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G. A. BELOV. Soviet Archivists on the Eve of the Seventh International Archive Congress

The Seventh International Archive Congress, which is scheduled to take place in Moscow in August 1972, will, in a way, be an international review of the functioning of archives in the Soviet Union. The attention in the article is focussed on briefly summarizing the activity carried on by Soviet archive institutions and examining the present-day organization of archive-keeping in the U.S.S.R. The author makes a point of stressing that in the last few years, particularly in connection with the founding of the All-Union Research Institute of Document Classification and Archive Organization, there has been a marked growth of the scientific level of work carried on by Soviet archive institutions and more intensive elaboration of cardinally important theoretical problems of archive-keeping, including the problem of complementing the State Archive Fund of the U.S.S.R. with up-to-date documents. The article sets forth the criteria applied for establishing their value, in the elaboration of which the archivists relied on the active assistance and close cooperation of historians. Citing objective factual and statistical data, the author records important achievements in the work of Soviet archives in all the main directions: replenishment of archives with documents, functioning of the archives kept by different institutions and organizations, technical equipment of archives, the compilation and publication of diverse scientific indexes and reference materials, the use of documentary records for political and scientific purposes, publication activity, etc.

V. P. DMITRENKO. Certain Problems of NEP as Reflected in Soviet Historiography of the 1960's

The author examines the reasons for the heightened interest shown in the problems of NEP in present-day conditions and for the close attention given by researchers to the history of the economic policy during the period of transition from capitalism to socialism both in the U.S.S.R. and abroad. The article contains a survey of relevant literature along some of the major trends characterizing the new stage in the study of NEP: V. I. Lenin's invaluable contribution to the theoretical substantiation and practical implementation of NEP; the basic prerequisites of NEP; a brief characteristic of the most essential component parts and individual stages of NEP. Particular importance is attached by the author to examining the progress made in studying the use of commodity-money relations as one of the cardinal elements of NEP. Summing up a number of discussions (on the character of state capitalism, transitional economic forms, the place of commodity-money relations in the economic policy of the state), the author notes the divergent opinions of historians, outlines the main directions of further research, puts forward the idea that side by side with continued analysis of the role of NEP in strengthening the economic links with the peasantry, regulating and squeezing out the capitalist elements, the most important task is to study the methods applied in the management of the expanding socialist economic system.

Z. D. YASMAN. The Appearance of Agricultural Machine-Building in Russia During the Period of Serfdom

The question concerning the emergence of agricultural machine-building in Russia between the end of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century, in the period preceding the abolition of serfdom, has not been adequately investigated as yet. The article characterizes the activity of the Free Economic Society, the Moscow Agricultural Association, government institutions and private individuals aimed at introducing farm implements of improved design and at organizing their production in Russia. The author shows that the origin of agricultural machine-building in Russia prior to 1861 was a natural and logical phenomenon determined by the general socio- economic development of the country and testifying to the crisis of the feudal economic system.

V. G. BRYUSOVA. Russo-Byzantine Relations in the Middle of the 11th Century

Focussing attention on the Russo-Byzantine war of the 1040's, the author examines the records contained in a number of written sources (annalistic article about the campaign launched in 1043, historical records written by Polish chroniclers, etc.), the Novgorod stories about the capture of Korsun. the question concerning the origin of the so-called ancient Korsun relics of Novgorod. The article puts forward the hypothesis that following their unsuccessful campaign against Constantinople in 1043, the Russians undertook another campaign against Byzantium in 1044 which culminated in the seizure of Chersonesus Taurica.

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D. В. SHELOV. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCYTHIAN SOCIETY

The article is devoted to an important and extremely complicated problem of the history of Eastern Europe in the first millennium B.C. -the pattern of social relations among the Scythians. Proceeding from the criteria which were defined by Marx and Engels as the chief indicators of the existence or nonexistence of classes, exploitation and state power in any society, the author has subjected to a detailed examination the few available written sources, as well as archeological and certain other indirect data on the Scythians' social development and social system. The author arrives at the conclusion that in the 6th-5th centuries B.C. the Scythians approached the final stage of disintegration of the primitive communal system, that phenomena characteristic of the transition to the class society and the state already attained a fairly high degree of development in their society. The author believes that Scythian statehood originated approximately in the middle of the 4th century В. С These phenomena are viewed by the author not as simultaneous acts but as protracted processes marked by the emergence of new social forms and the fading away of the old and obsolescent ones.

P, V. MILOGRADOV and I. M. ALEXANDROV. The Peoples of South Уетел in the Struggle for Independence

The article highlights the history of the national liberation struggle waged by the peoples of South Arabia after the second world, war, when British imperialism tried to retain its positions in this part of the world by knocking together a South Arabian Federation. The author graphically shows how the progressive forces of South Arabia under the leadership of the National Liberation Front of Occupied South Yemen gained independence and on November 30, 1967, proclaimed South Yemen a people's republic which, in the summer of 1969, was given the official name of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. The republican government of People's Democratic Yemen is steadfastly implementing revolutionary socio-economic reforms. It consistently pursues a foreign policy directed against imperialism, strives to promote peace and international friendship, cooperates with the O.S.S.R. and other socialist countries, as well as with the progressive regimes established in a number of Arab countries.

N. M. LAVROV. The Supreme Revolutionary Convent (from the history of the Mexican Revolution of 1910 - 1917)

The article highlights an important and little-studied period in the history of the Mexican revolution. Drawing on factual material and historical records found in Mexico's national archives and libraries, the author shows how, following the overthrow of General Huerta's reactionary dictatorship in the summer of 1914, there began the process of political polarization in the camp of revolutionary forces uniting the proletariat, the peasantry, the urban p,etty bourgeoisie, the liberal-minded jatifuhdists and the young national bourgeoisie. Squarely confronted with the need to define their stand on the cardinal question of the revolution-the question of power, the bourgeois-latifundist wing headed by Venustiano Carranza decided to smash their erstwhile allies, primarily the Liberation Army led by Emiliano Zapata and the Northern Division commanded by Villa. It was in this situation that the Revolutionary Convent met in session. The representatives of petty-bourgeois democracy attempted to remove Carranza, form a new government and settle the question of power by peaceful means. But the lack of revolutionary leadership, the absence of a proletarian party and the differences between the Convent participants, notably between its two principal factions represented by the followers of Zapata and Villa, enabled the bourgeois-latifundist bloc to retain the initiative, defeat the disunited forces of the Convent and emerge victorious.

V. M. MASSON. Handicraft Production Under the Primitive Communal System

A close study of archeological materials, ethnographic data and written sources of the Ancient East enables one to speak of three stages in the development of handicraft, production after the transition to agriculture and cattlebreeding. At the first stage, in the neolithic era, domestic crafts were distributed between separate families and a stable stratum of professional craftsmen was still nonexistent. At the second stage, in the period of transition from the neolithic to the early Bronze Age, the more complicated process of production results in the emergence of professional craftsmen working in the commune. The author proposes to call handicraft production of this type the communal craft. Lastly, at the third stage, in the period of developed and late bronze, and in places even in the early Iron Age period, domestic crafts are separated from agricultural production, there appear large shops and "handicraft communities," simple exchange develops into trade and becomes an inalienable and indispensable element of the economic structure of society.

Orphus

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