Libmonster ID: U.S.-1542

It will join. article, translated from the kit. and comm. by A. S. RYSAKOV

"Zhuzi yulei" ("Conversations of Zhu-tzu") is a collection of conversations of the outstanding Chinese philosopher Zhu Xi (1130 - 1200) with his students. This work is a valuable source that allows us to fully present the content and stylistic features of philosophical discourse in the Chinese Middle Ages. A complete, systematic translation of the Zhuzi Yulei into European languages has not been attempted until now. Translations of individual statements from neo-Confucianism can be found as citations in studies of neo-Confucianism. In Russian, A. S. Martynov translated the 44th chapter "On Consciousness" from the Qing time compilation "Yuzuan Zhuji Quanshu" ( - "The complete works of Teacher Zhu, compiled by imperial decree"), including in particular 49 dialogues from "Zhuji Yulei" [see: [Zhu Xi] On consciousness (Xin)..., 2002].

This publication introduces the Russian reader for the first time to the sections of the first chapter of the collection devoted to the most important philosophical concepts of neo-Confucianism - "The Great Limit", "principle", "pneuma", "consciousness of Heaven and Earth", etc. Translated from the 7-volume edition of Zhuzi Yulei (Chief Editor). Li Jingde. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju chuban, 1986).


"Zhuzi yulei "("Conversations of Zhu-tzu") - a collection of conversations of the outstanding philosopher Zhu Xi (1130-1200) with his students for the period from 1170 to 1199. This is an extensive essay (in the Beijing edition of 1986, 7 volumes, more than 3000 pages), compiled from the records of 97 students of Zhu Xi (the names of four remained unknown). This collection occupies a significant place in the written heritage of the most influential philosopher of the Chinese Middle Ages.

Zhu Xi is the leader of the Fujian School, one of the leading neo-Confucian philosophical schools of the second half of the 12th century. He came from a hereditary official family and was exceptionally gifted - in 1148, at the age of 18, he received the highest academic degree-jinshi. His official career was limited to several positions and lasted very short - after living for almost half a century after receiving the jinshi degree, Zhu Xi stayed in the civil service for only 9 years. Zhu Xi's main activities were teaching and research career, including the efforts he made to establish and revive non-state educational institutions-academies (shuyuan - ). So, while serving as the prefect of Nankang County in 1180. Zhu Xi revived one of the oldest academies - Bailudong. The peak of his career was serving as the emperor's mentor. In 1195, he lectured Emperor Ning-tsung (1195-1224) on the Daxue canon for 46 days. However, a year later, Zhu Xi was accused of spreading "false teachings" and removed from all posts. His philosophical views were officially condemned and banned from distribution [Sun shi, 1935-1936, pp. 3419-3424].

However, in the subsequent history of Confucianism and Chinese civilization in general, Zhu Xi's philosophical system played an extremely important role. The fact is that in 1313, neo-Confucianism in the version of Zhu Xi acquired the status of an official teaching and was approved as a religious practice.-

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scheimpersky educational standard. Until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, Zhu Xi's teachings were considered an officially recognized version of Confucianism, and it was the philosophical system created by his efforts that formed the basis of the worldview that prevailed from the XIV to XX centuries, during the reign of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.

For the above reasons, the study of Zhu Xi's philosophy seems very promising and necessary for understanding the traditional Chinese view of the world and man.

Zhu Xi's written heritage is extensive and diverse. It consists of two collections: "Zhuji wenji" (- "Collected literary Works of Zhu-tzu") and "Zhuji yulei" ( - "Conversations of Zhu-tzu"), as well as numerous commentaries on canonical texts. A special place belongs to Zhu Xi's commentary on the Confucian canonical collection "Shishu" (- "Tetrabook").

The collection "Zhuzi Wenji" includes the poetic, epistolary, literary and commentatorial heritage of the South Sun thinker. The collection "Zhuzi yulei" was compiled in 1263 by a follower of the South Sung philosopher Li Jingde on the basis of four earlier collections of Zhu Xi's discourses (ZHBC, 1997, p. 655). The first edition of the collection was published in 1270 under the title "Zhuzi yulei Daquan" (- "Complete collection of Zhu-tzu's discourses") [ZHBC, 1997, p. 656].

"Zhuzi yulei" is an essay with pronounced features of the genre of "recordings of conversations" ( - yulu). Unlike the phrase-by-phrase commentary genres that developed during the Han Dynasty and the philosophical treatise that developed during the Tang Dynasty, the Yulu genre is specific to Sung Confucianism. The earliest works written in this genre are "recordings of conversations" of the founders of neo - Confucianism, Zhang Zai ( 1020-1078), as well as the brothers Cheng Hao ( 1032-1085) and Cheng Yi ( 1033-1107) (Gardner, 1991, p.574).

However, it should be noted that already in the written heritage of the leaders of the previous generation of Sung Confucianism, Hu Yuan ( 993-1059) and Shi Jie ( 1005-1045), a significant role is played by "oral explanations of the meaning [of the canons]", which are records of explanations of difficult issues of canonical literature. Hu Yuan has "Zhouyi koui" ("Oral explanation of the meaning of the "Zhou Changes") and " Hongfan koui "("Oral explanation of the meaning of the" Great Pattern"), while Shi Jie has " Yi koui "("Oral explanation of the Meaning" [Canon] changes""). "Oral explanations of meaning" are close to the genre of "conversation notes", as they are recordings of oral instructions of Confucian thinkers to their students. Their difference from yulu is in the monologue form, the lack of dialogue between the mentor and students.

The Yulu genre was developed thanks to the efforts of neo-Confucian philosophers. The Yulu collections were compiled for almost all significant neo-Confucian thinkers , including the founders of the Luoyang school, Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi, and their leading students, Yang Shi ( 1053-1135), Xie Liangzuo ( 1050-1103), and the famous neo-Confucian thinkers of the 13th century, Zhu Xi and Lu Xiangshan ( 1139-1193). According to sources, by the mid-13th century, there were at least 25 collections of "conversation notes" by neo-Confucian thinkers (Gardner, 1991, p.575).

It should be noted that Yulu as a special genre of philosophical literature appeared not in the framework of neo-Confucianism, but in the Buddhist school of Chan. Researchers attribute its formation to approximately the 9th century [Gurevich, 2001, p. 203]. The prototype of the neo-Confucian collections of Yulu is undoubtedly the canonical text "Lunyu", which contains records of Confucius ' conversations with his disciples, while the prototypes of the Chan Yulu are more likely to be found in the fiction of the Northern and Southern dynasties, for example, in the collection "Shisho Xinyu" (- "New [collection] of conversations, in the world narrated"). This collection includes dialogues and anecdotal cases from the intellectual life of China at that time. Both in the Shisho Xinyu and in the Chan Yulu dialogues are highly polemical and competitive in nature. Meanwhile, the neo-Confucian "conversation notes" contain the teacher's answers to students ' questions, designed in a calm, rational style, focused on education.-

* "The Great Pattern" is the title of one of the chapters of the Shu Jing .

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a question asked by Confucius in the Lunyue. In addition, the Ch'an Yulu language itself is very different from the neo-Confucian Yulu language. In the "notes of conversations" of the teachers of the Chan school, the language is as close as possible to the colloquial, common language (Baihua, ) [Gurevich, 2001, p. 205]. It is full of vulgarisms and even pejorative vocabulary, while the neo-Confucian Yulu language is a mixture of spoken language (Baihua) and literary language (Wenyan, ) with a predominance of elements of the latter [Zograf, 2002, p. 176]. Thus, we can say that yulu as a genre of neo-Confucian philosophizing has a completely independent character.

If the phrase-by-phrase commentary is a dialogue between the commentator and the "ancient perfect-wise", and the philosophical treatise is a more free presentation of the author's innovative ideas, then in the case of yu-lu we are dealing with a more complex, complex hermeneutical phenomenon. At the explicit level, the Yulu dialogue is conducted between the Confucian teacher and his students, but at the implicit level, there are other lines of dialogue. First, fragments of canonical texts were most often chosen as topics of conversation, so the dialogue included "the ancient ones of perfect wisdom", which gave the yuilu genre a hermeneutical depth. Secondly, in addition to the texts of the canons, the range of issues discussed could also include philosophical problems relevant to the Sung period. In other words, the Confucian intellectual community as a whole was included in the hermeneutical dialogue within the framework of "recordings of conversations" [Gardner, 1991, p.579].

American researcher D. K. Gardner interprets the neo-Confucian genre of Yulu as "creative exegesis", suggesting that, unlike the genres of commentary on the canon and from the philosophical treatise, Yulu allowed us to consider the Confucian tradition as a whole, and not a single canonical text. "Recordings of conversations", according to this foreign researcher, are focused on the coordination of various layers of Confucian thought in a single worldview [Gardner, 1991, p. 580].

Below I will give a brief description of the structure and content of the monument. "Zhuzi yulei" consists of 140 chapters (Juan,). The first six chapters are devoted to general philosophical questions-cosmology and the doctrine of man. Chapters 7 to 13 discuss the problems of traditional Confucian education. Chapters 14 to 92 contain detailed explanations by Zhu Xi on difficult issues in the canonical literature. First, we consider the canons from the neo-Confucian collection Syshu: "Da xue", "Lun yu", "Mengzi", "Zhong Yong", and then canons from the general Confucian heritage: "Yi Jing", "Shu Jing", "Shi Jing", "Xiao Jing", "Chunqiu", "Li ji", " Yi Li", "Zhou li", "Yue jing". Chapters 93 to 103 discuss the work of the most famous neo - Confucian thinkers who preceded Zhu Xi: Zhou Dongyi ( 1017-1073), the Cheng brothers Hao and Cheng Yi, Zhang Zai, Shao Yun ( 1011-1077), and numerous disciples of the Cheng brothers and their students. Chapters 104 to 121 cover various aspects of Zhu Xi's own teachings in detail, but most of these chapters are devoted to problems of state administration, since philosophical issues, as mentioned above, were discussed in detail in the initial chapters of the collection. Chapters 122-124 are devoted to famous neo-Confucian thinkers, contemporaries of Zhu Xi, such as Lu Zuqian (1137-1181), Chen Chuanliang ( 1137-1203), and Lu Xiangshan. Chapters 125 and 126 deal with Taoism and Buddhism, respectively. Chapters 127 to 133 discuss the political problems of the ruling Sung dynasty. Chapters 134 to 136 are devoted to Chinese history in general. The 137th chapter discusses the teachings of the most important philosophers of previous eras, from the Zhanguo period to the Tang Dynasty inclusive. Chapter 138 contains questions on various topics that were not included in the previous chapters. The last two chapters, 139th and 140th, contain Zhu Xi's answers to questions related to the problems of literary creativity.

The title of the collection - "Zhuzi yulei" - indicates the publisher's work, which consisted not only in compiling several original sources, but also in classifying the material into certain categories. Therefore, it is no accident that Zhu Xi placed at the very beginning of the collection of conversations chapters devoted to the general philosophical problems of neo-Confucianism. It is these first six chapters that contain the main core of his philosophical teaching. The first three chapters discuss metaphysics, cosmogenesis, astronomy, and cosmology. The next three chapters deal with the problems of man's place in the cosmos, the nature of consciousness, and issues of psychology and ethics. Of particular interest is the first chapter of the collection, in which-

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Roy Zhu Xi answers students ' questions about the most general principles of the neo-Confucian philosophy system.

In the 19 dialogues translated by the author from chapter 1, the most important concepts of neo-Confucian philosophy are comprehensively considered: "The Great Limit" (Taiji, ), " principle "(li, )," pneuma "(qi, )," consciousness of Heaven and Earth " (tiandi zhi xin, ). It is essential that this subsection of the first chapter of" Zhuji Yulei " clarifies the correlation of these concepts, so that we can get acquainted with the technical philosophical language of the Zhuxian system of neo-Confucian philosophy.

In this subsection, we can distinguish three semantic blocks. The first block (dialogues 1 to 4) is devoted to the concept of the "Great Limit". In the second block (dialogues 5 to 15), the concepts of "principle" and "pneuma"are explained in detail. And in the final, third block (dialogues from the 16th to the 19th), the problem of "consciousness of Heaven and Earth"is discussed. Let's consider the content of all three semantic blocks sequentially.

The concept of the "Great Limit" is the starting point of neo-Confucian philosophizing. In one of the first proper neo - Confucian works-the philosophical treatise of Zhou Dongyi "Taiji Tusho" (- "Explanation of the plan of the Great Limit") - the concept of "Great Limit" is included in the title. This small treatise represents the scheme of cosmogenesis of the Universe unfolding from the Great Limit. However, it should be noted that Zhou Dongyi's treatise was not the first in a series of works explaining the concept of the "Great Limit". This treatise, as its name implies, is a commentary on the Taoist text - "Taiji Xiantian zhi tu" (- "The Plan of the Great Limit, [existing] before the Sky"). However, the source of all philosophical speculation on this subject is the Xizichuan commentary on the I Ching, which states: "Change has a great Limit, and this is the reason for the generation of two patterns." Zhou Dongyi's treatise is actually a detailed commentary on this phrase from the I Ching .

A specific feature of the consideration of the concept of the "Great Limit" in the "Zhuzi yulei" is the correlation of the "Great Limit" with the main abstract category of neo - Confucianism in the version of Zhu Xi-the "principle" (Li, ). This is evidenced by Zhu Xi himself: "The Great Limit is only the principle (li) of Heaven and Earth and the darkness of things", "The Great Limit is a single sign "principle" " (Zhuji yulei, 1986, pp. 1-2). The most ancient meanings of the li hieroglyph are "veins on jade" and "measurement of land areas", that is, this hieroglyph is directly related to identifying the structure of objects [for more information, see: Kobzev, 2002, p.167]. This is the reason for the main variants of the translation of this term: "principle", "structure", "order". Based on the context of Zhu Xi's philosophy, it seems to me that its translation as "semantic structure" would be the closest in meaning, but here, in this fragment of "Zhuzi yulei", I found it appropriate to use the term "principle", which is well-established in the Russian-language literature.

Thus, the concept of the "Great Limit" as the origin of neo-Confucian philosophy correlates Zhu Xi with the semantic structure of the cosmos. It is thanks to the primacy of the concept of "Great Limit" and its convergence with the semantic structure of things that it becomes possible to build a rational philosophical system of neo-Confucianism.

The dynamic process of the cosmos unfolding from the Great Limit, firstly, proceeds in time, and secondly, is understood by neo-Confucian thinkers in terms of: "movement" (tung, ) and "rest" (ching, ), the forces of yang, and yin, "application" (yong, ) and "essence" (ti, ).

In the fragment of "Zhuji Yulei" discussed here, a number of students ' questions to Zhu Xi are aimed at clarifying the temporal antecedence of one of the sides of these oppositions. Abstract at first glance, the question of what is earlier-rest or movement, yin or yang, essence or application-in fact has a fundamental character, since it implies the superiority of one of the types of activity - either theoretical or practical. In view of this, the students ' questions acquired a sharp social connotation: to serve or not to serve? Zhu Xi removes this problem by arguing that it is pointless to talk about temporal precedence. In any case, according to Zhu Xi, the time sequence itself should have a semantic structure: "[Even if] nothing was before Heaven and Earth, then, in the end, it itself has a certain principle (li) before" [Zhuji yulei, 1986, p. 1]. Therefore, from the beginning to the end, the time sequence itself should have a semantic structure.-

** The two patterns here are to be understood as the forces of yin and yang.

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According to Zhu Xi, if one can speak of an antecedent, it is only a logical, semantic antecedent of "movement," yang power, and " application." Thus, Zhu Xi does not deny the social nature of Confucian teaching, but believes that the question of service should not become a behavioral imperative, but should be resolved on the basis of rational expediency assessments.

Another problem that is raised in connection with the discussion of the concept of the "Great Limit "is the relationship of the Great Limit with the main pair of abstract concepts of the neo - Confucian Zhu Xi system: the" principle "(li) and the" pneuma " (chi). If the "principle", as we have found out, can be interpreted as the semantic structure of the cosmos and individual things, then the" pneuma " must represent the material component of objects. However, "pneuma" (chi) is not in itself the gross matter of the human-visible world. "Pneuma" seems to be a kind of subtle material substance, only in the process of "condensation", the concentration of which generates matter: "pneuma "(qi, ) accumulates, and matter (zhi, ) appears" [Zhuzi yulei, 1986, p. 2].

In the second utterance of this fragment, "Zhuzi yulei", the student suggests that "principle" should be related to "Boundless" (wuji, ), and "pneuma" - to "[Great] Limit". The concept of" Limitless", which has a Taoist origin, in the cosmological scheme of Zhou Dongyi was considered as preceding the "Great Limit". Zhu Xi deviated from this sequence, completely identifying " Great Limit "and"Limitless"***. For this reason, he refuses to talk at all about the "limit" outside of concrete things, and in particular about the" limit "of such abstract concepts as "principle" and "pneuma": "[if] we discuss their limit, then in what place do we put this limit? " [Zhuzi Yulei, 1986, p. 2].

The next and most extensive block of statements in the fragment of "Zhuzi Yulei" considered here is precisely devoted to the problem of the relationship between the "principle" (li) and "pneuma" (chi). Zhu Xi states that both the "principle" and the "pneuma"are equally necessary.

The question of the relationship between the "principle" and "pneuma" is solved in the already familiar sequence plan: "there is a principle, and then a pneuma is born" [Zhuji Yulei, 1986, p. 2]. This sequence is justified by reference to the authority of the canonical text "I Ching": "One yang, one yin-this is Tao-Path", where yang corresponds to "principle" and yin to "pneuma", as well as a quote from Zhou Dongyi's cosmological treatise "Taiji Tusho", linking together such metaphysical concepts of neo-Confucian philosophical discourse as "The Great Limit", yang and yin: "The Great Limit moves and gives rise to yang, movement it reaches its limit and [then] rests. Yin rests and gives birth" (Zhuji yulei, 1986, p. 2). However, the sequence, as Zhu Xi repeatedly points out, is not temporary, but logical****. If we approach the problem from the point of view of succession in time, then "there has not yet been a pneuma without a principle in the Middle Kingdom, and a principle without a pneuma" [Zhuzi yulei, 1986, p.2]. According to the Sung thinker, in a time sequence, we can only talk about the process of continuous change itself, and not about what happened before and what happened later.

According to Zhu Xi, the process of cosmogenesis in its most general form consists in the concentration, "condensation" of " pneuma "(qi). As a result of this process, "matter" (zhi) is formed as a "sediment", from which all things of the visible world are formed by means of the "principle" (li). In this case, the formation occurs through the construction of physical elements ("metal" (jin, ), "tree" (mu, ), "water" (shui, ), "fire" (ho, )), representing "pneuma", in accordance with ethical principles ("humanity" (Ren, ), "duty" (yi, ), "ritual" (li, ), "wisdom" (zhi, )) representing the "principle" [Zhuji yulei, 1986, p. 3]. If physical elements are present in all things, then ethical principles have a special position, being located in human nature (syn ) [Zhuji yulei, 1986, p. 2].

In the neo-Confucian philosophical system of Zhu Xi, man appears as a microcosm-a harmonious combination of" principle "and" pneuma", bodily and ethical components. For security purposes-

*** In Jinsilu (Records of Independent Reflections, an anthology of neo - Confucian texts compiled by Zhu Xi and Lu Zuqian ( 1137-1181)), Zhi Xi, commenting on Zhou Dongyi's statement, clearly states that there is no " Boundless "except the" Great Limit " [see: Reflections on Things at Hand... , 1967, p. 5].

**** See the translation of this fragment of "Zhuzi yulei": sayings 10, 11, 12, 14.

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To clarify his position on this issue, Zhu Xi quotes the statement of his predecessor Shao Yun: "Nature (xing) is the formed body of the Tao Path; consciousness is the suburb of nature; the body is the district of consciousness, the thing is the boat and cart of the body" (Zhuji yulei, 1986, p. 3). Thus, man appears as an undivided, coordinated unity of "nature" (xing, ), "consciousness" (xin, ), "body" (shen, ), and "thing" (wu, ). The inclusion in this list of the fourth component - " things "(y, ) is of particular interest. Thanks to this approach, a person is not separated from the rest of the world. At the same time, everything that exists, in turn, becomes a natural extension of man. In view of this, ethical principles, which are exclusively available to human nature, can nevertheless regulate cosmological processes. Therefore, it is quite natural to ask one of Zhu Xi's students: "There is a principle, and then there is a pneuma. When there were no people, where was this principle located? "[Zhuji yulei, 1986, p. 2]. Zhu Xi believes that although the "principle" was not yet manifested in human nature, it already controlled cosmological processes occurring in time, since the "principle" is inherent in the very nature of time.

Analyzing natural dynamic processes, Zhu Xi refers to the theory of the " four good forces "(side ), which goes back to the I Ching canon. From the point of view of the I Ching, or more precisely, its commentary part, any dynamic process can be described by successively passing through four stages:" beginning "(yuan, )," development "(heng, )," bearing fruit "(li, ) and" completion "(zhen, ). As a traditional example illustrating the truth of the proposed scheme, the main natural cycle - the change of seasons-is proposed [Zhuzi yulei, 1986, p. 2]. Each of the four stages corresponds to one of the seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter, as well as one of the physical elements: "wood", "fire", "metal", "water". Ethical principles, on the other hand, manifest themselves in the orderly alternation of seasons and the constant return and renewal of nature, i.e., in the maintenance of cosmic order and the generation of life. Thus, natural processes, in particular the change of seasons, although they take place without human participation, are controlled by ethical principles inherent in human nature.

The authoritative Russian researcher of Confucian philosophy A. S. Martynov, studying the problem of consciousness in neo-Confucianism, draws attention to the possibility of the manifestation of perfect consciousness at two levels - as the "consciousness of Heaven and Earth" and as the "consciousness of the perfectly wise" (Martynov, 2002, p.59). These two levels seem to reflect two possibilities for the manifestation of ethical principles - in cosmological processes and in human nature.

In view of this, it does not seem accidental that the next block of statements of "Zhuzi Yulei" is devoted specifically to the problem of "consciousness of Heaven and Earth". Zhu Xi, as in the case of the concept of the "Great Limit", connects "consciousness" (Xin, ) with the "principle" (li, ): "there is no other consciousness outside of this principle (li) and there is no principle (li) outside of this consciousness" (Zhuji yulei, 1986, p. 4).

From the neo-Confucian point of view, the" consciousness " (xin) inherent in a person is imperfect due to exposure to external influences. The" consciousness of Heaven and Earth " (tiandi zhi xin), of course, cannot be imperfect, hence the statement about the absence of consciousness in Heaven and Earth, characteristic of neo-Confucian thought*****. But Zhu Xi makes a more nuanced argument. He notes that if Heaven and Earth, as the main counterparties of cosmogenesis, do not have consciousness, then arbitrariness and chaos are inevitable in the process of cosmogenesis: "...if they do not have consciousness, then it must be that a cow gives birth to a horse, and plum blossoms bloom on a peach tree" [Zhuzi yulei, 1986, p. 4]. However, we can observe the order of the existing world. From this we can conclude that Heaven and Earth must have consciousness, at least at the moment of "generating things" - maintaining the continuity of cosmogenesis: "... when the darkness of things exists continuously, then Heaven and Earth do not have consciousness. [But] when the desolate requires rebirth, then Heaven and Earth have consciousness" [Zhuzi yulei, 1986, p. 5].

***** See the phrase Cheng Yi quoted by Zhu Xi in the 16th dialogue of the subsection discussed here: "Heaven and Earth do not have consciousness, but they create; the perfectly wise have consciousness, but they are inactive" (Zhuzi yulei, 1986, p. 4).

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At the same time, the "consciousness of Heaven and Earth" should not be subject to external influences, which is characteristic of an imperfect human consciousness. This becomes possible only if there is nothing external for such a perfect consciousness. Then perfect consciousness "is common to all things" [Zhuji yulei, 1986, p. 4]. This is precisely the "consciousness of Heaven and Earth", and it shows the way for improving human consciousness. In order to achieve identity with the "consciousness of Heaven and Earth", it is necessary to level the impact of the external world on the human consciousness. The negative influence of the external world, according to neo-Confucian thinkers, manifests itself in feelings (Qing, ). Therefore, a person must renounce his own feelings, bring them into harmony with the impersonal process of cosmogenesis. Then the human consciousness will become the "consciousness of the all-wise" (sheng xin, ), identical to the "consciousness of Heaven and Earth", since there is no other consciousness in reality: "this is only the one and only consciousness of Heaven and Earth" (Zhuji yulei, 1986, p.5).

Summing up the analysis of the philosophical content of the fragment "Zhuzi Yulei", I will note the most significant points. The main problems of Zhu Xi's neo-Confucian philosophical discourse are cosmology and the doctrine of consciousness. The origin of the cosmological process is the" Great Limit "(tai chi), which, according to Zhu Xi, should be correlated with the" principle " (li) - the semantic structure of the universe. The process of cosmogenesis consists in the "condensation", concentration of " pneuma "(chi) and then the appearance of material things formed from physical elements. The process of cosmogenesis takes place in time, but time itself has a semantic structure. For this reason, the process of cosmogenesis is carried out according to ethical principles presented at two levels - in natural processes and in human nature (son). Hence, the doctrine of consciousness in the neo-Confucian philosophical discourse of Zhu Xi appears as a process of self-improvement of human consciousness to the level of" consciousness of the perfectly wise "(Sheng xin), identical to" consciousness of Heaven and Earth " (tiandi zhi xin).



(1) Question:

"The Great Limit isn't a thing that didn't exist before Heaven and Earth, it's a general name for the principle (li) of Heaven and Earth and the darkness of things 1, isn't it?


"The Great Limit is only the principle (li) of Heaven and Earth and the darkness of things. If we speak of Heaven and Earth, then Heaven and Earth have a Great Limit; if we speak of the darkness of things, then among the darkness of things each has a Great Limit. [Even if] nothing was before Heaven and Earth, then, in the end, it itself has a certain principle (li). Yang moves and begets, and this is also only the principle (li); yin rests and begets, and this is also only the principle (li)2.


- Why do you say in the " Solution of Difficulties "of the Great Limit [3] that first movement, and then peace, first application, and then essence, first concern, and then calmness [4]?


- If we talk about yin and yang, then the application is in yang, and the essence is in yin, since movement and rest are infinite, then yin and yang have no beginning, [therefore] it is impossible to separate the preceding and the following. Now, [if we] begin to talk about this, then at least [we must say that] before movement there is again peace, before application there is again essence, before preoccupation there is again calm, before yang there is again yin, but [equally]

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before calmness there is again concern, before calmness there is again movement, but what is the antecedent and what is the subsequent? It is impossible even to assume that today's movement had a beginning, [nor] can it be said of yesterday's calm. [It is] like breathing, which is said "exhale-inhale", following the order of words, and you can not say "inhale-exhale"5. But in the end, before the exhalation, there was again a breath, and before the inhalation, there was again an exhalation.

(2) Question:

- Yesterday it was said that [even if] nothing was before Heaven and Earth, then, after all, it itself is before the principle (li)7. why so?


- [If] there is nothing before Heaven and Earth, then, after all, this is the principle (li). There is this principle (li), and then there is Heaven and Earth; if there is no such principle (li), then there is also no Heaven and Earth, there is neither man nor [any] thing, [absolutely] everything is necessarily absent! There is a principle (li), and then there is a flow of pneuma (chi)8, and there is a darkness of things.


- Appearance is the appearance of the corresponding principle (li), isn't it? Answer:

- [If] there is a principle (li), then there is the appearance of the flow of pneuma (chi). The principle (li) does not have a formal entity (ti)9.

Question: What is called an entity (ti) is a strong 10 name, isn't it?


- yes.


"The principle (li) has no limit, but the pneuma (chi) has a limit, doesn't it?" Answer:

- [If] we discuss their limit, then in what place do we put [this]limit? the limit?11

(3)If there were no Great Limit, then heaven and Earth would be turned upside down 12.

(4) The Great Limit is a single sign of "principle" (li)13.

(5) There is a principle (li), and then the pneuma (chi) is born-this follows from [the phrase]: "One yang, one yin-this is called the Path-Tao" 14. Nature (xing) in itself has humanity and duty 15.

(6) There has not yet been a pneuma (chi) in the Celestial Empire without the principle (li), nor has there been a principle (li) without the pneuma (chi)16. (Scholia: by means of the pneuma (chi) forms are created, and the principle (li) is also introduced into them.)

(7) First there is this heavenly principle (li), then there is pneuma (chi). Pneuma (chi) accumulates and becomes matter (chi), and nature (xing) is contained in it.17
(8) Asked about the principle (li) and pneuma (chi). Answer:

- Well said I-chuan 18, [he] says: "In principle (li), that which is divided according to its own characteristics is one", [here] it is said that that in which Heaven and Earth and the darkness of things agree is only one single principle (li). As for the people, each [of them] has its own principle (li)19.

(9) Asked about the principle (li) and pneuma (chi). Answer:

- There is this principle (li), and then there is this pneuma (chi), but the principle (li) is the root, and therefore now, before discussing the principle (li), we will first talk about the pneuma (chi). Thus it is said: "The Great Limit moves and gives birth to yang, the movement reaches its limit and [then] rests. It rests and gives birth to yin " 20. [Until] the end is reached.

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when the movement is exhausted, there will be no rest. Cheng-tzu 21 said: "Movement and peace are endless." In my opinion, only with this in mind, and you can start reasoning with the movement. If we discuss movement, then before [it] there will be rest again, and before rest there will be movement again, similarly it is said: "One yin, one yang-this is called the Path-Tao, that by which they replace [each other], this is good" 22. Here the sign "change" corresponds to stopping traffic. If it opens only once, closes once, but there is no change, then the closing process stops 23. The question was asked again:

"Change is the gap between movement and rest, isn't it?" Answer:

- This is the end of rest and the beginning of movement. It is like the four seasons. When the spring months come, all the darkness of things returns to its source; 24 and if it is not born again, then next year all things will perish. In my opinion, the completion (zhen), returning, gives birth to the beginning (yuan), and this [process] is inexhaustible.

The question was asked again:

- The beginning, development, fruiting, completion25 is the principle (li) containing movement and rest, yin and yang, but in the "[Canon] of changes " only [in the text referring to the hexagram] "Qian" contains this 26?


- If we are discussing Wen-wan's Canon of Change, 27 it is based on "beginning, development, fruiting, completion", but only in the form of two-sign expressions. 28 Confucius believed that these four signs were good, and he initiated the explanation.29 This is why I said earlier that the "[Canon of] Change " is difficult [to understand], especially in this (beginning, development, fruiting, completion. -A. R.). From Fuxi [remained] the "Canon of Changes" of Fuxi, from Wen - wang-"[Canon] of Changes" of Wen-wang, Confucius followed the explanations of Wen-wang and took into account again the discrepancies between them (versions of Fuxi and Wen-wang. - A. R.).

The question was asked again:

- There is the principle (li), and then there is the pneuma (chi). When there were no people, where was this principle (li) located?


- [He] was already here. [It is] like seawater. Whether you take a single ladle, or a whole measure, or a single cup , it will all be the same sea water. But she is the host, and I am the guest 30; she has been used for comparison for a long time, while I have been using her [for this] recently 31.

(10) Question:

- First there is the principle (li), or perhaps first there is the pneuma (chi)? Answer:

- The principle (li) never moves away from the pneuma (chi). Thus, the principle (li) is higher than forms, and the pneuma (chi) is lower than forms. If we talk about what is above and below the forms, then for [this case] aren't there no [concepts] of before and later! The principle (li) has no form, whereas the pneuma (chi) is coarse and has a sediment.32 (The statement is taken by the compilers from the notes of Chen Chun. - A. R.)

(11) Someone asked a question:

- Certainly, first there will be the principle (li), and then the pneuma (chi), why so? Answer:

- It is impossible to say about [their] root, which is earlier, which is later. But if you absolutely want to know what follows, then [I] must say that first the principle (li). However, in the principle (li) there is no other thing than that which exists in the pneuma (chi); if there is no pneuma (chi), then this principle (li) also has no place to be located (lit.: hang. - A. R.). [There is] the pneuma (chi), then there are metal, de-

page 134

revo, water, fire, [is] the principle (li), then there is humanity, duty, ritual, wisdom 33.

(12) Someone asked a question:

- Principle (li) first, pneuma (chi) next. Answer:

- It is impossible to say about the root of the principle (li) and pneuma (chi), which is earlier or later. But if [you] insist ,then [we can assume] that the principle (li) is similar to that before, and the pneuma (chi) is similar to that after.

The question was asked again:

- The principle (li) becomes visible through pneuma (chi), why so? Answer:

- If yin, yang, and the five elements are not mixed up, it is the principle (li) that puts them in order without error. [But] if the pneuma (chi) is not condensed, then the principle (li) also has nothing to attach to. For this reason Kanzze 35 said: "Nature (xing) is the formalized body of the Path (tao); consciousness is the suburb of nature (xing); body (sheng) is the district of consciousness (xin); thing (wu) is the boat and cart of the body (shen)."

They asked about the essence and application of the Path (tao). Answer:

- If we assume that the ear corresponds to the essence, then hearing is the application; the eye is the essence, then vision is the application 36.

(13) Someone asked about the statement that first there is a principle (li) and then there is a pneuma (chi).

Answer: You shouldn't talk like that. But at the moment, do you know how they agree: first the principle (li) and then the pneuma (chi), or first the pneuma (chi) and then the principle (li)? These provisions cannot be combined and require careful consideration. If we examine them through reflection, we can assume that pneuma (chi) is a movement based on the principle (li). When the concentration of this pneuma (chi) is reached, the principle (li) is also in it. In my opinion, [if there is] pneuma (chi), condensation and gathering, creation is possible, [if there is only] the principle (li), then neither feelings, nor plans, nor plans, nor creation are possible. As soon as the pneuma (chi) begins to condense and concentrate, the principle (li) is immediately in its midst. [It is] like the people, things, herbs, trees, birds, and beasts that are between the heavens and the Earth. [When] they are born, then nothing [appears] without a seed, it cannot be that a single being is born in the desert without a seed, this is all pneuma (chi). If [there is only] li, then it is a pure and empty world in which there are no forms and traces, since it (the principle (li) cannot create; [only when there is] qi, then fermentation, condensation, concentration and the birth of things are possible. But if there is a pneuma (chi), then the principle (li) is already among it 37.

(14) Question:

- There is a principle (li), and then there is a pneuma( chi), is it really impossible to separate what is earlier and what is later?


- [If] this is necessary, then what came before is the principle (li). But we cannot say that today there is a principle (li), and tomorrow there will be pneuma (chi). [If] it is absolutely necessary to have what is earlier and what is later, then one can [imagine the case] when mountains, rivers, the great earth-all disappear 38, and the principle (li) will still be here 39.

(15) Xu 40 asked a question:

"Heaven and Earth aren't separated yet, but there's a lot down there, isn't there?" Answer:

page 135

- All this has a certain principle (li), Heaven and Earth give birth to things for thousands, tens of thousands of years, but in ancient times and now [they] do not move away from the multitude of things 41.

(16) Question:

"The consciousness of Heaven and Earth is miraculous (lin), isn't it? Or are they only indifferent and inactive?


"The consciousness of Heaven and Earth cannot be said not to be miraculous, but it is not like human reflection. Yi-chuan said, "Heaven and earth have no consciousness, but they create; the perfectly wise have consciousness, but they are inactive." 42
(17) Question:

- The consciousness of Heaven and Earth and the principle (li) of Heaven and Earth. The principle (li) is the principle (li) of the Path( Tao), consciousness is the dominant thought, isn't it?


- Consciousness is precisely the dominant thought, but what is then called the master 43 is [nothing but] the principle (li). There is no other consciousness outside of a given principle( li), and there is no principle (li) outside of a given consciousness.

The question was asked again:

"The' consciousness 'sign and the 'master' sign are similar, aren't they? Answer:

- The sign " man "is similar to the sign" Sky", and the sign "consciousness" is similar to the sign "lord"44.

(18) Tao Fu 45 said:

- In the teaching of former teachers, it is considered whether Heaven and Earth have consciousness or do not have consciousness. Thinking about it for myself, I, unworthy as I am, believe that Heaven and Earth have no consciousness. Humanity is the only consciousness that Heaven and Earth have. Thus, if they had consciousness, they would necessarily have thoughts and concerns. But did Heaven and Earth ever reflect! But they [are] what "changes four seasons [of the year], gives birth to a hundred things", in my opinion, they coordinate everything properly, without turning to reflection, this is what is [called] The path is the Tao of Heaven and Earth.


- Indeed, so in the "Canon of Changes" it is called: "returning to them, to understand (literally, "see") the consciousness of Heaven and Earth", "to correct the great and you can understand the feelings of Heaven and Earth", again, why so? [Returning] to what the lord said , it was said that they have no consciousness. But if they do not have consciousness, then it must be that the cow gives birth to a horse, and plum blossoms bloom on the peach tree, because they again determine all this independently. Cheng-tzu said, "[When they say] 'master', they mean the lord, [when they say] 'human nature and feelings', they mean 'heaven'." They have determined the meaning of these names independently, [since] consciousness is what takes the place of the master, and therefore they say that the generation of things is the consciousness of Heaven and Earth. Among the [writings] of Qin-fu 46, there are [those that] I cannot agree with this provision. I believe that Heaven and Earth have no other work, [therefore] only through the generation of things [they] have consciousness. The one, primordial pneuma (chi) rotates and moves together, without stopping in its movement, and only in this way is the multitude of the darkness of things born.


"Cheng-tzu said: "Heaven and earth have no consciousness, but create; the perfectly wise have consciousness, but are inactive (wu wei)."


- This saying [means] that Heaven and Earth have no consciousness. For if "four seasons [of the year] change, and a hundred things are born," then how are the heavens and the Earth-

page 136

what can contain consciousness? As for the perfectly wise, they follow the principle (li) and only, but how [they do it]! Therefore, Ming-tao 47 said: "Heaven and Earth are permanent, [their] consciousness is common to the darkness of things, and [therefore they] have no consciousness. The perfectly wise are constant, [their] senses follow the darkness of events, and [therefore they] have no senses." Well said. Question:

- Common to the darkness of things, that is, their consciousness is widespread everywhere and not self-serving, isn't it?


"Heaven and Earth make this consciousness common to the darkness of things. Man obtains it, and it becomes entirely human consciousness, things acquire it, and it becomes entirely the consciousness of things. Herbs, trees, birds, and animals receive it, and it becomes entirely the consciousness of herbs, trees, birds, and animals. But this is the only consciousness of Heaven and Earth! Now it is necessary to know that they have consciousness, but [at the same time] it is necessary to understand that they do not have consciousness, only [when] you reach an understanding [of this], it is impossible to say anything 48.

(19) When the darkness of things exists continuously, then Heaven and Earth have no consciousness. [But] when the desolate requires rebirth, then heaven and Earth have consciousness 49.


1 The darkness of things (wan wu, ) is a stable designation for everything that exists.

2 Modified quote from" Taiji Tusho " by Zhou Dongyi.

3 "Solving the Difficulties of the' Great Limit ' "(Taiji tujie, ) is the title of a work by Zhu Xi written in 1173 and dedicated to a critique of Zhou Dongyi's Taiji Tusho and Siming ("The inscription on the western wall") Zhang Zai [ZHBC, 1997, p. 653-654].

4 "Movement and rest" (dong ching, ), " application and essence "(yun ti, )," concern and calm " (gan ji, ) are paired concepts that are among the most frequently encountered technical terms in the philosophical language of neo - Confucianism. "Movement and rest" are the primary concepts for describing dynamic processes, not only physical, but also mental. The binomial "application and essence" dates back to the famous Taoist philosopher Wang Bi ( 226-249) and was used in the analysis of cosmological processes and everyday things, in order to identify the main (essential) and secondary (functional). "Preoccupation and calmness" are concepts that were used specifically to describe the state of consciousness and came from the Buddhist philosophical language.

5 "Exhale-inhale" - there is a play on words. The word" breathe " (husi ), which also exists in modern Chinese, consists of two characters: the first one means "exhale", and the second - "inhale".

6 This statement is taken by the compilers of the collection from the notes of Zhu Xi's disciple Chen Chun.

7 "This first thing has a principle" - Zhu Xi argues that time itself must have its own semantic structure, expressed in time positions: "earlier", "later".

8 Flow of the pneuma (chi liuxin, ) - it is characteristic that the state of the pneuma (chi), in contrast to the state of the principle (li), is described precisely as a flow, i.e., as a dynamic process. Thus, pneuma is characterized as belonging to the "world below forms "(sin er xia, ).

9 Formed entity (sin ti, ) - the original meaning of the sign ti-body. It is the moment of gaining a physical body that is emphasized here. The principle (li), of course, belonging to a purely semantic, rational sphere, cannot possess physicality.

10 " Strong name "(qiang ming, ) is a characteristic expression for the Chinese philosophical tradition, its opposite is" empty name "(xu ming, )." Strong name " marks the presence of real content in the concept. In this case, it is emphasized that "entity" does not mean abstract representations, but the concrete core of each thing that determines its functioning.

11 Statement taken by the compilers from Chen Chun's notes. The statement is taken by the compilers from the notes of Li Fangzi.

13 Statement taken by the compilers from the notes of Wan Renjie.

14 "One yin, one yang - this is the Way" - a quote from the commentary of the "Siqi" on the "I Ching", which is the starting point of Chinese philosophical cosmology.

15 The statement is taken by the compilers from the notes of Liao Deming.

16 Statement taken by the compilers from Dong Zhu's notes.

page 137

17 The statement is taken by the compilers from Yu Jingzhong's notes.

18 Yi-chuan is the pseudonym of the famous neo-Confucian thinker Cheng Yi (1033-1107).

19 This statement is taken from Lin Kuisun's notes.

20 The beginning of Zhou Dongyi's Taiji Tusho is quoted.

21 Cheng-tzu-refers to the eldest of Cheng - Cheng Hao's brothers ( 1032-1085).

22 Quote from the canonical text "I Ching", the first part of which has already been found in the text above.

23 "Change" (ji, ) - based on the graphic form of the ji character, it can be stated that it denotes a certain connecting thread and is used here in the meaning: "that which connects one with another", "that through which one can pass into another", i.e. this sign is interpreted by Zhu Xi as an element of the philosophical description of dynamic processes.

24 The Zhuzi yulei literally says, " He returns to his lairs."

)- Beginning, development, fruiting, completion (yuan, heng, li, zhen -25 this four-phase sequence, according to the "I Ching", describes any process occurring in time.

26 The hexagram "Qian" is the first opening hexagram of "I Ching", which Yu. K. Shchutsky translates as "Creativity", but in general it denotes a certain active force transforming reality, which is closely connected and sometimes identified with the Sky (tian) as the main counterparty of the cosmogenesis process.

27 "The Canon of Changes" by Wen-wang - the canonical text of the "I Ching" according to the traditional Confucian version was created by the efforts of several perfect scholars. According to tradition, the hexagrams themselves were written by the creator of the Chinese civilization Fuxi commentaries on hexagrams in general and individual features were written by the founder of the Zhou dynasty, Wen-wang, and the commentary part of the canon, also called "Ten Wings", belongs to Confucius.

28 What is meant here is that in the main text of the I Ching, the terms in question are found in the commentary on hexagrams, which is traditionally attributed to Wen-wang. According to Zhu Xi, in the I Ching text, the combination of yuan-heng-li-zhen can be understood only by dividing it into pairs: yuan-heng and li-zhen [for more information, see Shchutsky, 2000, pp. 319-320].

29 In other words, Zhu Xi claims that it was Confucius who came to regard these four signs as a single conceptual phrase.

30 "Host" (zhu, ) and "guest" (ke, ) are common terms that are close in meaning to the Western European categories "object" and "subject", but do not have such an abstract content.

31 Statements are taken from the writings of Lin Kuisun and Huang Yigang.

32 "Pneuma has a sediment" - a comparison of pneuma (qi) with muddy water, and matter (zhi) with sediment formed as a result of the accumulation of dirt-a characteristic metaphor for Zhu Xi. Zhu Xi gives a similar example in his comment on Daxue.

33 "Metal", "wood", "fire", "water" - the four elements from which the physical world is constructed; "humanity", "duty", "ritual", "wisdom" are the four basic ethical principles that make up the semantic structure of the cosmos and at the same time human nature. The statement is taken by the compilers from the notes of Wan Renjie.

34 Five elements - meaning the four elements already mentioned above: "wood", "fire", "metal", "water" and additionally "earth", which combines and harmonizes all these four elements.

35 Kang-tse is the pseudonym of the Northern Sung philosopher Shao Yun (1011-1077), to whom Zhu Xi himself had an ambiguous attitude. Despite recognizing the significance of this figure, Zhu Xi did not include his statements in the neo-Confucian anthology "Jinsilu" on principle.

36 The statement is taken by the compilers from the notes of Tseng Tsudao.

37 The statement is taken by the compilers from Shen Xian's notes.

38 "Mountains, rivers, the great earth-all will disappear" - this phrase indicates Zhu Xi's good acquaintance with the Chan Buddhist tradition, as this statement is one of the cliches found in the Chan dialogues (Gong'an, ).

39 The statement is taken by the compilers from Hu Yong's notes.

40 Xu is the name of a disciple of Zhu Xi.

41 Statements taken by the compilers from Chen Chun's notes.

42 Statement taken by the compilers from Chen Chun's notes.

43 The same hieroglyph (zhu) is used here as in the above case of using the binomial "host" - "guest".

44 Thus, it turns out that human consciousness (ren xin) corresponds to the supreme principle of the cosmos, the Heavenly Master. The statement is taken from the writings of Lin Kuisun and Huang Yigang.

45 Tao-fu is the name of a disciple of Zhu Xi Yang Daofu.

46 Qin-fu is the pseudonym of the famous Confucian thinker Zhang Shi ( 1133-1180).

47 Min-tao is the pseudonym of the North Sung philosopher Cheng Hao.

This statement is taken by the compilers from the notes of Yang Daofu.

This statement is taken by the compilers from Yang Fan's notes.

page 138

list of literature

Sun shi. (History of the Song Dynasty), Vol. 32. Sybubeyao. Shanghai, 1935-1936.
Zhuji yulei. (Classified [Collection] of Teacher Zhu's Conversations). Vol. 1. Beijing, 1986.

Reflections on Things at Hand - Reflections on Things at Hand I The Neo-Confucian Anthology Compiled by Chu Hsi and Lu Tsu-ch'ien. Translated, with Notes, by Wingtsit Chan. N.Y.L., 1967.

Zhongguoxue baikequanshu (ZHBC) (Encyclopedia of Chinese Confucianism). Beijing, 1997.

Gurevich I. S. Grammatical essay of the Chinese language of the Tang Era (based on the Buddhist Yulu of the Chan school) / Lin-chi lu / Introductory article, translated from Chinese, commentary. and grammars. Essay by I. S. Gurevich. St. Petersburg, 2001.

Zograf I. T. Grammatical essay of the Zhu Si language On Consciousness (Xin): From the philosophical heritage of Zhu Xi. Moscow, 2002.

Kobzev A. I. Filosofiya kitaiskogo neo-confucianstva [Philosophy of Chinese Neo-Confucianism]. Moscow, 2002.

Martynov A. S. Confucianism and the problem of consciousness / /[Zhu Xi] On consciousness( Xin): From the philosophical heritage of Zhu Xi. Moscow, 2002.

Shchutsky Yu. K. Chinese classical "Book of Changes". St. Petersburg, M Publ., 2000.

Gardner D.K. Modes of Thinking and Modes of Discourse in the Sung: Some Thoughts on the Yulu ("Recorded Conversations") Texts // The Journal of Asian Studies. Vol. 50. N 3. Aug. 1991.


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