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B. A. TULEPBAYEV. The Solution of the Cotton Problem in the U.S.S.R.

The author of the article makes an attempt to give a systematized historical survey of the solution of the cotton problem in the U.S.S.R. Drawing on extensive factual material, he shows the Communist Parly's efforts to put an end to the Soviet Union's dependence on the capitalist countries with regard to cotton exports, which were crowned with victory during the first and second five-year-plan periods. The article makes a point of stressing that this victory of the Soviet people in the development of cotton-growing was achieved as a result of consistently implementing the Party's Leninist national and agrarian policy, reorganizing agriculture along socialist lines and carrying out an extensive programme in the field of irrigating and bringing under cultivation vast tracts of land in the cotton-growing areas of Central Asia.

V. G. SARBEY. Certain New Aspects of the Leninist Stage in Historical Science

As regards the period preceding the Great October Socialist Revolution, the concept of the Leninist stage is applicable, in the main, to Marxist historiography, whereas in the Soviet period it embraces all spheres of historical science, though it should be emphasized that Lenin's ideas did not penetrate its individual branches simultaneously. Standing at the very sources of Soviet historical science, Lenin personally influenced the process of its rise and development. It was on his initiative that the country's basic historical research institutions were" founded and periodical literature devoted to historical problems began to be published.

M. O. MNATSAKANYAN. The Concept of Nation and the National State

The article analyzes the role and significance of the factor of statehood in the life of different nations. Research in the problem of the rise and development of nations, the emergence and spread of national movements in conditions of capitalism, a close analysis of the process of the flourishing of nations and their mutual rapprochement in conditions of socialism, as well as of the process of formation of new, young nations within the bounds of their national statehood, enable the author to draw the conclusion that the community of the state system constitutes one of the most essential characteristics of a nation. The author's conclusion is based on the well-known theoretical propositions of Marx and Engels, who regarded a national state as an indication immanent in the nature of national community, as well as on Lenin's idea that in the period of capitalism a national state should be regarded as a natural and typical phenomenon in the life not only of European nations but of the whole civilized world. The author brings up for discussion the general definition of the concept of nation and, specifically, of a socialist nation.

S. N. SEMANOV. The Defeat of Makhno's Anarchist Bands

The dramatic and bloody history of Makhno's anarchist bands and the colourful figure of their leader have long attracted the interest of Soviet historiography. In the twenties there appeared a great many works devoted to this subject. But in recent decades research in this field has, in effect, been discontinued. S. N. Semanov's article represents an attempt to give a general historical outline of Makhno's anarchist bands and reveal their social base. Makhno began his activity as the leader of a small group of Ekaterinoslav peasants who fought against the German invaders and the Russian landlords coming back with them. At the close of 1918 and in the opening months of 1919 the detachment led by Makhno grew much stronger and fought side by side with the Red Army against the counter-revolutionary forces commanded by General Denikin. But this did not last long because the Soviet government's policy in the countryside encountered strong resistance on the part of the rural capitalists. Expressing their interests, Makhno began his

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struggle against Soviet power. The New Economic Policy introduced in 1921 deprived the Makhno bands of all support among the broad peasant masses. The bands were utterly routed and their leader, Nestor Makhno, fled abroad.

Z. V. UDALTSOVA. Certain New Problems of Research in the Genesis of Feudalism in the Countries of Western Europe

The author points out that the problem of the genesis of feudalism is now being examined in a comparatively historical aspect on the material furnished by a number of European, Asian and African countries. The new stage in the development of Soviet research in medieval history is marked not only by investigating a wider range of countries but also by disclosing the multiformity of the social processes which led to the emergence of feudalism. This has enabled scientists to set about the task of creating the typology of feudalism in the countries of Western Europe and in other parts of the world. The attention of Soviet medieval history researchers is now focussed on. the task of embracing the entire historical process, on studying the feudal formation as an integral whole and not merely the feudal mode of production This gives rise to such important problems as the interrelations between town and country in the early medieval period, the role of the state in the process of the genesis of feudalism, the character of ethnic communities and their interconnection with the formation of the state. Anothei extremely complicated problem concerns the social essence of the period of transition from primitive communal or slaveowning society to feudalism. Inadequate attention has been devoted to the elaboration of such an interesting sociological problem as the role and place of the individual in medieval society. Of particular importance and urgency, in the author's opinion, is the task of elaborating the theoretical aspect of the history of West-European culture in the early medieval period and defining its place in the history of world culture.

S. L. TIKHVINSKY. Certain Historical Aspects of the Rule of the Manchu Chin Dynasty in China

The article graphically shows bow inimical to the interests of the popular masses (the Chinese, Uigurs, Mongols and other peoples inhabiting China) was the rule of the Manchu Chin dynasty (1644 - 1912), whose dictatorial power was strengthened owing to the support of the Chinese feudal lords and bureaucracy. With the coming of capitalist powers to China in mid-19th century, the Manchu rulers took the path of openly betraying the people's national interests. Acting in close alliance with foreign capitalists and the local compradore elements, they became the mainstay of the semi- colonial and semi-feudal regime. In the subsequent period, with the advent of the era of imperialism (especially after the suppression by foreign powers of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 - 1901), they were converted into a pliant tool of the big imperialist monopolies. The author cites abundant factual material on the system of stringent ideological control instituted by the Manchu rulers and the Chinese feudal lords, on the persecution of the progressive forces and patriotic elements. The article analyzes the chief factors that precipitated the Sinhai Revolution of 1911 - 1912, which put an end to the Manchu rule.

L. N. VELIKOVICH. The Twenty-First Ecumenical Council

The article analyzes the reasons for the convocation of the Twenty-First Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, the Council's deliberations and principal decisions. The keynote of this supreme assembly of the Catholic Church was the need for the Church to find common ground with the present-day world without affecting the reactionary essence of Catholicism. The Ecumenical Council's decisions provide for a certain reorganization of the structure and policies of the Catholic Church, renounce certain long-established traditions by proclaiming the right of every person to the free choice of any religion (or none). The Council convincingly showed that the more farsighted leaders of the Catholic Church were fully aware of the utter futility and impotence of all the anathemas pronounced against communism. The ultra- conservative wing failed in its efforts to secure the approval of a decision denouncing communism. The most important of the Council's documents is the schema on the position of the Church in the modern world, which formulates the attitude of the Catholic Church to the cardinal socio-political problems of our time-war and peace, colonialism, social justice, etc. The compromise character of the decisions is explained by the struggle between the reformers and traditional conservatives over the future policy of the Catholic Church. However, the envisaged reforms in no way alter the reactionary nature of the ideology of Catholicism - the ideological pillar of the capitalist system.

Orphus

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