Libmonster ID: U.S.-1496
Author(s) of the publication: I. M. Steblin-Kamensky

Introduction, verse translation from Avestan and comments by I. M. Steblin-Kamensky

"Lord, grant me a good thought"

From Bedtime prayers:

1st Prayer, St. John Chrysostom, 4 a.m.

"...The light of the resurrection power dominates the earth..."

Nikolai Gumilev. The Song of Zarathustra

This issue of Vestnik is dedicated to the memory of Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov, not only a scholar - historian and orientalist, but also a poet-translator. Not just a translator, but a poet who was inspired directly by the original, who was imbued with the essence of the poetry that he undertook to translate. Igor Mikhailovich knew many languages, but he translated poems from those languages that he knew perfectly (in addition to the ancient Eastern languages, he also translated them from many Western ones). He himself explained the difference between a translation from a subscript and a poetic original, and quoted Goethe's words:

"Wer den Dichter will verstehen, Muss in Dichters Lande gehen -

Who wants to know the poet, Let him know his country,

..and the country means the language: what is the culture of the people that the poet speaks on behalf of, if not in their language? " (1).


1. Diakonov I. M. Perevodchiki [Translators] / / Izbrannye perevody, Moscow, 1985, p. 6.

page 290


With his best translations, Igor Mikhailovich showed how you can get to this land of poetry of poetic translation - the land of poets and prophets. Who knows what will live longer after us: countless scientific articles and thick books-or inspired lines of poetic translations? Moreover, Igor Mikhailovich ruthlessly rejected some of his old hypotheses himself: "... I ask the reader to consider invalid everything I wrote about magicians and Zoroastrianism... " (2).

Indeed, it seems impossible to enter the "land" of the initial Zoroastrianism, given the variety of hypotheses of its localization in time and space. It would probably be superfluous to preface the poetic translations of the prophecies of the ancient Aryan creed published below with an exposition of all these numerous hypotheses. All that seems certain is that Zarathustra really existed, and that the verses he composed have come down to us exactly as he pronounced them (not taking into account, of course, some of the distortions that accompanied their lengthy oral transmission). This fact is a perfect confirmation that the most" durable", as the poet said, on earth is the Word, and prayers are more durable than temples:

.. .And there is no chorus stronger than faith-Prayers are stronger than temples.

This is what Zarathustra considered the most effective weapon against all evil and enemy forces.

His name Zarathustra is a common pastoral name, meaning something like "old camel" (i.e., "owning old camels") and refers to the amulet names that many peoples of Central and Central Asia still give to children in order to ward off the destructive influence of evil forces."Zarathustra's parents also had security names. His father's name was Pourush-aspa - "gray-horse" (having horses of this color is still considered a bad omen, for example, in Tajikistan). The prophet's mother was named Dugdova (from the ancient Iranian duxta-yava -), literally, of course, not "milkmaid", etc., but literally "one whose cows are milked", i.e. left without milk. Zarathustra calls himself a mantran ("diviner") and comes from a priestly family, so he obviously learned to say mantras from childhood. The time and place of its activity should be carefully marked as follows: the turn of 11-1 thousand BC, the foothill regions of Central Asia in the broadest sense (from the Southern Urals to the Sayano-Altai, including, of course, the Central Asian ones themselves: Tien-Shan, Pamir-Alai, Hindu Kush, Kopetdag, etc.).

The Gathas of Zarathustra were later included in the canon of the holy scripture of Zoroastrianism-the Avesta - as the most revered part performed during divine services. In the text of the Zoroastrian Yasna liturgy, they occupy a central place (28-34, 43-51, 53), but they are already arranged in such a way as to facilitate their memorization, according to the type of size and number of syllables. The number of syllables per line was, apparently, the main organizing principle of the Gat metric. The very first one in terms of chronology was probably the Gata with which this publication begins. There are 17 Gats in total, less than a thousand lines in them, and less than one-third of them have been translated into Russian (mainly by K. G. Zaleman, K. A. Kossovich, and I. S. Braginsky).

There were no translations into Russian of the Gats published below. I must say that translating the Ghats into Russian is probably easier than translating them into European languages. Avestan is grammatically and syntactically more similar to Russian than to most Western European languages (in which grammatical categories of cases and genders are lost, there are no incoherent constructions, etc.). Thus, in translation, the English protect us can mean both "protect us" and "protect us", which is very important in terms of addressing God or others. to the deities.

In general, the Ghats, as Mary Boyce has pointed out, are the most difficult Indo - European texts to understand. They passed through millennia of oral and then handwritten transmission (the oldest manuscripts date back to the XIII century). The essence of Zarathustra's original doctrine is not very clear. In the Ghats, about half of the entire text is more or less clear, and a third is simply dark, so they are interpreted either as shaman's spells, or as an exposition of lofty ideals. Thanks to various, sometimes directly opposite interpretations-


2. He's the same. Istoriya Iranskogo gosudarstva i kul'tury [History of the Iranian State and Culture], Moscow, 1971, p. 149.

page 291


Zarathustra's teaching appears sometimes as outright monotheism in the spirit of modern "enlightened Christianity", then as a consistent dualism that clearly distinguishes Good and Evil, then as polytheism of the pagan type. Sometimes it seems that the European translators of the Gata seek to" outdo " each other in the originality of their interpretations, especially in the interpretation of the key stanza 30.4, which says (as if?) about two spirits. Two main tendencies are outlined: some people see the cow as an allegory of Good Thought whenever it is mentioned, and the bull as the supreme deity, the creator of Ahura Mazda. Others, on the contrary, reduce everything to mundane cattle breeding, the schedule of cattle grazing and watering, milk and meat production. The meanings added by translators to the text of the Gat can sometimes be simply far-fetched (for example, instead of a simple " who... created sleep and wakefulness?" being translated: "who... set aside a certain amount of time for sleeping and waking up?").

In the following verse translations of Gat verses, made according to the standard edition of K. Geldner using all the latest European, as well as Persian translations and interpretations, the number of syllables in the lines is usually preserved.

This translation was started in Arkaim (Southern Urals), where the window opened into open spaces that once resounded with the creaking of Aryan chariot wheels, but there is no certainty that this was the Avestan Khvanirata ("Land of Singing Chariots"), and whether the translator "got" to the "land" of Zarathustra - to judge to the reader.

YASNA 50

50.1. Will my soul get help?

Who are the small cattle, who will protect me?

In truth only, Mazda, you, Ahura, -

Come quickly with Your Most Blessed Thought.

2. About Mazda, where cattle are plentiful to get,

So that he can enjoy the richness of pastures?

Among those who live justly are there many,

Whom to accept [ ... ?] accept justly.

3. And may he, O Mazda, have his share

By Power A Good Thought with a promise,

Rewards that he will bring up by force,

So that the scoundrel can quickly give the good.

4. I will pray to you, O Mazda, with praise

And with the truth, with the Most Blessed Thought,

And with the Power of the one with which you set out on the path.

In the House of Praise may I be heard,

5. O Mazda, let it be in truth, Ahura,

Because you are kind to the Prophet,

page 292


I'll probably get support soon

From your blissful hands.

6. The Prophet will raise his voice, Mazda!

Friend of Truth, in prayer - Zarathustra.

Creator of the mind language is like a chariot,

The Good One will direct you to the straight path with His Thought.

7. Yes, I will harness the fastest horses,

Whose victories - praise and glory to you,

In Truth, O Mazda, with a Good Thought

Are the strong ones ready to help me?

8. I will approach you in steps of abundance,

O Mazda, and with upraised hands,

Both with Truth and devotional prayer

With skill, from the Thought that the Good.

9. I will come to you in service, praising you,

In Truth with Good deeds of Thought -

A reward for me according to my desire,

Insight be possession.

10. I will perform those and other acts,

That Good eyes are worthy of Thought.

The light of the sun and the heavenly bull is brilliant -

Praise be to you with the Truth, Ahura. Mazda.

11. May I be your praiser, O Mazda!

While I can and with the Truth I will be able.

He who created the world with Good will move with Thought

By the will of us the first incarnation.

page 293


IASNA 51

51.1. Good sweet power, bringing happiness,

I long to meet the Best Truth,

Mazda, I will do our deeds now.

2. You first, O Mazda, o Ahura, with the Truth,

You, Sanity, show me the Power

Yours with a Good Thought, for the praise of Salvation.

3. Your ears listen to those who serve in business:

You are Ahura in Truth and Good in Words in Thought,

You, who are the very first, Mazda-all the mentor.

4. Where, tell me, is the end of torment and suffering forgiveness?

Where will Truths reach Holy Sanity?

Where is the abode of the best Thought?

Where is your domain, Mazda?

5. All of you I ask: as in truth he shall find

The shepherd of the Cattle acts justly and with supplication, - reasonable,

Subject to established judgments and two destinies

6. Those who are ready to make the right choice should be given better than Good.,

Ahura himself is the master of Mazda; and to others, what evil is worse,

Who will not obey Him at the end of the last world?

7. Grant to me, O creator of Cattle, Who gave me Water and Plants,

And Immortality and Wholeness, O Most Holy Spirit,

Mazda! Strength and steadfastness for the Good of the Thought in the Word.

8. And then I will declare,

A knowledgeable husband will say;

And about what is evil to the scoundrel, and what is desired by the righteous, -

The soothsayer will be happy if he says to the One who knows,

9. What double retribution, Mazda, did you give with red fire

And molten metal in the world to commemorate -

page 294


For the destruction of the scoundrel, to the righteous to salvation.

10. But he who vexeth me with any evil, O Mazda,

He is the spawn of Lies and Elodey to all the living.

But I appeal to the Truth and the Good Reward.

11. Who is Spitama's friend, Mazda? Zarathustra who is your ally?

Who is in council with the Truth, and with whom is Holy Sanity?

Who is recognized as faithful to the union by Good Thought?

12. This is not the scoundrel of Kaviy, who did not shelter at the bridge

Zarathustra as in winter

he arrived there as a messenger:

He and his two animals,

that they were cold and cold.

13. So the scoundrel will make a mistake

in the true faith

And the soul will shudder

on the Chinvat Bridge for evil,

What he did and said,

straying from the truth of the path.

14. Not friends and karapans:

pasture rights violated,

They torture the cattle

on their business and speech,

The final speeches

They will lead them to the Abode of Lies.

15. Zarathustra promises

Reward all your allies:

House of Praise, Ahura Mazda

the first one will be there at the beginning,

You are in Truth and Thought

for the Good and co-salvation.

16. Thus reached Kavi-Vishtaspa

with the power of this union,

With a Good Thought entering

on the path of Truth of Learning:

"May the Holy Mazda Ahura

to us according to the will of God!".

17. Frashaoshtra so kind

he dedicates himself to me,

So that for the sake of Good Faith

give yourself away.

Lord of Mazda he is Ahura

Truths to attain possession.

18. The Wise One of Jamaspa

Get wishing hvarno,

Trusting in the power of Truth,

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Thought took possession of the Good.

So give it to me, Ahura,

Give them your support, Mazda!

19. Thou, O Midiomankha

Spitamide!

I gave myself up to Faith and knowledge

Genesis, which will be the best,

According to the laws of Mazda said

the life of the present act.

20. Here you are, that's unanimous,

grant us all salvation

With Truth, Good Thought

with words of sanity -

To those who worship in their prayers

Mazda grants support.

21. The husband is holy with sanity,

in word, deed, and study,

Faith will strengthen the Truth,

and a Good Thought.

Mazda will give him Ahura

The Reward is Good.

22. What is True at best

read to me-knows Mazda

And Ahura: all and former

I revere them and the real ones

By name prayer,

falling down to them with love.

YASNA 53

53.1. Best aspiration

Zarathustra then,

Damn him, he sleeps.,

good luck b gave

In Truth Ahura

Mazda and the Eternal

bliss,

And those who are with him

He follows the Good Faith.

in words and deeds.

2. Here let them follow

in words and deeds,

Serving a prayer to Mazda, ready for praise:

Vishtaspa-Kavi with her son

Spitams of Zarathustra

and Frashaoshtra with him,

Straight through the Savior's ways of Faith, like

granted by Ahura.

3. He and, Pouruchista, you,

Khaechataspana,

Junior Sleeps.

Zarathustra's daughter,

On a Good Idea

page 296


With the Truth of Mazda

form an alliance;

With reason in harmony and with Sanity

good morning to you.

4. Surround yourself jealously

so his concern is,

As a father and husband,

all people in the family,

The Righteous of the Righteous, and the Good of Thought

radiant fruit... [?]

Mazda will give Ahura for the sake of Good Faith for all ages.

5. Teaching the led away

I'll tell the girls,

You who lead them away, remember in your mind:

Learn by faith, reaching for life

Thoughts on Blagoy,

You are superior to each other in truth

for a good reward.

6. So, men, truly

Also, you, O wives,

Seeing a Lie follower succeed, but

from it will take

it's away and In groans, with bad food,

he will lose his happiness,

Lying, perverting the Truth,

and you will perish with them.

7. You will be rewarded with

this union,

While the passion is the truest

based on the phone number,

Where the spirit of the scoundrel is driven away and down

and destroy it, -

But leave the union,

and you groans will be the last speech.

8. There will be all the villains

misled and,

Put to death,

they'll shout loudly.

Good stewards

from the killers, peace will be given to the settlements;

They are the greatest

page 297


by mortal fetters-torment quickly.

9. From unbelievers - corruption,

waning and dark,

Greedy Truth-Breakers

cursed are the bodies.

Where are you, righteous Ahura, -

take their life and liberty?

That, Mazda, is in your power -

the poor ones who are honest have the best to give.

Yasna 54

54.1. Aryaman, come, beloved one,

To help the people of Zarathustra

And Good to the aid of thought,

Earn the Faith Award,

The truth is a retribution,

What is assigned by Ahura.

comments

Yasna 50. This Gata probably refers to the very first and earliest works in time. It is distinguished by some Indo - Iranian (Proto-Aryan?)languages. motives and mention of Vedic parallels (related to chariot races).

50.1. Soul-refers to the immortal, eternal soul (urvan -) that exists always: both before and after the birth of a person.

Truth-here and further, this word translates the Avestan aSa- (other Persian: aria -) - a very multi-valued and comprehensive, fundamental concept, opposed in all senses to Lies (Avest. drug -) and ruling the world. With the definition of the Best Truth, it is included among the six Immortal Saints (avest. amsSa - spwta -) - six emanations and helpers of the supreme deity Ahura-Mazda.

Mazda, Ahura - in the Ghats, the name of the supreme deity (Avest. ahura -, mazda -, something like "Lord of Wisdom") it has not yet completely merged into one word and is mentioned separately.

A good thought (Avest. vohu -) Thought is one of the Immortal Saints, but in this case it is accompanied by the epithet Best (avest. vahiSta -), which may also indicate that the terminology is not quite established yet.

50.2. Cattle - in the first stanza, small cattle were mentioned (avest. pasu-), in this stanza we are talking about large cattle (cow, bull).

Who to accept... - an obscure place ("...among many under the sun..."?).

50.3. Power - with the epithet Desired, Chosen (avest. vairya -) - one of the Immortal Saints.

Reward-avest. a? i - (etymologically ar-ti -) "reward, achievement, reward (for piety) received on merit". Zarathustra often refers to this concept (introduced by himself?). Later, "Good" became a permanent epithet of the goddess Asha, who gives prosperity and happiness and was perceived in ancient times as a hypostasis of the Greek Tyuhe or Roman Fortune. One of the Avestan hymns (Yasht 17: "Ard-yasht") is dedicated to the Good Asha.

A scoundrel is an adherent of Lies and Evil, opposed to the Truth. We may be talking about cattle captured by robbers.

50.4. The House of Praise, the House of Praises - this is the name of the Zoroastrian paradise, where Ahura Mazda resides surrounded by good deities and the souls of the departed righteous.

50.5. The Prophet-soothsayer (avest. pschvgap -), so Zarathustra calls himself. Bliss is prosperity, well-being is paradise.

50.6. The creator of the mind is Ahura Mazda.

page 298


The language is like a chariot-more precisely: "like a charioteer [chariot],..". This means: "Let him direct the prayer from the tongue as straight and fast as a charioteer drives a chariot in a race, directing it to the goal."

50.7. The fastest horses... - several horses are harnessed to the chariot, and victory in competitions brings "wide fame".

Strong - strong because of a Good Thought.

50.8. In steps... plentiful..., - apparently, means plentiful sacrifices, which is also confirmed by Vedic evidence.

Upraised hands-hands extended in prayer become so familiar a cliche that even a cow prays "raising her hands" in Mihr yasht (10.84).

50.9. Insight-the translation "quickness of mind, good understanding"is also possible.

50.10. Celestial bull-apparently, the Moon.

50.11. Incarnation, i.e. resurrection, the realization of renewal at the end of the universe: the destruction of Lies and the ascension of Truth.

Yasna 51. This Gata is usually among the later ones, but it is mainly devoted to the Power of the Desired (Sweet), leading to Salvation. The main way to Salvation is correct prayer.

51.2. Sanity, or Good Sense, Piety, with the epithet Holy - one of the Immortal Saints who became the patroness of the Earth Salvation - renewal of the universe, resurrection, embodiment of Good and Truth, destruction of Lies and Evil.

51.4. The answer to all the questions asked in this verse is obvious: this is paradise, the abode of Ahura Mazda.

51.5. Shepherd Cattle... - some understand it as the acquisition of a Good Thought by a righteous Person.

Two destinies, i.e. punishment or reward based on the totality of thoughts, words and deeds-good or bad - at the posthumous trial of the soul of the deceased and at the Trial at the end of the universe.

51.6. Better than Good is a good thought.

The end of the world-finished. "at the last turn of existence", i.e., either at the judgment of a separate soul of the deceased, or at the end of the entire universe at the resurrection and the reign of Good and Truth.

51.7.The Creator of Cattle is the Creator of Ahura Mazda.

Water and Plants are patronized by two Immortal Saints-Nost and Immortality.

The Holy Spirit (Avest. mainyu-sp'snista -) is inherent in Ahura Mazda. The Holy Spirit is opposed to the Evil Spirit-Ahriman, the opponent of Ahura Mazda.

The word - in this case, not the Word-saying is mentioned (avest. to_0ga -), and the Word is a proclamation (avest. s'5ngha -), i.e., perhaps a sentence at the trial of the soul of the deceased.

51.8. The Knower is an epithet of Ahura Mazda. The soothsayer is Zarathustra.

51.9. Double retribution-compare the two fates above (51.5).

Molten metal at the end of the world will burn the followers of Lies and evil demons-devas. For the righteous, however, it will seem like fresh milk, as explained in later Zoroastrian writings.

51.10. Good Reward - Good Ashi (50.3).

51.11. Spitama is the generic name of Zarathustra.

51.12. Kiwi - this is the name of both the enemies of the faith and the dynasty of kings who adopted the faith of Zarathustra (Keyanids "Shahnameh"). Avest. / : aug-related to the Russian "chuyat" and, apparently, meant the leader-priest, seer and poet.

Bridge - the meaning of "passage, crossing, pass" is also possible.

Animals-I think that means pack animals.

51.13. Faith, Good Faith - correct, Zoroastrian religion (avest. daena-}.

Chinvat Bridge (avest. dnvant- "dividing, separating" or "gathering, building"?) - the bridge that the souls of the dead pass through to the next world. For the souls of the righteous, it is wide and spacious and leads to paradise, but for sinners it becomes sharp as a blade, and their souls fall into hell, into the domain of the Evil Spirit and the devas.

page 299


51.14. Karapans-enemies of the teaching, possibly hostile priests (Avest. karapan-etymologically, probably something like "mutterers"),

The abode of Lies, or the House of Evil-this is the name of hell (as opposed to the House of Praise-paradise).

51.16. Kavi-Vishtaspa is the first king, the patron saint of Zarathustra and the propagator of his Teachings.

51.17. Frashaoshtra - from the Khvova family, brother of Jamaspa-adviser to King Vishtaspa. He was one of the earliest followers of Zarathustra, and became his father-in-law. This verse is believed to indicate the marriage of Zarathustra to the daughter of Frashaoshtra (the following Gata is dedicated to the wedding of the prophet's daughter and Jamaspa).

51.18. Jamaspa is a wise adviser of Vishtaspa who has accepted the Faith.

Hvarno - charisma, the divine substance, the possession of which gives happiness and power. Having taken possession of Khvarno (later-farr) becomes the king of Iran. One of the Avestan hymns (Yasht 19) is dedicated to Khvarno.

51.19. Midiomankha-Zarathustra's cousin, the only follower of the prophet "in his own country".

A better Existence means paradise.

51.20. Unanimous-Immortal Saints are invoked: Good Thought, Better Truth, Holy Sanity, Desired Power, Power(nost) b and Immortality.

51.21. Good Reward - Good Ashi (50.3).

51.22. This verse resembles one of the most revered and used prayers, which ends all sections of the Avestan hymns:

"We offer prayers to those who need to be prayed to

Ahura Mazda is a blessing."

Yasna 53. There is some doubt about the authorship of this Gata, which was uttered on the occasion of the wedding of the youngest daughter of Zarathustra, whose name is Pouru chista (literally "full of understanding") and, presumably, the wise Jamaspa, as well as, apparently, several other couples (cf.53.5).

53.2. The eldest son of Zarathustra is called Isat-vastra, literally "seeker of pastures".

Saviour - (avest. saoSyant -) the coming Saviors, the sons of Zarathustra, are to be born from the seed of the prophet, miraculously preserved in Lake Kansava (Lake Hamun in Sistan), when a girl named Vispitaurvari ("the all-conqueror") bathes in it. The appearance of the first of them, Astvat-Ereti ("one who embodies the Truth"), is described in the hymn of Khvarno (Yasht 19).

53.3. Haechataspana - the youngest daughter of the Prophet on her mother's side comes from the family of Haechat-aspa (doel. "with outpouring [seed?] horses"). He's probably Jamaspa.

53.4. You are an appeal to the Pouruchista, his to the Jamasp.

53.5. Achieving life, i.e. otherness, paradise bliss.

53.6. The third line is corrupted.

53.7. X. Humbach translated: The most faithful one will yoke (his) penis at the bottom of the (female) thighs... (Humbach. 1991. P. 194).

53.8. In this stanza, punishment is called upon for evildoers, followers of Lies.

53.9. Cursed are the bodies-destroyers of Truth are not subject to resurrection.

Wretched - (avest. drigu -) - this word became the source of the Persian darveS "dervish". By the best is meant the Best being, i.e. paradise.

Yasna 54. This brief prayer, apparently addressed to Aryaman, the tribal deity of the Aryans, concludes the Gathas of Zarathustra.


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