Libmonster ID: U.S.-1367


Candidate of Historical Sciences Peoples ' Friendship University of Russia

Africa Keywords:BrazilIBSABRICSforeign economic relationsSouth-South

Brazil, which became the sixth largest economy in the world in 2011.1, has been rapidly developing political, economic, regional and interregional ties with dozens of countries over the past decade . This country seeks to play a more active political role on the world stage, expand the scope of foreign economic relations, and raise its status at the global level.

For objective historical and geographical reasons, the Latin American region remains the most important area of Brazil's foreign policy. However, for a long time now, the country has been making efforts to strengthen its cooperation with Africa. President F. E. Cardoso (1995 - 2002) started to do this; I. Lula da Silva (2003 - 2010), who succeeded him, and the current President Dilma Rousseff continued the same line.

The course of President Lula da Silva was called "Brazil's Preferential Policy towards Africa". From 2003 to 2010 he made 28 visits to Africa, visited 23 countries, some several times (South Africa-5, Mozambique-3, Angola-2), and opened 16 new embassies of Brazil, 2 to 37 on the continent.

Of all the Latin American countries, Brazil is most interested in developing political, trade and economic ties with Africa. The only Portuguese-speaking country in South America, Brazil combines regional and global interests in its foreign policy, and it also has significantly more Africans "settled" here than in any other country in the world.


Brazil is developing cooperation with African countries in several areas: through South-South cooperation within the framework of the South America - Africa Intercontinental Summits (ASA), through IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa - IBSA), which is an association of leading developing countries, and through the Community of Portuguese-speaking States (CPLP).

Brazil attaches particular importance to cooperation within the framework of the South America-Africa summits. The first, held in 2006 in Abuja, Nigeria, was attended by representatives of 54 African and 12 South American States. The agenda included trade and investment issues, as well as agricultural development on the African continent, which is particularly suffering from global warming. It resulted in the adoption of the" Abuja Declaration "and the" Action Plan " aimed at expanding partnership and cooperation between the two regions in various sectors, especially in the energy sector.3

The 2nd ASA Summit (2009, Margarita Island, Venezuela) adopted the strategic agenda "ASA 2010-2015" (Africa-South America Strategic Agenda 2010-2015), aimed at gradually expanding trade, investment, tourism, infrastructure development, transport, cooperation in the field of energy, agriculture environmental protection, education, science, technology, and media.

The summit was held under the slogan "Closing gaps, opening up opportunities". In the "Joint Declaration", 49 countries of the African Union (AU) and 12 States of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) set out their position on the reform of the UNSC, which, in their opinion, "...should guarantee the participation of more developing countries in the UNSC".4

Brazil supported the idea of creating a new regional financial structure to overcome the global economic crisis. As a first step, 7 South American countries, including Brazil, announced the creation of a "Bank of the South"with an initial capital of $20 billion. 5 It is assumed that this bank will finance joint projects under the "South-South" line.

One of the main topics of discussion was food security. During the discussion, Brazilian President Lula da Silva noted that the African continent has sufficient potential to become a global exporter of agricultural products. In his opinion, to achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop mutually beneficial trade and provide markets for the poorest countries.6

The 3rd ASA Summit (February 2013, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea) was held under the theme "Strategies and mechanisms for strengthening South-South cooperation". President of Vienna-

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Suela Hugo Chavez (now deceased), in a letter to its participants, called on both regions to unite to create a "real pole of power", since "...our continents have enough natural, political and historical resources save the planet from the chaos into which it was thrown" by the capitalist system7.

The summit identified funding mechanisms for programs and projects outlined in the Strategic Agenda 2010-2015 and the Plan 2010-2015 for the Development of Relations between the two Regions. A Strategic Committee of Presidents for Rapid interaction within the ASA and a Permanent Secretariat with headquarters in Venezuela were established.8

President of Brazil D. Rousseff noted: "The time has passed when we were part of a distant periphery, silent, submissive and full of problems. Now the developing world has become a vital part of the global economy."9. She stressed that trade between Africa and South America grew from $7 billion in 2002 to $39 billion in 2011.


IBSA is essentially a mechanism for coordinating actions between three multiethnic states that intend to contribute to the formation of a new architecture of international relations and strengthen the political positions of each of the three participating countries at the global and regional levels.

The Union was born on June 6, 2003, when the Foreign Ministers of Brazil, South Africa and India adopted the "Brasilia Declaration"in Brasilia. It set out the task of strengthening the positions of these countries in the WTO negotiations. The document also referred to the need to reform the UN and expand the Security Council, develop scientific and technical cooperation, exchange technologies, improve the investment climate, and develop education and medical care systems in all three countries.

Subsequent IBSA summits (2006 - Brasilia, 2007 - Pretoria, 2008-New Delhi, 2010 - Brasilia, 2011 - Pretoria) strengthened this interregional alliance, which is 3 times larger than the European Union in its total territory and unites 1.3 billion people. people and three countries with a GDP of more than $3 trillion 11.

IBSA is supported by three "pillars". First of all, it is a forum for consultation and coordination of actions on critical political issues. Further ,it is a framework for close cooperation to achieve common success among the participating countries; a cooperation mechanism - the activities of 16 working groups - on trade, investment and other issues, including environmental protection. And third , it is a means of expanding the impact of CHD on developing countries.

An important role is assigned to the IBSA Special Fund for Combating Poverty, established in 2004, which operates under the leadership of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)12. Its funds have been used, inter alia, in Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and Burundi (improving agricultural machinery, purchasing medical equipment, providing medicines to AIDS patients). The IBSA Foundation received the UNDP South-South Partnership in Support of the South-South Alliance Award in 2006 and the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Award in 2010. In 2012, the Foundation was awarded the UN Special Prize "South-South and Triangular Cooperation" for its innovative approach to developing such cooperation.13

Strengthening the influence of CHD in the region is certainly in the interests of African countries. According to former Brazilian Foreign Minister S. Amorim, IBSA is one of the tools that "... can improve our negotiating capabilities and build a multipolar world. " 14

Brazil works closely with the African Union, with which it signed a Technical Cooperation Agreement in 2007, and then, in 2009, additional agreements within the framework of the Joint Bilateral Commission on Agriculture and Food Security, which includes representatives of the AU and NEPAD. 15

Brazil also seeks to develop cooperation with Africa through the Community of Portuguese-Speaking States (CPLP)16. Portugal and Brazil finance the majority of joint projects with African States. At the same time, Brazil is gradually pushing Portugal into the background, constantly expanding political, trade, economic and military cooperation with Portuguese-speaking African countries.


In the 1990s, Brazil's main trading partner was hydrocarbon-rich Nigeria. Later, trade relations began to develop with Angola, Mozambique, Algeria, South Africa and Libya, as well as with some States of West Africa and the Gulf of Guinea region, including Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Senegal. Brazil's main partners in Africa have been South Africa and Nigeria for many years. The country works closely with African regional trade and integration associations - the South African Development Community (SADC), the South African Customs Union (SACU) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).

According to a study conducted by UNCTAD in 2010.,

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Trade turnover between Brazil and Africa ($ billion)


Brazil's exports

Brazil Imports



2 363

2 675



5 981

6 657

12 638


10 170

15 761

25 931


8 692

8 466

17 158


9 262

11 302

20 564


12 224

15 464

27 688


12 212

14 266

26 478

Compiled by the author using data from FUNCEX and MDIC

Brazil ranked 11th among African trading partners, significantly behind China and India. 17 In 2011, Brazil was the world's largest trading partner. It has risen to 10th place among exporters of goods to Africa and 16th place among importers of African products. Overall, Africa ranks 5th among Brazil's trading partners in terms of trade turnover.18 The growth of mutual trade and the further intensification of economic ties with the Black Continent states are considered in Brazil as an important foreign policy task, aimed both at strengthening the Brazilian economy and helping to solve the economic problems facing African countries.

Trade turnover between Brazil and African countries is steadily growing (see table), for the period 2002-2012. it has grown by more than 5 times (especially in 2008, the global financial and economic crisis that began did not affect the dynamics of trade relations, but it affected the next two years). The table also shows that there is a persistent trade deficit between Brazil and Africa.

In 2005, the Brazil-Ghana Chamber of Commerce was opened, and in 2009, the Ministry of Development and Cooperation (MDIC) of Brazil conducted a Mission to West Africa. During the mission, the Brazilian Minister of Foreign Trade visited Senegal, Nigeria, Ghana and Equatorial Guinea.

Brazilian imports from Africa are somewhat limited in terms of nomenclature - up to 90% was accounted for by oil, a small part was made up of ferrous and non-ferrous metal ores19. However, with the discovery of oil deposits on its shelf, Brazil begins to reduce its imports, respectively increasing the share of iron ore and cement.20 Brazil's exports are more differentiated: in 2008, food products (sugar, meat, grain) accounted for 18% of its exports, mineral raw materials accounted for 14%, livestock products accounted for 10%, and transport equipment accounted for 10%, while in 2012 industrial goods and equipment accounted for 42% 21.

The Brazilian Government is encouraging private companies that intend to expand investment in Africa, especially in the oil and mining sectors, as well as in agriculture, transport and construction. The Brazilian National Development Bank (BNDES) promotes the participation of Brazilian businesses in the production of ethanol in Angola, Ghana and Mozambique. This bank provided $3.2 billion to Angola. to finance 65 projects implemented by Brazilian construction and industrial campaigns, South Africa - a loan of $35 million for the development of the transport system, Mozambique - $80 million for the technical equipment of the airport 22.

Leading Brazilian investment bank BTG Factual created a $1 billion fund in 2012. to invest in the African economy, as well as to expand exports of industrial equipment to African countries, stimulate construction, and develop agriculture. 23 The banks Bradesco and Banco do Brasil, in partnership with Portugal's Banco Espirito Santo, support Brazilian housing campaigns in Angola and Mozambique. Overall, Brazilian public investment in Africa is estimated at $10-20 billion.24


One of the three largest mining companies in the world - Brazilian Vale (Companhia Vale do Rio Doce) is represented in Guinea, Gabon, DRC, Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Malawi, South Africa. According to its president, Roger Agnelli, the company intends to invest $1.3 billion. in the implementation of their projects in Mozambique, in particular, in the construction of a railway specifically for the transportation of coal. It has invested $4.5 billion and another $2.5 billion in the implementation of 6 projects for the development of coal deposits in Mozambique, Angola and South Africa. -In the development of iron ore deposits in Guinea-Bissau 25. In 2012, Vale's investments in 9 African countries reached $7.7 billion, and it plans to invest more than $18 billion over the next 5 years. in the mining of coal, nickel, copper and bauxite in this region 26.

The largest Brazilian oil company Petrobras, which operates in 8 African countries-Angola, Libya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Namibia, Benin and Tanzania-plans to invest in 2009-2013.

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over $2.8 billion. in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons, of which about $900 million is intended for Angola, and the rest for Nigeria.27 Vale and Petrobras account for almost all Brazilian investments in Zambia, Gabon, DRC, Angola and South Africa.

The consortium, which includes Electobras, Odebrecht and other Brazilian companies, has signed a contract with the Governments of Angola and Namibia to explore the possibility of building hydroelectric power plants in these countries. Brazilian corporations contribute to the creation of infrastructure facilities: they build highways, airports, sea and river ports in Algeria, Cameroon, Ghana, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Mauritania, and Angola. Electobras is considering a project to build a large power plant in Angola over the next 5 years at a cost of about $700 million. In Mozambique, together with Electricidade de Mozambique, the company is going to participate in the construction of the Mphanda Nkuwa hydroelectric power station. Part of the electricity is planned to be used in Mozambique itself, but the lion's share will be sold to other countries.

Odebrecht, a Brazilian industrial conglomerate , is the largest contractor involved in the reconstruction of war-torn infrastructure in Angola, where it carries out 32 civil engineering projects 28 and invests $500 - 600 million annually in their implementation 29. Owns a stake in the Angolan diamond mining company Catoca. This company is involved in the construction of the Nacala International Airport in Mozambique; is engaged in construction and, together with Vale, implements a number of projects in the mining industry; works in Libya, Liberia and Djibouti.

Embraer, the world's third - largest aircraft manufacturer after Boeing and Airbus, is also expanding its presence in Africa. Small and medium-sized aircraft, designed for 70-120 seats, are popular on the African continent, where the use of large airliners is not economically justified. A total of 124 aircraft built by Embraer are operated by Egypt Air Express, Kenya Airways, LAM Mozambique, and South African Airlink. It is estimated that by 2028, the Brazilian aircraft fleet in Africa will reach 400 aircraft.

It is known that Brazil is developing the production of ethanol from corn and sugar cane. Here, "corn-cane" ethanol is considered as an alternative energy source that is safer for the environment and more economically profitable than gasoline and diesel fuel. Brazilian companies are working to promote this technology in Africa, including the possibility of building 10 plants for the production of "plant-based" ethanol in Ghana, Mozambique and Senegal. In 2014, Petrobras plans to start producing ethanol in Mozambique, which should meet up to 10% of the country's demand for automobile fuel.31

The 2012 UNCTAD report on technology and innovation in South-South cooperation notes that if African countries are to achieve sustained economic growth, they need to undergo a structural transformation and review their growth strategies to make them more compatible with the Sustainable Development Goals. 32 In this regard, technical cooperation with Brazil meets the set goals. The Cooperation Agency (ABC), established in 1987 under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is largely focused on solving these problems. In Africa, ABC is engaged in implementing technical assistance projects related to improving the health system, developing agriculture, improving education, justice, protecting the environment, and creating infrastructure. Joint events are planned in the field of culture, human rights protection, and copyright.


The development of healthcare in African countries is one of the priorities of Brazil's cooperation with the Black Continent 33. 53 agreements have been signed with 22 African countries in the field of healthcare. Among them, there is a program to control the diagnosis and spread of malaria in Angola, Cameroon, Kenya, Guinea-Bissau. Brazilian HIV/AIDS missions have been operating in Namibia since 2006, in Zambia since 2007, in Sierra Leone, Kenya, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, and Cape Verde since 2009. Madagascar implemented a maternal and newborn health monitoring program34 in 2008-2009.

Brazil is helping to improve health services in African countries such as Senegal, Ghana, Benin, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Algeria, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Cape Verde, Nigeria, Namibia, Kenya, Sao Tome and Principe, DRC, Tanzania and Zambia. This work includes improving the overall health system, setting up breast milk banks, organizing healthy nutrition and monitoring the environment, and improving hospital management. About $27 million is spent annually from the budget of the Brazilian Ministry of Health to work abroad.35

Here are examples of country-specific assistance provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

A pharmaceutical plant is being built in Mozambique.

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a facility that will reach full capacity in 2014 and serve all of South Africa 36. In Angola, 22 areas of joint action have been identified, primarily in terms of disease control and health development. In 2011, Guinea-Bissau implemented 8 projects related to the training of personnel, including medical personnel, and the fight against epidemics and diseases. In Cape Verde, Brazil is implementing 12 projects, and over 5 years-from 2006 to 2011 - 5 thousand doctors were trained for this country.


In the field of agriculture, ABC implements a number of projects in collaboration with the Brazilian Agricultural Corporation (EMBRAPA), in close collaboration with the Agricultural Development Program (AADP), which is implemented by NEPAD and the Africa Agricultural Productivity Program (FAAP). Its budget in 2012 was $1.1 billion 37. The corporation has offices in Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal, and also cooperates with Nigeria, Tanzania, and the DRC. Ethiopia has created its own Agricultural Transformation Agency based on the EMBRAPA model. In total, Brazil has signed more than 50 agreements on technical cooperation in agricultural development with 18 African countries.

In 2012, EMBRAPA and ABC approved 20 programs for African countries, including Uganda, Nigeria, Mali, Tanzania, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, and Benin. These programs include: growing sorghum for ethanol production (Kenya), providing water to seashore vegetable farms (Togo), developing cotton production (Tanzania), preserving the environment with traditional land use (Burkina Faso), cultivating the most drought-resistant varieties of coffee, maize, rice, peas, and protecting plants from pests (other countries)38.

In 2010, the Afro-Brazilian Agricultural Innovation Market was created with the assistance of the World Bank, Brazil's EMBRAPA and the African Forum for Agricultural Research (FARA). Its founding forum was attended by 35 ministers of agriculture from Africa. In 2011, the first such forum selected 10 research projects to be implemented in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Togo. 39 In 2012, 15 projects were selected at the second forum, and the same number is expected to be proposed in 2013. 40


Brazil has written off debts to a number of African countries, including Mozambique ($369 million), Tanzania ($10 million), Mauritania ($9 million) and Guinea-Bissau ($5 million)41, provides them with soft loans, invests funds through the World Bank, the African Development Bank (AfDB) for economic development and the fight against poverty on the Black Continent. Brazil ranks 15th in terms of these targeted contributions to the World Bank, ahead of China, Russia and Mexico, among others. In 1973, Brazil's contribution to the AfDB was $10 million; now it has reached $210 million.42

Brazil is home to the headquarters of the International Policy Center for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG), which is closely linked to the IBSA Academic Forum and the Poverty Research Group of the United Nations Development Assistance Office. The creation of this Center was the result of a joint project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Brazil, focused on studying the problems of poverty and inequality in the developing world and developing recommendations for their reduction. This Center regularly publishes the results of its research on individual countries of the world in the journal "Poverty in Focus".

Specifically for African countries, the Center has prepared a large-scale social policy program, as well as a comprehensive review of the implementation of social policies in each State during the last financial and economic crisis. 43

Brazil supports African peasant families through the "More Products for Africa" Program. Many families are granted loans (for 15-17 years and at 2% per annum, with no interest accrued for the first 3 to 5 years) for the purchase of agricultural machinery and crop failure insurance. 2011-2012 Brazil has provided $640 million to Ghana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Senegal and Kenya for such loans.44

While Brazil's assistance to African countries in their fight against hunger is mainly focused on agricultural development, it also helps them fight poverty. Since 2005, Brazil has been providing technical support for the development and implementation of the successful Zero Hunger Programme and Bolsa Familiar in Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia and Benin. In 2008, Brazil launched a programme of Afro-Brazilian cooperation in social development.

In this way, Brazil becomes an important partner of Africa in the fight against hunger and poverty, which is recognized by the countries of the continent, inviting Brazil, by the way, the only non-African country, to participate in the regional conference of Ministers of social development of the Af-

page 34

rosoyuz, held in October 2008.

The Ministry of Science and Technology of Brazil has developed a program of so-called thematic cooperation (PROAFRICA) with African scientists in selected countries. Thus, in 2008, the Brazil-Sudan Forum was held on the issue of technological support for investments in agricultural development and in the development of natural resources. In 2009, a meeting of Brazilian and Senegalese scientists was held in Senegal, where the possibilities of using Brazilian technologies in the agricultural sector of this country were discussed. And in May 2010, Brazil hosted the "Brazil-Africa Dialogue", during which they discussed the problems of fighting hunger. It was attended by experts from 45 African countries45.

As of 2011, 57% of Brazil's technical assistance to many countries around the world went to 38 countries in Africa, where 102 projects are being implemented. Most technical assistance is provided to Mozambique, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe and Angola .46


Brazil is also expanding scientific and technical cooperation with Africa. In particular, it has concluded 55 agreements with 20 African countries on cooperation in the field of education. Within the framework of the Student Program (RES-G), a number of Brazilian universities accept African students for training, provide scholarships to undergraduates and doctoral students. Almost 5,000 young people from 20 African countries (50% of them from Cape Verde and 27% from Guinea - Bissau) have received higher education under this program in Brazil since 2001. The most attractive specialties for young Africans are medicine, pedagogy, management, architecture, and law 47.

Students from Africa are accepted and established in 2010. Federal University of Luzo-Afro-Brazilian Integration (UNILAB). It is located in Redencao, Seaga province, which has a symbolic meaning - it was in this province that slavery was officially outlawed in Brazil for the first time in 1884. President Lula da Silva, signing the decree on the establishment of this university, said that UNILAB will return the debt to the African people, whose contribution to the history and development of the Brazilian nation is often ignored. President Rousseff, during a tour of three African countries in 2011, during which the Brazil-Africa inter-ministerial group was established, stressed that "...the university's programs will promote exchange and cooperation between our students and African teachers..."48. Currently, 5 thousand students are studying at this university, of which half are Africans.49


When considering how Brazil's relations with African countries are developing, it is impossible not to take into account the fact that China is actively developing this continent. China is an important trade partner of Brazil, with trade turnover exceeding $75 billion in 2012,50 but in Africa, China is a competitor to Brazil. And the competitor is strong - the volume of China's trade with African countries in 2012 amounted, according to some sources, to $200 billion.51

The world's attention to Africa's economic opportunities continues to grow. For African leaders, the "American approach" to building relationships is becoming increasingly attractive. American analysts have long argued that US policy in Africa should not be limited to mere rivalry with China, Brazil or India, but should be attractive, first of all, to African peoples. In July 2010, the President of the United States B. In an address to Ghanaian lawmakers, Obama defined four U.S. priority goals in Africa: end conflict, promote democratization, support development, and improve the health care system.52

Brazil's policies have long followed precisely these goals and have a pronounced socio-economic character.

* * *

The year 2013 is of great importance in the development of the African direction in Brazil's foreign policy. The BRICS summit held in Durban on March 26-27 under the slogan "BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Development, Integration and Industrialization" outlined ways to strengthen cooperation between the BRICS countries and Africa. The BRICS Development Bank (BRB) project, if implemented, could serve as a linchpin for strengthening the BRICS structure itself and expand financing opportunities for small projects, particularly in Africa. The development of industrial production, new technologies and government incentives in Africa should help to promote integration and overcome the fragmentation of the Black continent. The experience of IBSA is of great interest in this regard. The 6th IBSA Summit, which will be held in New Delhi in October 2013, will mark the 10th anniversary of the Brazil Declaration, summarize the activities of the IBSA Foundation to fight poverty in Africa and outline new areas for cooperation in overcoming the continent's economic backwardness. It is important that these agreements, in which Brazil plays a major role, do not remain on paper, but are implemented faster and more fully.

page 35

1 The World Bank: World Development Indicators, 2012. Gross Domestic Product 2011 -

2 Подсчитано по данным МИД Бразилии - - 2010/visitas-internacionais-do-presidente-lula-e-visitas-ao-brasil-de-chefes-de-estado-e-de-chefe s-de-governo-2003-a-2010/at_download/file

3 Projects proposals for cooperation & partnership between Africa and South America in the energy sector under the ASACOF - 6%20%20summit%20asa&source=web&cd=3&sqi-2&ved=0CD8QFjA C&

4 Africa-South America trade grows rapidly, says Lula. 27.09.2009 -

Ivanovskii Z. 5 II sammit stran Yuzhnoi Ameriki i Afrika [The Second Summit of South American and African countries]. September 2009-www.

6 Ibid.


8 Regulations of the strategic Presidential Committee of the Africa-South America (ASA) summit - %20Revised%20CP6154%20_E%20Original%20-%20ASA%20 Regulations_as%20amended%2025-ll-2011%20-%20Final%20900 am.pdf

9 rousseff-na-cerimonia-de-ahertura-da-iii-cupula-america-do-sul-africa-malabo-guine-equatorial

10 Ibidem.

11 India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Economic Cooperation: Towards a Comprehensive Economic Partnership. June 2006 -

12 What can IBSA Offer to the Global Community? International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Poverty Practice. Bureau for Development Policy, UNDP. 2010, N 21 - pub/IPCPoverty InFocus21 .pdf

13 ocial-development-strategies/ at_download/file

14 What can IBSA offer to the Global Community? International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Poverty Practice. Bureau for Development Policy, UNDP. 2010, N 21 - pub/IPCPovertyInFocus21.pdf

15 Website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Brazil - balanco-de-politica-externa-2003-2010/2.2. 2-africa-uniao-africana/ atdownload/file

16 The CPLP includes 8 countries (including 5 African countries): Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Portugal, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, East Timor. Equatorial Guinea, Mauritius, Senegal, and the Aomin Special Administrative Region of China have observer status.


18 Ministerio do Desenvolvimento, Industrie e Comercio Exterior (2011) Balanca Comerical Brasileira. Dados Consolidados. Brasilia, p. 18, 28.

19 The African Trading Relationship with Brazil - http://www.gtis. com/gta


Stolte Christina. 21 Brazil in Africa: Just another BRICS country seeking resources? // Africa Programme and Americas Programme (November 2012) AFP/AMP BP 2012/01, p. 9 - 12bp_ brazilafrica.pdf

22 Ibid., p. 5.

23 BTG launches $1 bn Africa buyout fund // Financial Times. 3 May, 2012.

Stolte Christina. 24 Op. cit., p. 5 - 6.

25 Сайт МИД Бразилии - balanco-de-politica-externa-2003 - 2010/2.2.3-africa-comercio-e-investimentos/atdownload/file

26 Brazil & Africa - top Brazilian companies in Africa [African Business]. Al Bawaba Ltd - - 12 - 11 &val=811755&cat-industrial

27 Geological similarities with Brazil's pre-salt attract investments to Africa - ies-with-brazils-pre-salt-attract-investments-to-africa.html

28 Ibidem.

29 Half of Brazil's credit lines to Angola fund Odebrecht projects. 24.09.2012 -'s-credit-lines-to-angola-fund-odebre cht-projects/

30 Embraer: Taking hold of Africa's growth potential. 19.02.2013 - raer-taking-hold-of-africa's-growth-potential

31 bras-plans-to-start-producing-ethanol-in-mozambique-in-2014/

32 Technology and Innovation Report. 2012, p. 14 -.

Bliss Katherine E. 33 Health in all Policies. Brazil's approach to global health within foreign policy and development cooperation initiatives // Key Players in Global Health. How Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa are influencing the game. A Report of CSIS Global Health Policy Center. November, 2010, p. 1 - 2.

34 - 2010/2.2.4-africa-saude/a__lownload/file

Costa Vaz and Aoki Inoue. 35 Emerging donors in international development: The Brazil case // International Development Research Center. Partnership and Business Development Division. December 2, 2007 - case of Brazil.pdf (p. 10 - 11).

36 Technology and Innovation Report.., p. 49 - 50.

37 Ibid., p. 50"

38 Brazilian agriculture projects in Africa. Source: Embrapa/Ministerio da Agriculture, Pecuaria e Abastecimento // Technology and Innovation Report.., p. 51.

39 Africa-Brazil agricultural innovation marketplace: Incubating agricultural innovations for African growth and development - -agricultural-innovations-african-g

40 Forum%202012.pdf

Ayllyn Pino B. 41 Brazilian cooperation: a model under construction for an emerging power (ARI) // Area: International Cooperation and Development. 2010, N 143, p. 8 - I 143 - 2010_Ayllon_Brazilian_Cooperation_emerging_power.pdf

Martynov B. F. 42 Brazil is a giant in the globalizing world. Moscow, 2008, pp. 260-261.


Lldia Cabral e Alex Shankland. 44 Brazil's agriculture cooperation in Africa: new paradigms? // III Conferencia Internacional do Iese. September, 2012 - 2012/IESE_ IIIConf_Paper23.pdf (p. 13).

45 ional/Financial_Support/operation_areas.htm

46 operation-initiatives-at-fao-side-event/files/fact-sheet-brazilian-technical-cooperation

Seibert Gerhard. 47 Brasil em Africa: a coopera5ao. Centra de Estudos Africanos (CEA). ISCTE-IUL - Comunicacoes/Seminario26Abril2012.pdf

48 ghts-ties-to-africa-both-past-and-present

Seibert Gerhard. 49 Op. cit.

50 area-5&menu=3385&refr=576

51 Russia lags behind China in trade with Africa -

52 America in a multipolar World: The regional working groups. The strengthening America's future initiative. A Project of the Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress, p. 41 - http://www.thepresiden _Working_Groups.pdf


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A. Y. BORZOVA, BRAZIL - AFRICA: AN EXAMPLE OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE AND PROMISING COOPERATION // New-York: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 24.01.2024. URL: (date of access: 16.06.2024).

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