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S. S. IVASHKIN. The Working Class and the Strengthening of the Material and Technical Basis of Agriculture in the Conditions of Developed Socialism

In the process of practically implementing the Communist Party's agrarian policy the Soviet working class is exercising its leading role in promoting the development of the productive forces in the countryside. Drawing on authentic historical material, the author shows the efforts of the Soviet working class to strengthen the material and technical basis of agriculture and highlights the traditional and new trends, forms and methods of solving this problem in the conditions of mature socialist society. Particular attention is devoted in the article to the period from 1966 to 1975.

V. V. FARSOBIN. The Subject-Matter of Diplomatics and Its Correlation with Source Research

The article examines the different points of view on the subject-matter of diplomatics. The author substantiates the need of deciphering ancient writings of all historical periods with the aid of so-called formular analysis. Such definition of the subject- matter of diplomatics tends to alter the general classification of paleographic subjects, including a change in the correlation of diplomatics and source research. From a set of subjects (not infrequently singled out depending on the mode of writing) the latter is turned into a combination of branches studying ancient inscriptions and modes of writing for the sake of solving definite tasks: trying to discover sources or information in them, studying inscriptions and drawings, deciphering the text, determining its form, authenticity, etc. In conclusion the author underscores the need of systematizing and reglementing the conceptual apparatus of historical science.

N. N. REPIN. Commercial Shipbuilding in Russia at the End of the 17th and in the First Half of the 18th Centuries

Drawing on materials from national archives, the author examines the preconditions of commercial shipbuilding existing in Russia at the close of the 17th century, the rise and development of commercial shipbuilding in the north and northwest of the country up to the middle of the 18th century. The article indicates the role of the Treasury in organizing the building of merchant ships and gives a brief characteristic of private shipbuilding enterprises. This provides the basis for the conclusion that in spite of the peculiar conditions obtaining in Russia in the period of serfdom and feudal oppression, her shipbuilders ensured coastal traffic, while some of the vessels sailing under the Russian flag plied the high seas and helped to link Russian ports with European countries.

A. N. KHOKHLOV. N. Y. Bitchurin (Hyacinth) and His Research Works Devoted to Mongolia and China

The article is devoted to the eminent Russian Orientalist N. Y. Bitchurin (1777- 1853) who wrote a number of comprehensive research works on the history, geography and culture of the peoples of China, Central Asia, Southern Siberia and the Far East. Drawing on new materials discovered in the central and local archives, the author highlights

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the most important periods in the biography of the distinguished Russian scholar and underscores his contribution to the development of Russian and world Orientalism. Comparing N. Y. Bitchurin's books and articles on China of that period with his manuscripts, the author comes to the conclusion that "Collected Institutes of the Great Ch'ing Dynasty' ("Ta Ch'ing hui-tien") compiled in 1818 served as their basic documentary source. The article gives a general appraisal of N. Y. Bitchurin's historical and socio-political views, at the same time noting his role in disseminating scientific information on the different peoples inhabiting the Asian Continent both in Russia and West-European countries.

PH. S. PHONER. Labour and the American Revolution

Mechanics, artisans, tradespeople, artificers, labourers, journeymen and seamen- the entire colonial working class in short-played a vital role in the American revolution. The colonial workers conducted their resistance to British policies through organizations such as the Sons and Daughters of Liberty, and it was they that took the leadership in the resistance to the Stamp and Townshend and Tea Acts, and later in the movement from resistance to independence. As the colonies marched down the road from resistance to revolution, the representatives of the mechanics played an increasingly influential role. They advocated not merely the freeing of American economic life from the restrictions of British mercantile policy, but also a reform in the society in Colonial America so that the masses could obtain more benefits from the society and participate in its political activities to a greater extent than heretofore.

Orphus

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