Libmonster ID: U.S.-1310

L. Y. PROKOPENKO, Candidate of Historical Sciences

Institute of Africa, Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: Zambia, foreign policy, African Union, SADC, NEPAD, economic diplomacy

October 24 marks the 50th anniversary of the declaration of independence of the Republic of Zambia, and October 30 marks the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between our countries. For half a century, Zambia has gone from becoming a young state to a country that is one of the examples of ethno-political stability in Africa.

An important area of Zambia's foreign policy is interaction with the United Nations and the African Union (AU, formerly the Organization of African Unity / OAU), of which it became a member in 1964, as well as with numerous international and regional organizations. There are about 40 foreign embassies in the country's capital, Lusaka. This city has repeatedly become the venue for important forums at the continental and regional levels. In July 2001, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) was approved at the regular OAU Summit in Lusaka, and a month later, the Southern African Development Community Standby Brigade (SADC) was also announced at the summit of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). and the Zambian military.


One of the main principles of Zambia's foreign policy is non-alignment with blocs and military groupings. The country maintains good neighborly relations with its neighbors - Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. During the period when the United National Independence Party (UNIP) led by Kenneth Kaunda (1964 - 1991) was in power, Zambia supported the position of the OAU in resolving conflict situations on the African continent, participated in the political settlement process in Angola, mediated in resolving conflict situations in Mozambique and Sudan, 1 and supported the anti-colonial struggle of the SWAPO (People's Republic of South West Africa Organization) in Namibia and the South African African National Congress (ANC)2.

With the rise to power of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (DMD) party led by Frederick Chiluba in 1991, Zambia's foreign policy became clearly oriented towards the West. Government of the Russian Federation Chiluba has taken a course towards privatization, supporting private entrepreneurship and attracting Western investment. The implementation of the development program of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), adopted in 1992, led to a temporary stabilization of the economy and an influx of foreign investment into the country. At that time, IMF experts ranked Zambia among the group of reliably reforming African states that were attractive for foreign capital.

1996 was the first year of significant economic growth for Zambia: GDP has increased by 6.4% compared to 1995.3 The country has started implementing an in-depth adjustment program, for which the IMF has allocated $3 billion 4. Chiluba was a proponent of economic reforms and was well aware of the link between further inflows of financial resources from Western donors and the implementation of democratic transformations.5 In the context of globalization, Zambia, like other African States, on the one hand, was forced to protect the interests of transnational corporations (TNCs) and implement the recommendations-ultimatums of the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). On the other hand, it must "... ensure peace and stability in its increasingly polarized and divisive society. " 6

An important part of this policy was the strengthening of political and economic relations with South Africa. In 1992, permanent representative offices were opened in Pretoria and Lusaka, followed by-

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Last year, South African President F. de Klerk paid an official visit to Lusaka. Relations with Angola and Mozambique were more complicated: for supporting their Governments, Zambia incurred "retaliation strikes" from the armed opposition groups of these states. Zambia has actively participated in efforts by countries in the region to find a political solution to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC-formerly Zaire). In 1998, Zambia and the DRC established a joint defence and security commission.

Zambia was one of the first countries in Africa to re - establish diplomatic relations with Israel in 1991, which were severed in October 1973. This was due to a certain disillusionment of the Zambian leadership with promises of assistance from Arab countries. According to Israeli researcher Benjamin Neuberger, this development was also influenced by the fears of the then Catholic President Chiluba, who declared Zambia a Christian country, about the possibility of spreading Islamic fundamentalism on its territory.7

The adoption of a constitutional article that removed former President K. Kaunda from running in the 1996 presidential election, and the accusation that he was involved in a State conspiracy, virtually deprived Zambia of donor assistance from Western countries; it also found itself somewhat isolated in its own region.8 The hostility of the patriarchs of the African liberation movement (N. Mandela - South Africa, R. Mugabe-Zimbabwe and S. Nujoma-Namibia) to the pro-Western Chiluba intensified after the latter failed to fulfill promises to cancel this article. There were also serious problems in relations with Angola, which in January 1999 accused a number of figures from the Zambian leadership and some business representatives (including the son of President Tito Chilubu) of supplying weapons and intelligence to the UNITA group.9

In an effort to restore the image of a reformer in the eyes of the West and restore broken contacts with Southern African leaders, Chiluba, speaking at the economic summit of Southern African leaders (Nairobi, May 17-19, 1998), called on the world community to recognize Africa's achievements in economic and political liberalization and to write off all or part of its external debt. At the same time, he invited the new President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki, to pay an official visit to Zambia in the fall of next year.

The new President of Zambia, Levi Mwanawasa, who was elected in December 2001, continued to implement consistent macroeconomic policies and structural reforms, which won him the favor of donor countries and the support of the IMF, which allocated $320 million to Zambia in 2004-2007.10

The slogan" Continuity with changes", under which Mwanawasa won the election, quite accurately reflected the domestic and foreign policy of the new leadership. During his presidency, the desire to strengthen the country's independence was clearly manifested.

Zambia's rapprochement with Southern African States has been a major foreign policy focus. 11 In 2007, Mwanawasa was elected SADC Chairman. In this capacity, he participated in the preparation and holding of the second EU-Africa Summit in Lisbon in December 2007. Following the announcement by then British Prime Minister George Brown that he would boycott the summit if Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe took part, Mwanawasa held talks on this issue with Portuguese Prime Minister Leo Amadou. Mwanawasa's firm position, expressed figuratively in the slogan " No Mugabe-no summit!", was understood and supported by the Portuguese side, which stated that" will not allow discrimination at the Summit. " 12 And Mugabe did attend the forum.

During Mwanawasa's time in power, Zambian-Chinese ties were significantly strengthened. At that time, more than 180 Chinese companies invested in the Zambian economy, primarily in the mining industry.13

In his inaugural address on January 2, 2002, Mwanawasa promised to consult with the country's previous presidents on development issues and fulfilled his promise. He highly valued Kaunda's authority: in 2002, for his contribution to the struggle for independence of Zambia and the states of Southern Africa, he was awarded the highest award of the country - the Order of the Eagle, first class. In January 2003, Kaunda fulfilled a prestigious assignment of the government-he was among the observers in the UN inspections in Iraq. Mwanawasa's relationship with F. Chiluba was different.

The international recognition of Mwanawasa's services in defending regional and pan-African interests is evidenced, in particular, by the fact that representatives of 50 States and the Presidents of 14 African countries attended his funeral on September 3, 2008.

After the sudden death of L. Mwanawasa in June 2008, Vice-President Rupia Banda assumed the post of Head of State. In the cloud-

* In February 2003, F. Chiluba was arrested and charged with corruption and misuse of public funds while serving as President in 1991-2001. He strenuously denied any wrongdoing. The trial lasted until August 2009,when a Zambian court cleared Chiluba of all charges of corruption .

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In terms of foreign policy, he basically continued the course of his predecessor. Zambia supported the African Union's demand to grant the continent two permanent seats in the UN Security Council. Lusaka called for the lifting of sanctions against Zimbabwe, considering that they undermine the efforts of the country's Government and SADC member States to normalize the economic situation there.

In August 2010, R. Banda was elected Chairman of the so - called Troika, SADC's political, defense and security body.

He continued his efforts to attract foreign investment to the country's economy. The policy of strengthening economic ties with China was continued. In 2009, Chinese Commerce Minister Chen Deming visited Zambia, and in the same year, the country opened a zone of trade and economic cooperation with China - the first Chinese project of its kind on the African continent. Following R. Banda's visit to China in March 2010, new economic agreements were signed.

Lusaka's relations with Southern African countries continued to strengthen. In January 2010, South African President George Zuma paid a state visit to Zambia.

The experience of a career diplomat (he was Ambassador to Egypt in 1964 and to the United States in 1967 - 1970, and in 1970 - 1980 headed the country's Foreign Ministry) helped R. Banda to maintain constructive relations with the leaders of the countries of the South African region and members of the Commonwealth of Nations. In his foreign policy initiatives, he repeatedly attracted the first president of the country, K. Kaunda, with whose party (UNIP) his past is connected*. In April 2009, Banda delegated Kaunda to London as the representative of Zambia to attend events on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Commonwealth of Nations. And in May of the same year, the two of them represented Zambia at the inauguration ceremony of the new President of South Africa, J. Zuma.


The current President of Zambia, the leader of the Patriotic Front (PF) party, Michael Sata, was elected in the elections held in September 2011. He continues to adhere to the course of so-called economic diplomacy pursued by R. Banda. In his inaugural address on September 28, 2011, Sata stressed: "Foreign investment is important for Zambia, as it not only creates jobs, but also contributes to the economic empowerment of Zambia."14. Calling corruption a cancer of society, Sata promised Zambian citizens and foreign investors that his Government would continue to fight corruption and "... not be limited by rhetoric and pious hopes " .15

In February 2012, Zambia's Foreign Minister, H. Lubinda, at a meeting with members of the diplomatic corps in Lusaka, noted that "...economic diplomacy will remain an important area of the Government's foreign policy" and reaffirmed the country's leadership's commitment to building sustainable partnerships with the international community.16

Maintaining good-neighborly and partnership relations with other SADC member countries is a priority of the foreign policy of the Government of M. Sata "at the African level" 17. In January 2012, at the invitation of the South African leadership, Sata and Kaunda participated in celebrations marking the 100th anniversary of the ANC.

However, in the spring of 2013, an unexpectedly harsh statement by Zambian Vice President Guy Scott about South Africa received a negative political response. While in the UK, in an interview with the English newspaper Guardian, he was skeptical about the political role of South Africa in the region and in Africa.18

The opposition DMD party criticized Scott, who, in its opinion, caused serious damage to good-neighborly relations between Zambia and South Africa. The DMD demanded his immediate resignation 19.

On the issue of resolving the crisis in Zimbabwe, M. Sata, as well as previous Presidents, considers it necessary to coordinate the efforts of all SADC member countries. He continues to insist on the need to lift sanctions against Zimbabwe.

In April 2013, during the working visit of the Minister of Defense of Zambia J. Mwamba to Angola, issues of expanding cooperation between these countries in the fight against transnational crime were discussed. The parties signed a Protocol on technical and military cooperation. In April 2014, Zambia and Angola launched a 2-year canal project in Shangombo County, Zambia.

M. Sata managed to maintain good neighborly relations with Malawi, from where he, as the leader of the Zambian opposition, was deported in 2007 by the then President of Malawi B. wa Mutharika. Zambia is committed to helping resolve the political conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In February 2013, a Zambian delegation led by Justice Minister W. Kabimba was invited to sign a peace agreement between the DRC Government and the M23 Movement.

The opposition criticizes some aspects of the government's regional policy

* R. Banda became a member of UNIP in 1960, and in the mid-1990s actively helped K. Kaunda, who returned to big politics, to revive this party (author's note).

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M. Saty. In April 2014, K. Pande (Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Government of R. Banda) expressed concern that since the new leadership of the country led by M. Sata came to power, Zambia has never been visited by the heads of SLDC member States, except for R. Mugabe,and Sata himself often does not take part in those regional events held in the country. On 2 May 2014, current Foreign Minister G. Kalaba, responding to criticism from the opposition, stated that these facts do not affect relations with the countries of Southern Africa in any way: "Zambia's diplomatic relations with our neighbors in the region are intact and unshakable."21

It is also criticized that since the formation of the first cabinet in September 2011, the President has repeatedly changed foreign ministers (sometimes without explanation), and people who do not have a special education or sufficient experience in this field are appointed to the post of the foreign ministry (among them-former ministers of lands, natural Resources and environmental protection). Environment - W. Simuus (August 2013) and G. Kalaba (March 2014).


Zambia has significantly stepped up its relations with the United States, which has previously expressed doubts about the country's leadership's commitment to fighting corruption. In January 2012, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State of the United States, R. During his visit to Zambia, Bridgetty "corrected" Washington's previous position, noting the efforts of the Zambian government in combating corruption.22

In February 2013, the US Ambassador to Zambia, M. Storella, said that his country is ready to develop military cooperation with Zambia in two areas: the supply of modern weapons and the training of military personnel. In August of the same year, Zambia hosted the 10-day military exercise Endeavour 2013, organized under the auspices of AFRICOM (Unified Combatant Command for Africa), in which more than 30 African countries24 participated.

In March 2012, the German and Zambian Chambers of Commerce and Industry signed a partnership agreement to develop business relations between German and Zambian companies, mainly in the field of small and medium-sized businesses.

In 2013, Finland provided significant assistance in the digitization (electronic translation) project of the National Archives of Zambia 25; it also prepared an environmental project for the country.

In June 2013, M. Sata participated in the 5th Tokyo International Conference on African Development. In a conversation with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, the President expressed hope that new Japanese investors will come to the Zambian market26. Trade turnover between Japan and Zambia was $156 million at the end of 2013.27


Zambia's cooperation with BRICS member countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) is developing dynamically.

It should be noted that after the election of M. Sata as President of Zambia, the Chinese side had concerns about the future of bilateral cooperation, since even during the 2006 presidential election. he and his Patriotic Front party used an anti-Chinese theme. The opposition PF has promised to deport numerous Chinese merchants and workers if it comes to power. But Sata partially changed his assessment of China's economic activity in Zambia even before his election as head of state.

In January 2010, on the eve of President R. Banda's visit to China, Sata said in an interview with a local radio station that his party had never objected to Chinese investment as such. He clarified that Chinese investment in the Zambian economy should be encouraged, but investors should comply with Zambian laws, first of all, create normal working conditions for Zambian workers.28

In May 2012, Zambian Foreign Minister J. Mwamba visited China, and a month later, M. Sata received Wang Jiazui, Head of the International Relations Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, in Lusaka, who handed him a letter from Chinese President Hu Jintao. Sata said that his Government attaches great importance to relations with China and expressed hope for an increase in the number of Chinese investors in the Zambian economy.29

In the 5 years since the establishment of the zone of trade and economic cooperation with China in Zambia in 2009, the sale of products of enterprises in this zone brought in $4.35 billion. revenue. There are 17 factories and 30 factories on its territory. In April 2013, M. Sata paid an official one-week visit to China. He met with Chinese President Xi Jinping and business representatives. 6 agreements were signed.

In 2013, Chinese investment in the Zambian economy totaled $2.6 billion. and they provided about 50 thousand jobs. The trade turnover with China in the same year amounted to $3.8 billion, including exports to China - $3.2 billion. (mostly Zambian copper)31.

Zambia imports medicines, transportation equipment, and cotton fabrics from India.

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fabrics and yarns, chemicals, etc. products. Zambia's main exports to India are non-ferrous metals, copper and cobalt ore, semiprecious stones and raw cotton.32 Relations with Brazil are also developing. In July 2010, President Lula Lula da Silva of Brazil paid an official visit to Zambia. Agreements were signed on cooperation in the use of biofuels, the fight against AIDS, as well as in the field of sports and education. A year later, an agreement was signed to provide Brazil with financial assistance in the amount of $600 thousand for the implementation of the Zero Hunger in Zambia program.


50-year history of diplomatic relations of the USSR/Russia and Zambia went through two stages. The first one, especially in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by intensive cooperation in many areas. A significant contribution to this was made by the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the USSR to Zambia V. G. Solodovnikov (1976-1981), who headed in 1964-1976. Institute of Africa of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1974 and 1987, the USSR was visited on official and working visits by the President of the Republic of Belarus, Konstantin Korolyov. Kaunda. A number of agreements on economic, military-technical and cultural cooperation were signed. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union and changes in the domestic political life of Zambia led to a significant reduction in the volume of cooperation.

Since the signing of the relevant protocol in December 2005, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Russia and Zambia regularly hold consultations on topical international and regional issues. Inter-parliamentary relations are maintained (for example, a delegation of the National Assembly of Zambia visited Moscow in September 2008), as well as contacts between judicial authorities (for example, in May 2010 a delegation of the Supreme Court of Russia headed by its Chairman V. M. Lebedev visited Zambia). In December 2011, President M. Saty met with Mikhail Margelov, Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation for Cooperation with Africa, in Lusaka.

In 2001. Russia has written off more than 80% of the Zambian debt, 33 which has created additional conditions for the continued development of business relations between our countries. In 2012, under the Debt-for-Development program, the Russian Federation entered into an agreement with Zambia to use part of the remaining debt to finance development projects, including joint projects. 34 In 2010, the volume of mutual trade was $8.3 million, of which $ 8 million was Russian imports (mainly tobacco and raw tobacco products, flowers)35. In September 2014, the forum "Russia-Zambia" was held as part of the "Russia Week in Zambia".: prospects for economic cooperation". Cooperation in the field of tourism is developing. In April 2014, the Zambian side organized the arrival in the country of 13 Russian tour operators planning to develop this direction in Russia. In August 2014, a delegation of 100 people from the largest Russian mobile operator MTS 36 visited the tourist capital of Zambia - Livingston. The quota for Zambian students sent to study in the Russian Federation is growing; in 2013, it reached 100 people against 37 in 1998.37 Russian universities train military specialists and law enforcement officers in Zambia. In June 2014, the Russian educational exhibition "Learning in Russia-2014" was held in Lusaka, and a conference of the Association of Zambian Graduates of Soviet/Russian Universities was also held.

In the vote on UNGA Resolution A/RES/68/262 on the territorial integrity of Ukraine, adopted on March 27, 2014, Zambia was among 58 abstainings38.


Zambia is quite closely connected to Cuba. In November 2012, it was among 187 UN member states that voted in favor of Resolution 188-2, which called on the United States to lift the economic, commercial and financial embargo on Cuba. In February 2013, at the invitation of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba, a delegation of the ruling PF of Zambia paid an official visit to Havana. In June of the same year, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Zambia visited Cuba. At the meeting with him, the Cuban Foreign Minister expressed gratitude for Zambia's position in international organizations, where it opposed the economic blockade of the island. In June 2013, former President of Zambia K. Kaunda visited Havana at the invitation of the Cuban Government and was awarded the Order of Solidarity and Friendship among Peoples.

Zambia is a supporter of a peaceful settlement in the Middle East. In 2012, it voted with other countries at the UN to grant Palestine observer status39.

Zambia recognized the newly formed State of South Sudan, and in July 2011, President R. Banda paid an official visit to its capital, Juba.

It is interesting that since the beginning of the 2000s, there have been tender changes in the personnel of the country's diplomatic missions. The leadership of Zambia, as well as a number of other states in the South African region, boldly trusts a woman as an ambassador. Zambia's Ambassador to Sweden, and later to China, was Joyce Musenge. Women have twice headed the Embassy in the United States: Inongyo Mbikushita - Levanika in 2003-2010

page 35

(then she continued her career as an ambassador to the EU and Benelux countries), and since 2011-Sheila Sivela. In 2007, Washington Life Magazine named I. Mbikusita-Levanika as one of the 12 foreign ambassadors to the United States with the "greatest international influence" 40. In 2014, women served as Zambian ambassadors to Belgium, Namibia, Ethiopia, Turkey, and other countries. Zambia's Permanent Representative to the UN is also a woman, Mwaba Kasese-Botha.

In the ranking of economic freedom (efficiency of the state apparatus, protection of property rights, participation in international trade, effectiveness of business regulation, etc.) compiled by the American Cato Institute, at the end of 2011, Zambia was at a fairly high 23rd place 41, next to Germany (20th place), Austria (28th place).e) (for comparison: Botswana - 35th, South Africa-64th, Namibia-97th) 42.

Strong economic growth over the past decade, Zambia's commitment to investment protection policies, which are supported by its membership in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, a clear tax system, and the fight against corruption* create favorable conditions for foreign investors to operate in the country.

According to the current Foreign Minister, U. Simuusa, at a meeting with members of the diplomatic corps in February 2014, Zambia has completed a review of its foreign policy. Its main component remains economic diplomacy: "My Government will focus on enhancing economic cooperation by facilitating trade and attracting foreign investment." 43 In 2013, foreign direct investment in Zambia totaled $3.56 billion. (2011 : $1.8 billion) 44.

While overcoming certain domestic political difficulties, Zambia remains committed to the principles of respect for human rights and freedom, as well as good neighborliness in its foreign policy. The country is making efforts to ensure national security and is involved in efforts to maintain security in Southern Africa.

* In 2013, Zambia ranked 83rd in terms of corruption (out of 177 countries)-

1 See: Modern and contemporary history of Zambia. Moscow, 1990, pp. 204-249; Tokarev A. A. FNLA v antikolonialnoi borbe i grazhdanskoi voine v Angole. M., Institute of Africa of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2006, pp. 93, 95. (Tokarev A. A. 2006. FNLA v antikolonialnoi borbe i grazhdanskoi voine v Angole. M.) (in Russian)

2 See: Shubin V. G. African National Congress in the Years of the Underground and Armed Struggle. Moscow, IAfr RAS Publ., 1999. (Shubin V.G. 1999. ANK v gody podpoliya i vooruzhennoi borby. M.) (in Russian)

3 Africa South of the Sahara, 1998. L., Europa Publications Limited, 1997, p. 1111.

4 Ibidem.

5 См.: Democracy in Zambia: Challenges for the Third Republic/ Ed. O.Sichone and B.Chikulo. Harare, 1996.

Vasiliev 6 L. M. Afrika - padcheritsa globalizatsii. M., 2003, p. 49. (Vasiliev A.M. 2003. Afrika - padcheritsa globalizatsii. M.) (in Russian)

Neuberger Benyamin. 7 Israel's Relations with the Third World (1948 - 2008). Tel Aviv University. 2009, p. 30 -

8 See: Prokopenko L. Ya. New Political elites in the States of Southern Africa, Moscow, IAfr RAS, 2011. (Prokopenko L.Ya. 2011. Novye politicheskie elity v gosudarstvakh Yuga Afriki. M.) (in Russian)

Dash Doresh Sebashtyan B. L. 9 Angola. The current state, prospects of development of relations with Russia. M., Institute of African studies, 1999, pp. 40 - 42.

10 Africa South of the Sahara, 2007. L. and N. -Y., 2006, p. 1277.

11 See: Malupenga Amos. Levy Patric Mwanawasa. NISK Ltd, Grahamstown South Africa. 2009.

12 The Times of Zambia. 2007. 27 September.

Deich T. D. 13 Africa in the Strategy of China, Moscow, Institute of Africa of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008, p. 207. (Deich T. L. 2008. Afrika v strategii Kitaya. M.) (in Russian)


15 Ibidem.

16 Lusaka Times. Lusaka, 16.02.2012.

17 See: Zambia. Reference and Monographic edition, Moscow, Institute of Africa of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2013, p. 140.

18 ward


20 &prev

21 -kalaba

22 Pulse of the planet. ITAR-TASS. 21.06.2012, p. 14.

23 Bulletin of the Russian Embassy in Zambia. 25.02.2012, p. 4.

24 1127/exercise-africa-endeavor-2013-kicks-off-in-Zambia

25 ons-with-finland

26 27 Bulletin of the Russian Embassy in Zambia. 7.12.2013, p. 6.

28 Zambian Radio QFM. 16.01.2010.

29 - 3.06.2012, N 565628.

30 - 7.02.2012, N 489449.

31 - 06/19/con-tent_32716602.htm

32 Lusaka Times. 2010. 12 May.



35 40743256c3a0047948d?OpenDocument


37 Bulletin of the Russian Embassy in Zambia. 31.10.2013, p. 1.



40 Lusaka Times. 2009. 8 October.

41 Economic Freedom of the World: 2013 Annual Report, p. 177 -

42 Ibidem.

43 Times of Zambia. 2014. 19 February.

44 Lusaka Times. 2014. 10 April.


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