Population of Volhynia in the XVI-first half of the XVII century: family, household, demographic factors. - K., 2012. - 712 p.
Despite the growing number of works that have been published relentlessly recently, it is very rare to talk about a "new word in science". Against the background of ordinary "finds", the monograph of Irina Voronchuk, a well-known researcher of the early modern history of Ukraine, a source scholar with a European name, is an exception. The author's long-term research during the 1990s and 2010s culminated in a unique publication designed in the paradigm of historical anthropology and interdisciplinarity and dedicated to solving the problems of everyday life of various strata of the Volyn community of the XVI-first half of the XVII century.
The perspective of the monograph is constructed as microhistorical in a broad sense insofar as its research goal is subordinated to the idea of reconstructing poorly studied or completely unexplored aspects of social history in order to once again prove the infinity of knowledge of a single object of study - marriage, family, yard, household. By limiting the object scope of the studios chronologically and geographically, I. Voronchuk managed to reveal the deep essence of the demographic processes of that time much more thoroughly than any of his predecessors, taking into account the socio-economic, political, cultural, religious, legal, natural-geographical and other factors that influenced the life of early modern Volhynia.
Architectonics of the publication is completely subordinated to the logic of the author's concept of representation of the object-subject sphere of study, and structurally consists of five sections, logically connected with the purpose of research-highlighting the general trend of the demographic situation in Volhynia during the XVI-first half of the XVII century (p. 15). Therefore, the objectives of the monograph are: to determine the model of marriage and its impact on the family structure; to analyze the forms of marriage and family structures, the relationship between the marriage model and the type of family and demographic dynamics; to trace the correlation of family forms of various social executions of the population, depending on the specifics of economic activity and differences in the typology of family structures; to find out the problems of fertility and mortality and their influence on the stereotype of demographic behavior, and, finally, to determine the numerical parameters of the population of Volhynia in the middle of the XVII century (p. 15-16).
The fundamental foundations of the study are set out in the introduction (p. 8-17) and the first chapter - " demographic mentality of the Volhynian gentry ("so that a person spends his years in married life") " (p. 18-136), which contain extensive historiographical excursions regarding the affected historical and demographic problem and historical comments on the content and meaning of the concept of "family". types of families, their classification, presentation of classical and latest methodological principles of reconstruction of the Szlachta family and marriage model, procreational behavior of the Volhynian Szlachta, representation of thematic terminology. The worldview and methodological attitude of the researcher can be characterized not as a collection of abstract theories or a mechanical combination of methods, but as a meaningful management of acquired knowledge in the direction of advancing their system, capable of generating the unity of concepts and practices based on retrospective information of exceptional quality.
content, when in the center of interests - "a specific carrier of national and cultural traditions, religious and moral instructions, mental stereotypes, conscious and unconscious psychological motivations", that is, a person (p. 13).
The solidity of a historical narrative is always determined by its starting point. A special feature of I. Voronchuk's works is a powerful and representative set of sources. The peer-reviewed monograph is no exception. When writing it, documents from the central archival institutions of our country( the Central State Historical Archive of Ukraine in Kiev, the Central State Archive of the highest authorities and administration of Ukraine), Poland (the main archive of ancient acts in Warsaw), municipal (for example, the State Archive in Krakow) archives, departments of manuscripts of famous book collections (National Library of Ukraine) were involved. libraries of Ukraine named after V. Vernadsky, Lviv National Scientific Library named after V. Stefanyk, Czartoryski Library and Jagiellonian Library in Krakow, libraries of the National Institution named after V. Kropotkin. Ossolinsky in Wroclaw) and others (pp. 614-615). Perfectly mastering the methods of archival heuristics, I. Voronchuk managed to find documents, including unique and rare ones, making them known to science and the general public. The composition and content of archival materials used in writing the book is quite diverse, which helps to avoid unilateral disclosure of a diverse research problem.
About a hundred sources published at different times (chronicles ,chronicles, memoirs; act books of Grodno and zemstvo courts of Volhynia, documents related to economic activity, including lustrations of royal estates, Inventory of private possessions, etc., private legal acts), which are mainly multi-volume serial publications, are widely used in the monograph., prepared for publication by real ascetics of science and reputable scientific institutions (pp. 615-618). The free reading of published (as well as unpublished) documents was another merit of I. Voronchuk, who focused exclusively on the comprehension of objective truth. We should also properly value the use of sources that have occasionally come to the attention of researchers, but shed light on certain mental stereotypes that were crucial for the formation of demographic behavior. This includes, in particular, family chronicles, private correspondence, wedding and funeral speeches, instructive content of texts, and so on.
Guided by the desire to comprehensively represent the practice of marriage, to characterize the marriage model and its impact on the family structure, to typologize marriage and family forms of relations, to reveal the internal motivations and mechanisms of demographic behavior of the people of that time, the author accurately identified the most successful type of mass documentary source necessary and very important for the implementation of the problems raised - these are the books of the Grodno and zemstvo courts of Lutsk In the Central State Historical Archive in Kiev, the city of Vladimir and Kremenetsky uyezds are preserved in the Central State Historical Archive in Kiev. A small part of them was published in the multi-volume corpus edition of the Kiev Archeographic Commission - "Archive of South-Western Russia". Most of the records in the act books of zemstvo and Grodno courts contain information about families and relationships between family members, which makes it possible to search for the necessary information for reconstructing related relationships.
structures. As widely as possible, their involvement contributed to a more complete restoration of the composition of specific families (primarily gentry) and the content of their relations, solving a number of scientific problems of a historical and demographic nature.
Undoubtedly, the historical sources themselves do not give a ready answer to the questions raised in the monograph. Only their professional study using the methods of scientific criticism, demonstrated by a well-known researcher, made it possible to fully reveal the information documentary potential. Guided by the principles of classification of act books proposed by authoritative source historians V. Chuntulova and M. Kovalsky, the author draws attention to the possibility of reconstructing the demographic characteristics of early modern society based on this type of source, and "inscribing" their content in the factual and normative historical narrative. Proper pricing is found in marriage contracts, debt records, gifts, testaments, bills of sale, division agreements, acts of pledge, holding, lease, protestations, demonstrations, ticket records, statements, court decrees and other types of sources, the study of which realizes in a wide range the main goal of the researcher-to present the history of the Volyn family, family, clan in the Russian Federation. in the context of a vision of general social history, which is a deeply balanced methodological approach, since historical retrospect is focused on the exclusivity sought in universalism.
The difference of the publication, and therefore its dissimilarity in comparison with many others, is the comprehensive study of sources by the historian, which provides not only for the selection of obvious information, but also for the identification of the indirect structure of significant networks of private and public legal acts related to the social aspects of the life of the population of Volhynia in the studied period of time.
Scientific skepticism and long-term practice of reporting on early modern texts allowed I. Voronchuk to rationally and carefully evaluate the problem-thematic historiography. The" source of inspiration " for polemics with colleagues was their works, awareness of which the researcher convincingly demonstrates. Fluency in European languages allowed the author to easily overcome the "language barriers" in science and operate with multilingual professional literature. Therefore, the author's deep comments and reflections are based on the historical and historiographical thoughts of leading experts, representatives of modern European (French, British, Polish scientific schools) and American science, who have distinguished themselves by their exceptional influence on the development of historical demography and social history in general. The author's good knowledge of the achievements of the French historical school is confirmed through active interpretations of the scientific works of Fr. Le Pley, L. Henri, A. Sauvy, P. Huber, J. Dupaquier, F. Lebrun, A. Landry, J.-L. Flandrin and other researchers who for many decades have deservedly remained leading experts on social problems.
Their achievements became the object of interest of Polish researchers, who boldly resorted to constructing author's models for studying society and its evolution at different levels of stratification. Special appreciation of I. Voronchuk studios of G. Lovmyansky, A. Vichansky, M. Bogutskaya, Z. Guldon, A. Monchak, V. Kuli, C. kuhle, Z. Kuhovich and many other Polish artists
historians are motivated by borrowing the ideas of French researchers, which have been successfully tested on regional Eastern European specifics. The development of new knowledge at the meeting point of various, sometimes polar ideas, which are carried by representatives of many scientific schools and cultural practices, is due to the desire of I. Voronchuk to strengthen interdisciplinary discourses within the object-subject sphere of social history. At the same time, we note not only the imitation of the ideas of scientists, but also the author's understanding and interpretation of them, supplemented by bold creative findings, for example, regarding the methods of studying metric sources by M. Fleury, the method of restoring the family history or reconstructing it by L. Henri, or the classification scheme of family structures by P. Laslett. The range of scientific interests, comprehensive erudition of I. Voronchuk allowed us to confidently polemicize with colleagues, laying the foundations for the latest history of everyday life of the early new society of Volhynia. Among Ukrainian scientists, the works of original researchers of related or related issues were duly appreciated-Ya. Dashkevich, M. Krikun, N. Yakovenko, V. Ulyanovsky, N. Kolesnikov. Starchenko and others, whose work is marked by a particularly respectful attitude to archival sources and the production of innovative scientific ideas.
The author's terminological interpretations of the content of individual units of the conceptual and categorical apparatus are of exceptional importance for reading the book. These are such basic categories and concepts as, for example, "family", "smoke", "surname", "gender", "family"; terminology reflecting various degrees of kinship along straight and lateral lines; related terms of a general nature ("obedience", "marriage", "malzhenstvo", "ozhenenie", "married"), etc. (pp. 18-25, 56-60). Theoretical study of the family terminology in the records of the Grodno and zemstvo courts allowed us to reconstruct the genealogies of the Volhynian gentry of the XVI-first half of the XVII century, and at the same time to create an idea of the abstract model of identity-in-difference of the Volhynian family and to study the demographic mentality of the gentry's execution.
Understanding each term as a product of language in broader cultural or social systems leads the author to" intertextual networks", the links between which can be unraveled thanks to the marriage model, each subject of which finds a clear subordination anchoring in the system of kinship and relationships of family members. The study of the marriage model of Volyn society takes place through the prism of demographic processes, attitudes and behavior, as well as the mental representations of an early modern person, which are corrected not only by tradition or trend, but also by the legal acts of that time, in particular the Lithuanian statutes of all three editions (1529, 1566, 1588). the age difference between young spouses, marriage, its duration, polygamy, the life choices of men and women after widowhood, the circumstances and consequences of possible divorces, the prestige of the marriage partner, matrimonial strategies, the birth of offspring, marital relations, the status of a married woman and a married man in society, and so on. The disclosure of their content due to the operation of a large-scale spring complex is closely related to the active reconstruction of the demographic situation by the historian.
This is due to the fact that the population of Volhynia (primarily the szlachta) has developed a certain mentality, and as a result, we are making steady progress towards solving many problems of the social history of the early modern period.
Based on an in-depth analysis of the legal norms and social practices of the time, the author argues for the dominance of the early marriage model in the gentry environment, which ensured the decisive role in the conclusion of a marital union not of the young, but of their parents and close relatives. Referring to historical sources, the researcher concludes that pragmatic, material approaches prevail in the practical implementation of matrimonial strategies, and state policy in the field of regulating marriage relations, based on gender norms and gender identities, did not guarantee equal rights and opportunities for different parties to marriage. In this way, conditions were laid for constructing the gender asymmetry characteristic of a traditional patriarchal society with the absolute power of a man over all members of his family, including his wife, usually due to objective and subjective factors much younger than the marriage partner.
The fundamental provisions of the monograph include consideration of the procreational behavior of the Volhynian gentry, namely, natural movement, constant renewal and variability of the population. Polygamy, mortality, fertility and childbearing are fairly recognized as objective factors of these processes. The search for answers to the questions of their factors has led to extensive historical comments that shed light not only on the problematic aspects of the analyzed topic, but also on the general history of European material and spiritual civilization, when the historical subject, raised largely by the microenvironment-the family, is rewarded with an intersubjective or collective spirit, the comprehension of which is impossible without the history of everyday life.
A thorough study of historical sources allowed us to establish the characteristic features of the demographic behavior of the Volhynian gentry during the XVI-first half of the XVII century, namely, early and universal marriage and large families inherent in any traditional society. There is no doubt about the interdependence between the marriage model and procreational behavior, since early marriages provided, firstly, the sexual needs of young people, and secondly, the high fertility of spouses (pp. 135-136). I. Voronchuk quite rightly believes that despite the multifunctional nature of the gentry family, its most important purpose was to ensure the duration of the family, and the search for an answer to the question about the childbearing rate allowed the researcher to come to the conclusion that the main social function of a gentry woman was the birth of children, the average number of which was 5.78 people (p.136). Although such conclusions correspond to the generally accepted ideas in historical science about the Eastern European model of marriage and the procreative behavior of spouses, however, the corresponding clarifications and reasoned conclusions are presented in Ukrainian historiography for the first time.
Considerable attention in the monograph is paid to elucidating the structure and typology of families-the gentry (section 2 "Structure and typology of the Gentry family", p. 137-201), Middle-class and peasant (section 3 "Structure and typology of peasant and middle-class families", p. 202-324), which contains a rich illustrative material.
obrazograficheskoe and textual support, encouraging favorable attitude to the chosen I. Voronchuk method of verification of historical facts, phenomena and processes. Rational, biased judgments of the researcher are reliably verified by sources, which, in turn, have passed a serious author's expertise on the reliability of information. Coverage of the structure and typology of families follows a similar pattern: 1) the yard as an economic complex; 2) the inhabitants of the yard (family and household members); 3) the household; 4) the family and family-household ratio.
The specifics of household structures were embodied in distinctive aspects, in particular, for the gentry family, these were the service of the gentry and magnate households with the system of "Pan - servant" interdependencies, for the peasant family-the influence of the management system on the peasant family structure, and for the middle - class family-the occupation of the corresponding population. Developing ideas around the structure and typology of families, the author offered a vividly developed social characterization of the main actors of the gentry court, peasant household or urban smoke, which contributed to the appearance of a "living image" of the gentry, and especially of the "silent majority" - the peasantry and philistines. The representation of each type of family takes into account the socio-economic, political, cultural, and religious factors of everyday life, and the distinction between their specifics is made through a comparative approach, comparison with similar categories of reality in Western European society and by comparing them with each other within the same social space.
Calculating the habitability of Volhynia in the XVI-first half of the XVII century, I. Voronchuk makes a deep, meaningful analysis of social, military, political, natural-geographical factors that also determine demographic indicators. The core of the fourth chapter - " the impact of natural and military - political cataclysms on the structure of the Ukrainian family (God save us from hunger, pestilence, Tatars) "(pp. 325-417) - was the concept of demographic rhythms, depending on the external objective circumstances of human life. These are considered global climatic bad weather (hurricanes, floods, droughts), crop failures, famine, pestilence, fires, and local violations of its usual course: Zhovnir settlements, neighbor's arbitrariness, robberies, and so on. Highlighting the problem of the biological dimension of history, I. Voronchuk is extremely attentive to the natural factors of social development that affect the physical, somatic and mental health of an individual and society as a whole. The fatigue, stress, etc. generated by them form the system of world phenomena, general and individual habitus, determine life guidelines, behavioral stereotypes, and general activities of people. Despite the significant role of the biological sphere in the life of society, its exceptional importance for social processes in Ukrainian historiography, unlike in foreign historiography, there are only a few small studies that raised these issues. Having duly appreciated the achievements of her colleagues, I. Voronchuk offered her own vision of the problem based on a specific historical material-the history of the population of Volhynia. Consideration of each social or natural climatic factor is subject to a comprehensive analysis of the features of its course and consequences for people. Having come to the conclusion about the complexity of studying real losses
population as a result of various natural disasters and epidemic diseases due to the lack of documentary material, the author brings the reader to an awareness of the difficulties of human life at that time and the acute need for collective coexistence of humanity in order to resist the ubiquitous and ever-present challenges of fate. Accompanying interesting stories of everyday life against this background were analytical stories about the sanitary and hygienic living conditions of the people of that time, the course of diseases and the attitude of the population towards them as God's punishment for a bad conscience, the peculiarities of combating natural elements and their consequences-crop failures, high food prices, hunger, etc.
Frequent Tatar attacks, which resulted in a constant outflow of the population from Ukraine to Crimea, were an important factor in the negative impact on life and the demographic state in the Ukrainian lands. As a result of processing historical sources, specific calculations were made. According to the author's calculations, Volyn lost at least 500 thousand people withdrawn to the Crimea and killed. Taking into account the fact that these people were mostly of childbearing age, the researcher tries to determine the loss of potential offspring that the prisoners could give, and concludes that at least 500 thousand offspring were born (according to the least hypothetical assumptions; p.417). Leaving behind comments the offspring that could be produced not only by captives, but also by their children, grandchildren and distant descendants, the author violates complex statistical and demographic methods for calculating biological population growth.
Solving methodological problems of studying the population of Volhynia during the XVI-first half of the XVII century, I. Voronchuk resorted to solving an almost impossible task for the historical demography of the sadistic period - finding out the number of individual strata, in particular the peasantry, philistines, clergy, and nobility, and determining the ratio between the main and most numerous executions of the period under study. Studying various types of historical sources, the author identifies the most informative ones, which indirectly shed light on the data on the number of People of that time. These are documents of socio-economic content, in particular Inventory lists, lustrations, and those that reproduce the list of taxpayers , such as levies, tax collections, and registers of individual taxes. The lack of perfect methods and sporadic testing of the latest research methods on a rather limited demographic material explain the lack of estimates of Volhynia's population in the XVI-XVII centuries. Very valuable source-study observations made by I. Voronchuk regarding various types of documentary sources allow us to correct the calculation methods and quantitative estimates of the population of this historical region (p. 419-424). Comprehensively analyzing the studies of A. Yablonovsky, A. Baranovich, and M. Krikun devoted to the Volhynian habitat, the author makes practical clarifications of statistical data based on his own method of calculating them, the essence of which is to calculate the main executions of the population on the basis of new indicators obtained from documentary materials-coefficients of household structures that covered not only the biological family, but also all In this way, we move away from the common practice of calculations based on heterogeneous tax objects.
Complex mathematical calculations allowed I. Voronchuk to establish (with a relative error) the data for Volhynia in the study period: 913,000 peasants (p. 438), 288,184 philistines (p. 439), 138,200 people of the gentry family together with the service (p. 445-446), 7752 people of the clergy (together with household members; p. 449), 12,800 filvark employees (p. 452). Adding together the number of different categories of the Volhynian population, the researcher believes that at least 1 million 300 thousand people are likely, which is distributed as a percentage as follows: 67.14% - the peasantry, together with the filvark population-68.08%, the petty bourgeoisie accounts for 21.19%, the gentry-4.06%, and together with the domestic service-10.16% , for clergy-0.57%. Separately, the service of the gentry households, according to I. Voronchuk, was 6.10%, and filvarkov-0.94% (p. 452). Consequently, according to updated data, the population of the Volhynia voivodeship was 31 people per 1 sq. km, which, according to the researcher, looks much less than in France at that time (45 people per sq. km), Wirtemberg (40) and England (36), almost the same as Saxony (30.8) and much denser than in Pomerania, Prussia, Denmark, and Scotland (p. 454). The introduction of new, more objective and significantly refined statistical data on the population of Volhynia based on our own methodology for calculating demographic indicators is an achievement of I. Voronchuk, which is worth the highest price.
Referring to the European historical and demographic statistics, corrected by the theory of tides and ebbs F. The author of the monograph makes a number of fundamental conclusions about the growth and decline of the population of Ukrainian lands. If the period of the XVI - first half of the XVII century fully corresponds to the demographic trend of the whole of Europe and is characterized by the "phenomenon of compensation" of previous losses, then the years 1650-1750 were a time of critical decrease in habitability associated with political cataclysms of the middle and second half of the XVII century - the uprising led by B. Khmelnitsky, the Moscow-Polish War of 1654-1656, Ruin, Turks and Crimeans to the Ukrainian lands in 1672, 1674, 1675, 1678, the arrests of Jan Sobieski and a large deportation of the population from Right-bank Ukraine to Left-bank Ukraine, conducted by the son of Hetman Ivan Samoilovich-Semyon in 1678, which led to the devastation and depopulation of a large territory of Ukraine, and especially Volhynia, which was in the epicenter of military operations (P. 456).
In addition to the main text of the monograph, it is especially worth evaluating seven appendices that adequately enrich the publication. Tables and diagrams illustrating the nomenclature of polygamy of Volyn women and men (p. 457-493), childhood of noble Volyn families( p. 494-524), reconstruction of peasant household and related structures( p. 525-565), chronology of natural disasters, poshes and fire in Volyn (p. 566-576), catalog of Tatar-Turkish attacks on Ukrainian lands (p. 577-603) and the list of human losses in Volhynia as a result of Tatar raids (pp. 604-613) during this time are introduced, in our opinion, not only for educational or educational purposes, but also for provoking purposes, in order to cause a surge of readers ' attention, active development of historical works. I. Voronchuk often uses the method of" echoing " additional and main texts. It is difficult to judge the factors of such an author's strategy, but let's assume,
In this way, the researcher tries to avoid the dictates of her own opinion and, on the contrary, democratically, through documentary sources, ensures the cultivation of tolerance necessary for modern science, the formation of the principle of multi - normality of truth, which is a property of open-type societies. Note that the scale of the study is further emphasized by the name (p.642-693) and geographical (p. 694-711) indexes, each of which has thousands of positions.
And finally, we note that the book was published in a high-quality printing version. The artistic design of the binding, title, title page, title page, and each page is in harmony with the content of the monograph, which is also richly illustrated with historical material that has an outstanding aesthetic value for the perception of a scientific work.
We can safely state that with the publication of I. Voronchuk's work, the paradigm of historical and demographic representation of the history of everyday life of the population of Volhynia in the XVI-first half of the XVII century has changed, the content of which is the desire to restore knowledge and comprehend the Ukrainian past in the context of pan-European events and vice versa. Scientific discoveries and achievements, as Irina Voronchuk's monograph proves, are rooted in an unbiased approach to the object of research and an opera on documentary sources of information.
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V. V. Bezdrabko, Voronchuk I. O. population of Volhynia in the XVI-first half of the XVII century: family, household, demographic factors // New-York: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 03.01.2024. URL: https://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/Voronchuk-I-O-population-of-Volhynia-in-the-XVI-first-half-of-the-XVII-century-family-household-demographic-factors (date of access: 21.02.2024).
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