The lectures courses are intended for students studying experimental nuclear physics and engineering. These lectures could be used as a guide to understanding elements of quantum mechanics. Thus, we consider approaches of the Dirac theory and the technique of proton scattering, primarily related to light and middle nuclei. Surface and interior excitations are studied using the CEN Saclay experiments. Such a guide, in the author’s opinion, can eliminate the twisting gap in the available scientific literature.
As in Chapter One, we intend to continue the consideration of theoretical aspects relating in particular to the transition from classical to quantum physics. Then we will also look at the issues related to spin dependencies as a manifestation of the intrinsic properties of the Dirac relativistic model. After considering these general theoretical propositions, we will turn to a discussion of the theory, in particular, concerning the role of the spin in inelastic proton scattering from nuclei.
In that context we will discuss the techniques of proton scattering study using transition densities fitted to electron scattering data for the excitation of normal and abnormal parity states. Simple data can be quite adequately described by empirical matter densities alone, without need of important current and spin contributions. Low-lying levels, known from many works as collective normal-parity excitations, can be also represented by matter densities.
In the case of normal-parity states, the use of reaction model exchange in a simple zero-range approximation turns out to be sufficient. However, for unnatural-parity excitations, such a simple solution is not always adequate; hence, the problem arises that requires the use of a finite-range treatment for the exchange part of the scattering.
It should be emphasized that we represent data for cross sections and analyzing powers in order to investigate the structure of certain light nuclei. Especially important in this regard are experiments performed at the IUCF using polarized protons at intermediate energies Ep. In many cases, the initiator of such programs was J. J. Kelly, who created LEA treatment in which the exchange momentum transfer was a constant. A large array of such data allows making a number of useful statistically weighted conclusions.
Results obtained in CEN Saclay at low proton energies (and at Ep = 1 GeV) for medium-weight nuclei are particularly noticeably demonstrated here. They relate mainly to those nuclei that are not sufficiently represented at intermediate energies.
Note that cross-section calculations, as is known, reflect the shape of the form factor directly. Analyzing powers, in their turn, are generally more sensitive to the identification of multipolarity and the details of the interaction than to the shape of the form factor.
The present lectures are aimed at providing a clear explanation of modern experiments related to the spin of the particle. The lectures consider the Dirac approach to the transformation of the existing wave equation (nonstandard Schrödinger equation). This approach consists in the requirement that the transformed equation be symmetrical to the time and spatial coordinates.
The mesureresults presented in this chapter demonstrate quite pronounced changes with varying transition densities. Some of them have a surface character, while others include strong interior combinations.
We demonstrate mainly experimental results for excitations at low and 1 GeV proton energies measured in CEN Saclay. Similar experimental results at intermediate proton energies were also obtained at IUCF and LAMPF.
The lectures courses are intended for students studying experimental nuclear physics and engineering.
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