mention the numerous facts of the full-scale use of military force. "It seems to me," says the author, " that today many leaders of European countries and the United States simply do not realize what a nuclear war is," and rightly notes: "The main thing is to change the attitude to war in the minds of not only their own, but also all people, especially political elites" (p.223).

Such a humanistic position and special attention to the humanitarian sphere are constantly manifested in the book, when A. A. Gromyko presents his point of view on fundamental and most important issues. So, for example, when he criticizes the endless talk "about the need for new and new reforms", he categorically formulates his opinion: "The time has come when humanity should remember about pragmatism and reasonable conservatism. The essence of this approach in the spirit of "soft power" is a careful attitude to moral values. Without them, the global balance in world affairs cannot be maintained, and the fall is inevitable " (pp. 122-123).

In this context, special attention is paid to the factor of "soft power", which, according to the author, "is necessary for the world community as air, without which the world of people will wither away, its main efforts will be spent on wars and violence, and problems will be solved."-

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the questions will remain unresolved " (p. 86).

Another important humanitarian point is also repeatedly repeated during the discussion of various approaches to solving the contradictions of the modern world. Here the author's position is unambiguous and uncompromising: "the power of law must prevail over the right of force", he believes, and expresses, in essence, an innovative idea when he says: "International law and diplomacy are a fundamental pillar for" soft power", without them it is impossible to protect the field of legitimacy in world affairs. Let's call this "tandem of pillars" in short-MTD-factor (international law and diplomacy). For the effectiveness of soft power, it is constructive and often decisive" (p. 93).

Another undoubted advantage of the peer-reviewed work is a detailed and multi-faceted discussion of such topics as the role and place of the United Nations in the modern world. Against the background of constant discussions around this unique international organization and incessant reproaches for its ineffectiveness in modern conditions, the position of A. A. Gromyko, based on extensive historical data, rich factual material, and unique documents, memoirs, and statements published for the first time, is undoubtedly productive and deserves special attention.

Defending the lack of alternatives to the UN at this stage of historical development, he emphasizes the need to seek compromises and peaceful solutions to international problems. "The uniqueness of the UN and its Charter," says A. Gromyko in this regard, " is that they are deployed in the future, it is, in fact, a multipolar organization based on democratic principles and norms of international law. The choice in favor of the UN was not tactical, but strategic. It is directed against the pretenders to world domination" (pp. 17-18). And then he makes the curious suggestion that if the UN had not been created immediately after the end of the war with Germany, this organization would never have been created, because "there is a rather narrow window of opportunity for correct decisions "(p.33).

Gromyko's conversation with his father on the constantly contested issue of the veto power of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council is also very interesting. In response to his expressed opinion to reconsider this provision, the son received a categorical one: "This should not be done in any case, because the right of veto is a compulsion to compromise. If there is no veto, there will be no compromise in the UN " (p. 224).

Finally, another advantage of the book: A. A. Gromyko rightly points out how quickly the situation in global studies and the world perception of this problem is changing among those who are professionally engaged in it, including himself. In particular, referring to a fundamental study published in 1989, which he conducted jointly with prominent foreign political figures and scientists, 5 he writes: "Recently, I decided to carefully re-read this book full of ideas in order to find at least one mention of "globalization" as a new era of human development. I didn't find a single word" (p.103).

This is a very important recognition of a professional who is completely immersed in this issue, since even today few people understand the true essence of rapid changes around us, as well as the real cost of inadequate perception of reality.

And in fact, the now common and seemingly already fed-up concept of "globalization" was still unknown to anyone a decade and a half ago. At that time, the main interest was in the global problems of our time, and no one paid attention to the global processes that gave rise to them, and globalization in particular. Suffice it to say that one of the founders and leaders of Russian global studies, academician I. T. Frolov (1929-1999), until the end of his life, never used the term "globalization" either in his numerous texts or in oral speeches, due to its absence in the speech circulation at that time. At the same time, he, like all scientists of that time, emphasized the need to overcome and eliminate from the life of society the global problems of our time, which is absolutely impossible, as it is quite obvious now, after establishing the direct dependence of such problems on the objective processes of globalization.

Now that humanity is perceived as a holistic, systemic, and global phenomenon through the prism of globalization, it becomes obvious that it simply cannot but have global problems by definition. At the same time, it was difficult to grow a new field of interdisciplinary knowledge. But they are associated with serious consequences, which are easier and faster to overcome, the sooner they are realized. I would also like to pay special attention to the above words of A. A. Gromyko, because incorrectly set goals based on misconceptions are far from harmless, as it may seem at first glance, since after numerous efforts and resources spent on achieving them, they can only lead to a negative result, disappointment and missed opportunities.

This brief list of the most interesting, as it seems to me, fragments does not end with the merits of the reviewed book. However, we should also pay attention to certain points of discussion and provisions that are difficult to agree with.

page 73

So, for example, the book touches on a very topical topic of global governance from different angles and quite often. At the same time, the author does not define this concept and, moreover, does not distinguish between management and regulation6 Hence incorrect statements like: "The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is an important operational arm of global governance" (p. 133); or: "The UN Charter provides for the management of international affairs (emphasis added) that go beyond bilateral relations..." (p. 28). In fact, both the ECOSOC and the UN are essentially capable of performing only regulatory functions (which they do), but not managerial ones.

In this regard, it should be noted that the problem of global governance is an extremely relevant topic and requires its own development. In fact, it is still not so much scientific as philosophical, since the key questions are: "how is global governance possible?" and "is it possible in principle?" they remain unanswered today and urgently demand more proof or refutation.

Thus, the above statements, as well as the statement that "global governance today is developing in conditions when it is carried out by both political and economic actors" (p.73), can hardly be considered correct.

It is difficult to accept unequivocally another statement of the author when he writes: "It is high time, long ago, for everyone in the East and West to know that a strong international structure based on 'security for all' has already been created - the United Nations with its imperishable Charter " (p.216). In a rapidly and radically changing world, the position of such conservatism in relation to the UN in its practical meaning is unlikely to be constructive, since the UN was created in other conditions and to solve quite specific tasks, to which the whole set of modern challenges to the world community, of course,is not reduced.

Finally, there is no need to argue that in scientific research, with all due respect for one's country, patriotic feelings should not prevail over objectivity and impartiality when it comes to the world as a whole. Therefore, the final words of the book look very controversial and hardly justified in the context of all the previous detailed theoretical conversation: "The compass for a correct world policy (emphasis added by me - A. Ch.), based on a scientific basis, should have a clear marking - "made in Russia". This is not only a scientific project, but also a patriotic one. Whoever seeks will find it" (p. 232).

I would like to think that this is a typo, when it would be quite appropriate to write " compass for the correctRussianpolicy...", but then such a phrase is not for this conclusion, since the central theme of the whole book is not Russia, but world problems, humanity as a whole.

As for the structure of the book, it is well thought out and covers mainly the period from the end of World War II to the present day. Considerable attention is paid to the history of the creation of the UN, various aspects of the Cold War, and our days are not left out of consideration. At the same time, one way or another, many key figures of the era are mentioned, including the leaders of our state.

However, the question remains: why did a significant fragment of the history of the USSR, when L. I. Brezhnev was at the head of the country, go unnoticed, and he himself - without mentioning?

As a suggestion, I would like to see an author's index at the end of the book. This would make it easier to work with a very interesting and informative text, which contains a large number of outstanding names, outstanding scientists, politicians, and public figures, most of whom become like participants in the conversation, since the text contains their original statements, opinions, judgments, and assessments.

In conclusion, it is necessary to note not only the attractive features and original nature of the book's content, but also its well-formulated title, which touches on the very essence of international relations in a global world and accurately reflects the primary tasks of modern globalism.

Undoubtedly, the next work of A. A. Gromyko, as well as his previous works, will be in demand both by specialists in the field of global studies and by a wide audience interested in modern world processes, the history of their formation and prospects for further development.

A. N. CHUMAKOVDoctor of PhilosophyEditor-in-Chief of the journal "The Age of Globalization"

1 See: Globalistics. Personalities, organizations, and works. Il'in I. V., Mazur I. I., Chumakov A. N. Entsiklopedicheskiy spravochnik [Encyclopedia guide]. Moscow, Alfa-M Publ., 2012.

2 See: Gromyko An. A. Bibliographic index of works. To the 80th anniversary of the Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, IAfr RAS, 2012; his own Conflict in Southern Africa: An International Aspect, Moscow, Mysl, 1979; Gromyko An. A., Lomeyko V. New Thinking in the Nuclear Age, Moscow, International Relations, 1984.

Gromyko An. A. 3 Global'nye problemy sovremennosti i Afrika [Global problems of modernity and Africa] / / Marxist-Leninist concept of global problems of modernity, Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1985, p. 140.

4 Ibid., p. 145.

5 See: Gromyko An. A.Gali B.McNamara R. et al. Will Earthlings survive? Moscow, Progress Publ., 1989.

6 This topic has already been reflected in the specialized literature-see: The Age of Globalization. 2010, N 2 (6). pp. 3-15; 2014, N 1(13). pp. 16-27 and others.


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