China Keywords:, 60th anniversary, Russia-China, reforms
Sixty difficult years - what has China come to during this considerable historical period? Are China's economic, political, administrative, and social reforms successful? What are the results and prospects of cooperation between the two countries - Russia and China, each of which has been following its own path for these six decades? These and many other issues were discussed at the international forum at the Institute of the Far East of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
On October 1, 2009, celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China were held in a solemn atmosphere all over China - from Urumqi to Shanghai and from Harbin to Guangzhou. This glorious anniversary and summing up the results of 6 decades of diplomatic relations between our countries were on the agenda of the meeting of Sinologists " 60 years of China. Sixtieth anniversary of diplomatic relations of the USSR/Russia and China (1949-2009)" (XVIII International Conference " China, Chinese Civilization and Peace. History, modernity, and prospects"). It was organized by the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the Integrated Study of Modern China in cooperation with the Institute of the Far East of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian-Chinese Friendship Society (with financial support from the Akademia Social Protection Fund and President of the Chinese-Russian Chamber of Commerce (Hong Kong) Huang Xiaodong).
More than 150 participants from Russia, CIS and far-abroad countries discussed all aspects of the development of the state, which after 60 years of search, trial and error showed the world the possibility of building socialism with Chinese characteristics in a single country, which is taking leaps and bounds from poverty to the status of a world superpower.
The conference was opened by Academician M. L. Titarenko, who in his welcoming speech noted that a number of major celebrations are being held in Russia in connection with the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China and the establishment of diplomatic relations between our countries. In addition, the Institute of the Far East of the Russian Academy of Sciences prepared anniversary publications - the yearbook "China: Politics, Economy, Culture", a special issue of the journal" Problems of the Far East", the 5th volume of the multi-volume publication"Spiritual Culture of China".
A.D. Nekipelov, Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, read out the address of the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Yu.S. Osipov to the conference participants, which noted the deep scientific and practical significance of this forum of sinologists. The Soviet Union became the first state to declare recognition of the PRC. The agreement, signed on February 14, 1950, laid the foundations for long-term cooperation between the two countries for 30 years. Currently, the relations between our countries are characterized by an atmosphere of mutual trust. The world's attention is drawn to China's experience in overcoming the consequences of the global financial crisis.
In his welcoming speech, Academician S. L. Tikhvinsky, a veteran of Russian Sinology, shared his memories of the great events that he witnessed in 1949, when he was acting Consul General of the USSR in Beijing, in particular, the proclamation of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, when Mao Zedong raised the five - star scarlet banner over Tiananmen Square. He has collaborated with such prominent figures of the Chinese Communist movement as Zhou Enlai and Zhu De.
Welcoming the participants of the conference, Charge d'affaires a.i. of the People's Republic of China to the Russian Federation Li Huilai noted that the progressive development of the new China was possible only on the path of socialism. The PRC adheres to an independent foreign policy, making efforts to create a harmonious world. The USSR was the first to recognize the PRC, establishing diplomatic relations with it. Currently, the leaders of our countries have reached agreements on cooperation in a new historical period. Relations between Russia and China are a model of relations between major powers, they are relations of strategic cooperation based on the principle of mutual benefit. The Russian direction is a priority for China's foreign policy.
After the greetings, scientific reports were heard at the plenary session. The first keynote address on the topic "The international significance of the Chinese experience in the policy of openness and reform" was delivered by the Director of the Institute of International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician M. L. Titarenko.
He noted that the creation of the People's Republic of China was a milestone moment in the history of not only China, but also the whole world. Currently, China declares that it will not pursue a policy of superpower, but will follow the course of joint co-development, contributing to the harmonization of relations with other countries. Goal
China - building an independent independent state, building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Well-thought-out implementation of reforms since the late 70s, gradual progress towards the goals set, has made it possible to achieve significant success in the field of economic and social development. Currently, China produces 17% of the world's gross domestic product( GDP), smelts 500 million tons of steel a year, produces 528 million tons of grain, and the living standards of the urban and rural population have increased many times over the years of reforms, which indicates the social orientation of the changes taking place in the country.
The international significance of China's experience lies in the fact that its achievements have become an example of how to bring a huge, previously backward country to the number of dynamically developing countries in the world.
Director of the Institute of Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia of the Academy of Social Sciences of the People's Republic of China Wu Enyuan in his report "Opening a new chapter in the strategic partnership of Russia and China" emphasized the importance of rapid and dynamic development of Russian-Chinese relations for the successful implementation of reforms in both countries in the context of rapid regions of the world. The main focus here should be the correct choice of interaction strategy using historical development factors.
R. Gretre"60 Years of Intellectual Property Rights Protection in the PRC" reviewed the impressive progress of China's integration into the international system of intellectual property rights. However, in China itself, the implementation of intellectual property rights remains an intractable problem.
The report of the Deputy Director of the Publishing House of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics A.V. Ostrovsky was devoted to a detailed scientific analysis of China's capabilities to produce its own energy resources and import them from other countries. The author noted that for the PRC there are 3 ways to solve the energy problem: the development and operation of existing oil and gas fields in the western part of the country, partial replacement of oil with coal, natural gas and hydropower in the country's energy balance, and an increase in oil imports from abroad. With huge reserves of coal and other energy carriers, the implementation of the energy savings program adopted in 2006, and the development of reproducible energy sources, China can easily manage with current energy reserves. In addition, China has established sources of energy imports from the Middle East, Russia, Central Asia, Africa and Latin America. All this leads to the conclusion that China as a whole will have the necessary energy sources to ensure high rates of economic growth.
Deputy Director of the Publishing House of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics V. Ya.Portyakov presented the report "China's emergence as a responsible global power", in which he concludes that China is focused on steadily increasing its international responsibility in order to improve the country's image in the eyes of the world community and strengthen its regional and global positions. At the same time, Beijing makes it clear that it intends to build this process at its own pace, strictly balancing the burden of responsibility assumed with its own capabilities and interests. In this sense, the formula of "common, undifferentiated responsibility", voiced in China in relation to the fight against global warming, is very indicative. Beijing also argues that its recognition of its growing responsibility for the state of the world order and the solution of a number of global problems is not the same as claiming a leading role and, moreover, hegemony in world affairs.
In the report of the President of the Academy of Social Sciences (AON) of Heilongjiang Province, Prof. Qu Wei"The most important experience of China's development in 60 years" summed up the main results of China's achievements over the past 6 decades. The author drew attention to the fact that, despite many difficulties and mistakes, China managed to find its own path of development that best meets Chinese realities. He revealed the basic principles of socialism with Chinese characteristics, gave an assessment of the huge assistance of the Soviet Union in the 50s, which helped lay the foundations for the subsequent progressive development of the country. The PRC is now the world's second most powerful economic power*, which has helped to successfully overcome the consequences of the global financial crisis by reorienting demand from the external to the domestic market. China's achievements are of great importance to the whole world. The Chinese Government is aware of its role as a global power and its responsibility to create a harmonious world order.
Doctor of Historical Sciences A.V. Lomanov (IDV RAS) devoted his report to modern philosophical research in China. He noted that during the years of reforms, significant progress has been made in studying modern foreign philosophy and the history of Chinese philosophy, in finding ways to update the existing system of Marxist philosophy. At the same time, the deepening specialization and professionalization of philosophical research deprived this branch of knowledge of the former public mass character that they tried to give philosophy in the first decades after the formation of the PRC. One of the factors for the renewal of philosophical research in China was the work on translating and studying the works of Western thinkers. In the second half of the 1980s and early 1990s, the focus was on Anglo-American analytical philosophy, philosophy of language, phenomenology, and hermeneutics. Later, the problems of postmodernism and fe were added to them.-
* In the 2000s, China's GDP at purchasing power parity ranked second after the United States in the world. In nominal terms, according to the latest data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, released in January 2010, China's GDP reached 33 trillion 535.3 billion. yuan ($4.91 trillion) (http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/newsandcomingevents/t20100121_402615502.htm In 2008, Japan's GDP was equal to that of the world's second-largest economy. However, due to the decline in Japan's GDP in 2009, China also took the second place in the world in nominal terms. ed.).
Scientists also turned to rethinking the experience of the development of Soviet philosophy. Updating and complicating terminology, expanding the thematic field of research have become indicators of the professionalization of modern Chinese philosophy, its convergence with world philosophical thought.
The topic of his speech was "Confucianism in the Political Culture of the CCP", where he emphasized that Confucianism has always played a significant role in the political culture of the Chinese Communist Party. Initially, the party developed a tradition of respect for Confucius and the humanistic core of his teachings. In China, the goal of building 3 civilizations is officially set: political, material and spiritual. This is precisely the specifics of the initial stage of Chinese socialism. Of the 3 civilizations, the leading role belongs to the spiritual one, which is based on Confucianism, which has an impact on the construction of a political civilization. It is enough to recall the concept of an ideal personality and social harmony (shehui hehse). Therefore, when we try to understand the specifics of "Chinese socialism", it is necessary to take into account its Confucian component, which is based on the Han period (III century). B.C.-III century A.D.), the concepts of the rule of law, as well as the rights and obligations of the state to firmly hold in their hands the levers of managing the country's economic life as a guarantee of China's stable development in the future were built in.
RUSSIA-CHINA: WAYS TO STRENGTHEN STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP
The moderator of the round table discussion on "Experience and lessons of 60 years of diplomatic relations between the Russian Federation and the PRC", which took place after the plenary session, Academician M. L. Titarenko, in his opening speech, touched upon the main problems - the main directions of the general strategy for the development of relations between the Russian Federation and the PRC, assessment of the synchronicity of interests of the two countries, tactics for developing relations in the Far East, etc.
The discussion began with a speech by Deputy Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation Mikhail Nikolaev, who emphasized the importance of people's diplomacy carried out within the framework of the Russia - China dialogue. The Chinese side is represented by the Society for Friendship with Foreign Countries, and the Russian side is represented by the public organization "Eastern Dimension".
Doctor of Economics A.V. Ostrovsky touched upon the issues of modern trade and economic relations between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China. He stressed the importance of cooperation programs for the development of the North-East of China, as well as Siberia and the Russian Far East, which will attract Chinese investment in the Far Eastern and Siberian regions. Now all the main deposits of natural resources of the Russian Federation are located in the eastern part of the country. Russian-Chinese cooperation will help equalize the development of the eastern and western parts of the country and create a single Eurasian economic space.
In a speech by the President of the Heilongjiang Autonomous Region, Prof. Qu Wei's emphasis was placed on economic cooperation between Russia and China, especially in the border areas of both countries, which is constrained to a large extent by the underdeveloped infrastructure on Russian territory. The Chinese government has invested more than $ 50 billion in recent years. * to develop the country's transport network, and another 75 billion yuan is expected to be allocated for this purpose in the coming years. RMB. These funds are mainly used for the development of central and western regions of China. China's experience in making investments more evenly distributed across the country is very instructive. Attracting and using investments wisely, including from China, South Korea and Japan, will be of great importance for the development of Russian territories in the Far East and Siberia.
V. Ya. Portyakov, Deputy Director of the Institute of International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics, spoke about the current aspects of the development of Russian-Chinese relations at various levels - at the level of the leadership of our countries and at the level of individual administrative units and just the population. The mood of the population as a whole regarding the development of cooperation with a particular country is very important. Opinion polls show that Russian citizens are somewhat wary of the presence of Chinese migrants and businessmen on Russian territory, which can negatively affect the level of relations, investment and trade volumes. Russia's main natural resource is not oil or gas, but its territory. And this territorial resource should be able to be used for the benefit of the country, including on the basis of cooperation with the PRC.
Sergey Ivanov (Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Federation, Vladivostok) noted that the latest agreements between Russia and China are poorly prepared at the regional level. The population is not sufficiently familiar with the main goals and objectives of the programs, which are a set of investment projects, which raises doubts about their successful implementation.
During the discussion, other issues of Russian-Chinese relations were also discussed: L. I. Golovacheva (Kiev) considers it necessary to send Russian students to study in China to study the experience of successful reforms; E. P. Pivovarova (Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences) stressed the importance of spreading truthful information about reforms in China; D. Phil. A.V. Lomanov proposed new joint measures to develop Russian-Chinese relations, primarily in the field of culture; A.V. Pikover (IDV RAS) focused on the huge role of the cultural and information space of the Internet in obtaining information about our countries; Candidate of Historical Sciences A. S. Davydov (IDV RAS) spoke about the role of the Internet in the development of cultural relations between the two countries. Mass media in creating images of Russia and China.
Summing up the discussion, Academician M. L. Titarenko stressed the great importance of spreading objective information about China, including about the great achievements and mistakes of the re-
* $ 1 equals approximately 6.8 yuan (approx. ed.).
for example, about the usefulness of using such experience for other countries. There are also discussions about the latest agreements between the Russian Federation and the PRC, and doubts are expressed about whether Russia will become a raw material appendage of China. But any contract is the result of a compromise, during which a balance of interests is achieved. The dissemination of truthful information about China will benefit the development of relations between our countries. Main conclusion of the discussion: "always friends, never enemies." Russian-Chinese relations are a factor of global significance, they concern not only our countries, but also affect the level of international relations, and help us jointly defend our interests at the international level.
FEATURES OF CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The following main topics were discussed at the section (head - Doctor of Economics A.V. Ostrovsky): general problems of the Chinese economy and the relationship between the economies of China, Taiwan and Hong Kong; branch economy-problems of the Chinese village and the development of industry in 60 years; socio-demographic problems; China's innovative development path and the use of this experience for Russia; regional integration of the economy.
Dr. V. M. Mazyrin (Institute of Economic Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences) focused on the model of market reforms in Vietnam and China, their common features and peculiarities. Conclusion: Vietnam, although it lags behind the PRC in creating a market economy and growth rates, but it has the opportunity to successfully use the Chinese experience. The models of systemic transformation in both countries are dominated by common features, but there are some differences.
Reports from Taiwan's Zhu Meili and Li Yutan (Zhengzhi University) raised the challenges of moving from democratic transformation to democratic governance of society and the economy. A. A. Kozlov's report on accelerating the integration of Hong Kong into the economy of mainland China concludes that during the 1980s, great progress was made in the economic cooperation between Southern China, primarily Guangdong Province, and Hong Kong. Since the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) in 1997, trade and economic ties between these regions have further expanded, which are extremely important for China's economic development and foreign trade and are among the most dynamically developing business centers in Asia.
As part of the sub-section on industrial economics, PhD L. D. Boni (IDV RAS) highlighted the problem of food security in China at different stages of the 60-year history of the PRC, showing that the Chinese leadership strives to put the solution to the problem of food security on a solid modern material and technical base, officially declaring the beginning of the modernization of agriculture with Chinese characteristics, its main direction is the transition to an innovative model of development of the agricultural economy. The report by E. I. Krapina, Ph. D. in Economics (IDV RAS) considered the peculiarities of the development of animal husbandry, water crafts and forestry in China; it is concluded that as a result of the policy of reforms and openness, the course towards "comprehensive multi-sectoral development of agriculture" by the beginning of the XXI century. China has become a world leader in the production of many types of agricultural products.
In the report of Ph. D. Z. A. Muromtseva (IDV RAS) "60 years of industrial development of the People's Republic of China", a new type of industrialization was considered, which involves the introduction and intensification of advanced technologies, improving the quality of production factors by improving the qualification and educational level of employed personnel, deep processing of natural resources, improving the technical characteristics of machines and equipment based on innovative development.
In the report of the Director of the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of the Government of Qinghai Province (China), Prof. Hu Yuping on the development of western border regions using the example of Qinghai Province, it was shown that the development of western regions not only helps to reduce the gap between inland and coastal regions in terms of economic development, per capita income, and economic infrastructure development, but also leads to greater openness of coastal regions due to the expansion of economic ties between regions within China. The main attention was paid to providing information support for the development program of the western regions of China, the implementation of which will help to level out the differences between the West and the East of the PRC, which is one of the conditions for China to become one of the largest world powers.
In the report of graduate student V. O. Namzhilova (IDV RAS) on the program of development of the western regions of the PRC, it was noted that the concept of "harmonious development" put forward by the XVI CPC Congress in the regional context implies smoothing out regional imbalances in the socio-economic development of regions, as well as balancing the regional structure of the economy, a differentiated approach to each region,.
The report of E. V. Karlinskaya (InnIT LLC, Moscow) analyzed the experience of innovative development of the new China. For Russia and the Eurasian countries, China's experience is very useful in a methodological and geopolitical sense, especially now, when issues of post-crisis and innovative development are coming to the fore. China has taught the world a brilliant lesson in the strategy of innovative development of a country that seems to have no chance of leading the world in innovation. Candidate of Military Sciences V. S. Palaginassimilating the world experience of managing the economy and projects from the angle of national interests and traditions, national strategy and sovereignty.
rapidly developing e-commerce, which is closely linked to the development of informatization in China.
In the report of E. S. Bazhenova"Population of the People's Republic of China: main development trends over 60 years", the main parameters of population development over the past decades were considered and it was concluded that one of the main determinants determining the prospects for China's development will be the dynamics of the population and other demographic indicators. A.V. Afonasyeva, a post-graduate student at IDV RAS, devoted her report to the economic situation and activities of re-emigrants in China. Ji Weiwei (University of Hong Kong) gave a detailed presentation on the role of China's social security in countering the monetary and financial crisis, emphasizing that social security is organically linked to the economic system and is one of the driving forces for freeing oneself from external dependence, ensuring a balance between domestic and external demand. A.V. Gordon, Doctor of Historical Sciences (INION RAS), presented a report on the dynamics of social protest in rural China. According to the author, the actions of the peasants do not threaten the existing system. At the same time, the management clearly understands that meeting the needs of the rural population is the key to maintaining stability and solving the strategic tasks of building a harmonious society.
RUSSIA-CHINA: TRADE AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION
During the work of the conference section, much attention was paid to the development of foreign economic relations and trade and economic cooperation between the Russian Federation and China in the context of the global financial crisis.
In the report of the head of the section, Doctor of Economics L. V. Novoselova (IDV RAS) "Russia and China: opportunities and prospects for anti-crisis partnership", the main attention was paid to the problem of choosing the right, most powerful and creative partners in the"anti-crisis coalition". According to the speaker, China is the best choice from the point of view of Russia's implementation of international anti-crisis cooperation. By helping the People's Republic of China implement its anti-crisis program and thereby participating in the revival of the Chinese economy, Russia will help increase external demand and, consequently, increase prices for its natural resources, which are still our main development resource. In the current context, the development of Russian-Chinese trade and economic ties is an important factor that allows Russia to minimize risks in the context of the global financial and economic crisis.
Candidate of Political Science P. B. Kamennov (IDV RAS) noted that China's military policy is aimed at ensuring the conditions necessary for the implementation of the national strategy. Its goal is for China to achieve by the middle of the twenty-first century the status of a strong, modernized, united (meaning the solution of the Taiwan problem) power that occupies a dominant position in the Asia-Pacific region (APR) and is equal to other powers of the world in its political influence, economic and military power. The PRC will seek to obtain, first of all, Russian technologies and reduce the purchase of ready-made weapons. In this regard, a pause in the work of the Russian-Chinese commission on military-technical cooperation is possible. At the same time, new opportunities are opening up related to the maintenance and modernization of equipment previously purchased by China.
The report of Irina Troyekurova, PhD in Economics (Saratov State Academy of Law) was devoted to the analysis of the implementation of the bilateral Russian-Chinese agreement on the construction of the Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean oil pipeline. Graduate student of the Institute of Oil and Gas Development of the Russian Academy of Sciences A. A. Sizova in her report revealed the main content of oil and gas aspects of cooperation between Russia and China at the beginning of the XXI century.
RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF CHINA'S FOREIGN POLICY
The section " Russian-Chinese relations and Foreign Policy of the People's Republic of China "(head-Doctor of Economics V. Ya. Portyakov) discussed the following main topics:: the actual Russian-Chinese relations, specific aspects of China's foreign policy and the conceptual foundations of China's foreign policy.
G. V. Kulikova (IDV RAS) emphasized the important role of the Soviet-Chinese Friendship Society (SSDS), followed by the Russian-Chinese Friendship Society (RCD) and the Sino-Russian Friendship Society (ROC), which became the true guides of people's diplomacy in Russian-Chinese bilateral interstate relations.
V. Teo (University of Hong Kong) in his speech "Between hostility and cooperation: National Interests in Soviet-Chinese and Russian-Chinese relations" tried to determine the dynamics and deep nature of the development of Russian-Chinese relations over 60 years. Zhao Zhucheng (National University of Politics, Taiwan) He devoted his report to the role of the Russian factor in the national question in China, considering that Russia had and still has a huge impact on the security of the Chinese border area. Sergey Ivanov (Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Federation, Vladivostok) focused on cooperation between the border regions of the Russian Federation and the northern territories of the People's Republic of China.
Ph. D. L. V. Zabrovskaya (Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok) spoke about the evolution of the Chinese strategy for ensuring stability on the Korean Peninsula, which is aimed at preserving the status quo on the Korean Peninsula, and therefore ensuring the security of China's eastern border. E. O. Starovoitova (Faculty of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg State University) touched upon the problem of China's strategic interests in Latin America, emphasizing Beijing's high interest in further developing relations with the states of this region. Ph. D. N. A. Samoilov (Faculty of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg State University) analyzed Sino-Finnish relations and their prospects from the point of view of Russia's interests.
Graduate student of Nankai University A. N. Korolev (Tianjin, China) noted that Beijing demonstrates a special approach to crisis situations, actively using them for its rise in world politics. Speaking about the policy of "soft power" towards ASEANS. I. Misakyan (Diplomatic Academy of the Russian Foreign Ministry) stressed that the PRC is gaining more and more influence in this organization and is acting as a "mobile dragon", seeking a predominant influence in the region.
SCO AND RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN EURASIA
At the section dedicated to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and interaction between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China in Eurasia, its head K. voen. Professor Andrey Klimenko (IDV RAS) emphasized that in the context of the growing competition for resources, strengthening the organization's potential will be of particular importance for both Russia and China and their SCO partners.
In his speech "A new stage in the development of US-China relations: Beijing and Washington's View on Eurasia", D. Voen.N. A. Bolyatko noted a noticeable weakening of Russia's position in the Asia-Pacific region. Increasing cooperation between China and the United States, while ignoring Russia's interests, pushes it away from forming a new mechanism for Euro-Asian cooperation, and calls into question the very strategic presence of the Russian Federation in this region. Of particular concern is the recent economic and structural separation of the Far East and Eastern Siberia from the European part of the country, the outflow of the Russian population, as well as the economic reorientation of these regions to neighboring states.
Elena Safronova, Ph. D. in Economics (IDV RAS), emphasized that while the West actually offers Central Asia (CA) the path of "peripheral integration" as a raw material appendage, and China, due to its proximity, scale and ambitions, is able to "crush" the region economically, Central Asia may try to become an independent center of influence in the heart of the region. The Eurasian continent is only supported by joint equal economic and cultural development with the Russian Federation.
In the report "Russia and the SCO"V. I. Trifonov (IDV RAS) noted that in the short period of its existence, the SCO has become a significant factor in regional and world politics, an important link in the formation of a polycentric world order based on the principles of equality and justice. K. V. Dusheina, a post-graduate student of the Institute of International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences, spoke on the topic "China's Policy in Central Asia: an Analysis of Goals and Interests", and N. K. Semenova, a candidate of the Institute of International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences, considered political aspects of energy cooperation in the SCO space.
Summing up the work of the section, Candidate of Military Sciences A. F. Klimenko noted that the formation of the SCO is coming to an end. Russia and China share common positions on many issues of the SCO's work. In the long run, it is planned to focus on complementary areas of activity - for Russia this is the innovation sphere, for China - investment and labor, for Central Asia - natural resources. Much attention will be paid to security issues.
SOCIETY AND POLITICS
The section "Features of the socio-political development of the PRC" discussed the general conceptual framework for covering the modern history of China; legal aspects of reforms; the national question; problems of Taiwan; the main content of building a socialist society in China.
The report of the head of the section, PhD D. A. Smirnov"China: from a' new Democracy 'to a' harmonious Society '"outlined the goals of the strategy for building a 'harmonious society' by 2020. Its main tasks are the improvement of socialist democracy and the implementation of the policy of "governing the state on the basis of law"; the expansion of public employment and the creation, mainly, of a social insurance system covering all cities and villages; raising the level and improvement of public and administrative management; raising the ideological, moral, scientific and cultural level of the nation, and the consistent improvement of improving the moral state of society; increasing the creative potential of society and forming an innovative state; achieving a breakthrough in the effective use of natural resources and the state of the environment. The basic principles of building a harmonious society are: "man is above all" (and Ren Wei ben), or, in another translation: "man is the foundation of the foundations", "the concept of scientific development", the implementation of a policy of reform and openness, and the observance of the correct relationship between reform, development and stability.
Candidate of Law V. F. Borodin noted that the reform of the administrative management system is carried out in China on a scientific basis and very rhythmically. The CCP congresses represent the participation of the vanguard of society in matters of State administration. Another form of public complicity in these cases is the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) and its affiliated entities. Such complicity is a fairly effective institutional barrier to the bureaucratization of political power and its separation from the people.
In his speech "A historical turn in the development of Chinese civilization", Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences A.V. Vinogradov emphasized that the Chinese model of transformation is not just an approximation to modernity, modernization according to the Western model, but also a synthesis of Western modernity and its own traditions. China's experience has shown that at the beginning of the twenty-first century it is necessary to strive not for global universalism, but for the preservation of civilizational identity, which makes it possible not to interrupt, but to continue history in new conditions.
V. A. Sukhomlinov (IDV RAS) drew attention to the need for cooperation between the legal entities of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China in the context of the growing number of international contacts between citizens and companies of the two countries.
T. V. Lazareva's speech on national policy in Tibet, which the state has been following for a long time, was received with great interest .
Candidate of Historical Sciences I. V. Stavrov (Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok) showed the main directions of national policy on the example of the North-East of the People's Republic of China - development of the economic base of national regions, improvement of the welfare of non-Han people, improvement of the quality of life of the legal system, raising the level of education and culture of ethnic minorities.
A. L. Verchenko (IDV RAS) and E. N. Stepanova, a post-graduate student of IDV RAS, discussed Taiwan's problems.
ACHIEVEMENTS AND EXPERIENCE OF DECADES
At the section " Six Decades of the history of the New China: achievements and experience "(head-D. A. Smirnov, PhD), special attention of the section participants was drawn to the report of B. G. Doronin, PhD (St. Petersburg State University)"Civilizational potential of modernization (towards a problem statement)". Modernization is usually considered as a predominantly economic measure aimed at radically reconfiguring the entire economic mechanism. But in the PRC, it was conceived as a comprehensive reform covering all aspects of society and the state, and its ultimate goal was declared to be the revival of China, the formation of a new society and the upbringing of a new person. It is therefore no accident that Chinese reformers have focused on a wide range of social and cultural issues.
Doctor of Historical Sciences N. L. Mamaeva stressed that the essence of the evolution of the political system of the People's Republic of China is seen in the fact that the leadership functions of the CPC are objectively increasingly limited to the expanding sphere of activities of state bodies, carried out more and more on the basis of laws.
A.V. Yershov (IDV RAS) noted that in a relatively short period of time, the administrative system of the People's Republic of China has come a long way from the Soviet-style administrative system to a modern-style bureaucratic system with a detachment of professional, qualified civil servants. At the beginning of the XXI century, the leadership of the People's Republic of China relied on the introduction of a new management technology in the administrative apparatus. However, it remains an open question whether this is possible in Chinese society, with its specific clan (Guangxi) ties, statist sentiments and strong bureaucratic traditions.
Great interest was also aroused by the reports of Doctor of Historical Sciences V. N. Usov(IDV RAS) "Russian scientists' study of the history of the PRC over the past 10 years", Candidate of Economic Sciences O. N. Borokh(IDV RAS) "Formation of the paradigm of Marxist political economy in China", Candidate of Historical Sciences N. V. Smirnova"Development of domestic Sinology in the 1970s",N. V. Ten (Peoples 'Friendship University of Russia)" Modern Chinese ideas about Russian culture and Art".
LANGUAGE, WRITING, AND CULTURE
The appearance of the section " Language, Writing, Culture "(head-Doctor of Philology O. I. Zavyalova) is connected with the holding of two official "linguistic" events: the Year of the Russian Language in China that has just ended and the upcoming Year of the Chinese Language in Russia.
Referring to the language reforms that have been especially characteristic of the last 3 decades, it was noted that it is possible to speak about the Chinese "linguistic miracle"
- the rise of the Chinese language and Chinese linguistics against the background and in connection with the revival of Chinese traditional culture. Language and hieroglyphic writing are perceived in the PRC as the foundation of Chinese civilization, a means of preserving national identity and an important component of personality formation in the process of spiritual and economic development of the country.
A number of reports addressed the problems of teaching Russian and Chinese in our countries. Among the speakers are representatives of the older generation of sinologists who began their scientific career in the 1950s and visited China at that time.
When discussing research in the field of Chinese linguistics in Russia for centuries, the importance of the Dictionary of Ancient Chinese Characters, just published in St. Petersburg, was noted. It was compiled by young scientists under the guidance of Professor T. N. Nikitina, who has been teaching Chinese at the Faculty of Oriental Studies of St. Petersburg State University for many years.
* * *
Summing up the results of the conference, Academician M. L. Titarenko noted that more than 100 reports and speeches were heard during it, emphasizing that this international forum showed high achievements of Russian sinology, Chinese economic and political thought. Russian science comprehensively studies the experience of China in order to use it for the benefit of Russia.
The exchange of views at the conference sections made it possible to clarify many methodological approaches to analyzing the development of Russian-Chinese relations and the experience that China has accumulated in economic development and foreign economic relations, and to assess the role of China as the most important subject of international relations, as a factor of international stability. New structures of international relations, such as the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), are emerging due to the growing role of China, which have an impact on the sphere of international relations.
In conclusion, the preliminary idea of the next conference was announced - " Experience of interaction between Russia and China and participation in multilateral cooperation (through the SCO, BRIC and other associations)".
According to the participants of the conference, it has made a significant contribution to strengthening Russian-Chinese relations. The reports of its participants from other countries helped to see China through the eyes of foreign scientists, which contributed to an objective vision of the reform processes in the PRC.
The review was prepared by Doctor of Economics E. S. BAZHENOVA
Permanent link to this publication:
LUnited States LWorld Y G