Libmonster ID: U.S.-1464
Author(s) of the publication: A. Y. URNOV
Educational Institution \ Organization: Institute of Africa, Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: USA, Africa, US-Africa Summit, Africa Economic Growth and Trade Opportunities Act, AFRICOM

"I am proud to announce that next year I intend to invite the heads of State and Government of sub-Saharan Africa to the United States for a summit that will help usher in a new chapter in US - African relations," said US President Barack Obama. Obama at the University of Cape Town, where he spoke on June 30, 2013, during his second trip to Africa (after 2009) .1

In international practice, the idea of convening such a forum was neither new nor original in itself. Japan has regularly held high - level meetings with African leaders since 1993, and China and the European Union since 2000.

All these years, the White House has not felt the need for collective communication with African leaders. The decision to borrow someone else's experience showed that in 2013 such a need appeared. What is the reason?

Let's just say that the United States has not been passive in Africa in previous decades. However, after Africa ceased to be an object of confrontation in the Cold War, US interest in this continent initially lost its strategic acuteness. But it didn't last long.

PRESIDENTS B. CLINTON AND J. W. BUSH-TURNING TO AFRICA

A new turn of the United States towards Africa was outlined in the mid-90s of the last century under President B. Clinton. In Bush's Africa policy, continuity was combined with increased activism and major innovations.

The African Economic Growth and Trade Opportunities Act (AGOA), passed in May 2001, still serves as one of the main instruments of US policy in the region. The law provides for the granting of trade preferences to sub-Saharan African countries (hereinafter referred to as SSA), provided that they meet the political and economic criteria established by the United States, and this compliance is subject to annual audit and confirmation at the level of the US President. In order to be included in the "list of the Law", the SSA countries must not only "follow democratic norms", but also follow the path of "minimizing state interference in the economy, removing barriers to US trade and investment" and, of course ,not obstruct " US efforts in the field of national security and foreign policy"2.

It is often claimed that due to this Law, the SSA countries were able to export about 6.4 thousand goods to the United States on a duty-free and quota-free basis. This is not entirely correct, since out of the specified number of commodity items, approximately 4.8 thousand were previously imported to the United States duty-free in accordance with the General System of Preferences covering more than 120 developing countries.

These goods also include oil, which traditionally accounts for up to 90% of US imports from the SSA. Actually, the Law established a preferential regime for an additional 1.6 thousand goods.3 But this is also quite a lot, especially when you consider that this list included industrial products - textiles, clothing, and even cars.

The strength of American policy has been the provision of medical and humanitarian assistance, such as the "Presidential Emergency Program for AIDS Patients in Africa"put forward by Bush Jr.

Serious progress has been made in the military sphere. In 2002, a U.S. military base was established at Camp Lemonniere, Djibouti, to house the Horn of Africa Joint Task Force. In October 2008, a new, 6th US regional command, AFRICOM, was formed. Thus, in terms of its strategic importance for the United States, Africa-at least formally-turned out to be equated with other regions of the" third world", including the Middle East.

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The headquarters of AFRICOM and the Special Operations Command in Africa are located in Stuttgart (Germany). In Europe (Italy and Germany), command posts of four combat components of AFRICOM are deployed - the ground forces, the marine Corps, the Air Force and the Navy, intended for use on the African continent. Plans to relocate the AFRICOM headquarters to African soil were not supported by most African States. As of 2010, approximately 3,500 American soldiers and officers were stationed directly on the continent, including 2,000 at Camp Lemonniere and 1,500 on a temporary basis in various countries4.

AFRICOM, as U.S. officials have consistently emphasized, was created to counter terrorism. The specifics of this new structure were that, although it allowed independent combat operations, it was stated that the main task of AFRICOM was "to help African States and regional organizations strengthen their defense capabilities so that they can better counter threats to their own security and reduce threats to US interests." 5

In other words, the course was taken to ensure that stability and security on the continent were maintained with the help of the United States, but mainly by the Africans themselves. There is a double benefit: the direct involvement of the United States in military conflicts, and therefore the risk of its own losses, was minimized, while the military dependence of African countries on Washington and its ability to influence them increased.

THE "OBAMA PILLARS" OF US POLICY IN AFRICA

President Barack Obama continued the policy of his predecessors to strengthen political, economic, military and other ties with African States.

Washington has been and still is being encouraged to pay increased attention and actively work in Africa by a number of factors:

- geopolitical and strategic - in the context of the declared course of the United States to preserve and consolidate its global leadership;

- economic - interest in the mineral resources and markets of the continent.

The recent positive developments in Africa's development and the discovery of new rich hydrocarbon deposits give this interest an additional incentive, opening up an opportunity for the United States to use them for its own development and to overcome the difficulties experienced by the American economy.

Explaining why the United States wants to establish a "new relationship" with Africa, Barack Obama acknowledged at a meeting with businessmen in Dar es Salaam on July 1, 2013: "The more opportunities for economic development in African countries, the more opportunities the United States itself can have. So our help is not charity, but also our own self-interest. " 6

According to the American leadership, numerous conflicts, instability, the presence of ungoverned territories and "porous" borders favor the activity of international terrorism and transnational crime on the continent, which not only limits the United States ' ability to receive the desired political and economic dividends in Africa, but also to one degree or another creates an immediate threat to its own security.

When describing Obama's policy in Africa, administration officials have usually talked about the "pillars" on which it is based. In a generalized form and using official vocabulary, the main program settings of the US African policy are as follows::

- strengthening democratic institutions;

- promoting economic growth, trade and investment;

- promoting opportunities and development;

- strengthening peace and security, conflict resolution.

From the very beginning, the Obama administration presented its policies to Africans in fancy propaganda packaging. It is emphasized that Africa is now one of the most important subjects of international relations, and that it is up to the Africans themselves to determine the fate of the continent. "Africans should decide for themselves what is in the African interest. We trust your decision, " Obama said in Cape Town on 7 May.

It was taken for granted, however, that in order to earn the "trust" of the United States, the decisions made must correspond to Washington's ideas about the development path of Africa.

"Some in Africa, including those in power, accuse the US of 'interfering' and 'exporting' Western values, " Obama complained. "But those who resort to such arguments are only trying to distract people's attention from their own abuses," he argued.8

Those who doubted and disagreed with US policy were thus included in the list of unscrupulous and untrustworthy critics.

And not only that. "To those in Africa who try to hinder the development of democratic processes, who will threaten legitimately elected governments, manipulate democratic processes, we say-the United States will not stand aside," said in January 2013, the US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, John Kerry.Carson 9. Thus, under the pretext of "protecting democracy," the United States has assumed the right to interfere in the affairs of African States at its own discretion.

BATTLE FOR AFRICA

The strengthening of the US position on the continent was hindered by

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competition from other world powers. Over time, it became increasingly clear that the United States was beginning to lose the unfolding "battle for Africa." "Russia, Brazil, China, Japan and others are investing and seeking to take advantage of growth and development opportunities in Africa. We are lagging behind here, and this needs to change, " US Secretary of State John Kerry said.Kerry in May 2013 in Addis Ababa, where he participated in the 50th anniversary of the OAU/AU10.

By listing American competitors in this order, the Secretary of State deliberately adjusted the real situation, so as not to publicly announce that the leading role in the confrontation with the United States on the continent is played - and is playing successfully - by the People's Republic of China. In 2000, China's trade with Africa was $10 billion, up from $38.6 billion. The US has 11. In 2009, China overtook the United States to become Africa's largest trading partner, and in 2013 the gap widened to $210 billion from $85.3 billion.12 Moreover, in May 2014, Premier Li Keqiang promised to increase the volume of trade with Africa to $400 billion by 2020.13

In terms of investment in Africa, China still lags behind the United States - in 2012, respectively, $25 billion and $61.4 billion, but the same Li Keqiang announced that by 2020, Chinese investment will increase 4-fold 14.

So the economy merged with geopolitics. Hence, it seems, the decision on the summit, in the expectation that the mechanism of influencing Africa "from the very top" will allow Washington to turn the tide of events and secure leadership.

The Obama administration offers a different explanation. Let us refer to L. Thomas-Greenfield, who succeeded J. R. R. Tolkien.Carson as Assistant Secretary of State and head of the State Department's Bureau of African Affairs. The convening of the summit is not "a reaction to the activity of some other country in Africa... We are not intimidated by the presence of other states in Africa, " she said shortly before the 15 summit." Not concerned "about the United States and" China's close relations with the peoples of the region, " Thomas-Greenfield argued. "We tell the people of Africa that when negotiating with the Chinese government, they need to make the best possible deals for their countries." 16 A valuable clue, but don't Africans themselves think of something like this? Washington is also watching China, with which, according to the same Thomas-Greenfield, the United States "works to ensure that what it provides helps achieve the future prosperity of Africa and all its peoples." 17

Here is another statement from the Assistant Secretary of State: The United States "encourages African partners to determine for themselves which relations with which state, whether temporary or long-term, bring the greatest benefit to the lives of their peoples"18.It is not difficult to guess which country Washington suggests its African partners recognize as having the "greatest benefit"in their relations with.

What motivated Washington's decision to convene the summit and what results were expected from it? The theme of a new "rising" Africa and its increased role in world affairs was pedaled. "I see Africa as a fundamental part of our interconnected world," President Obama said on 19.

On the eve of the summit, the White House issued a statement calling the continent "one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing regions in the world, which raises the need to build stronger ties between the United States and Africa." The summit, it went on, " will further strengthen the administration's efforts to promote trade and increase American investment in Africa, and highlight America's commitment to ensuring the continent's security and creating an enabling environment for its democratic development."20.

As for the goals that the United States set for the summit, L. Thomas-Greenfield defined them as follows.

"We want African leaders and citizens to leave with the understanding that the United States cares about their continent, and that Washington is committed to a long - term and multilateral partnership with African countries. We also want the summit to lead to an increase in American investment on the continent, and to establish closer ties between American and African companies. " 21

So, the deepening of the US-African partnership across the entire spectrum of relations. But that's not all. The summit also focused on the issue of African youth22.

HOW THE SUMMIT WAS PREPARED AND HELD

On January 21, 2014, the press service of the US President announced that the summit is scheduled to be held in Washington on August 5-6. The list of invitees included 47 States, including Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia in North Africa, as well as the Chairman of the African Union (AU) Commission, N. Dlamini-Zuma. 23 Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar and the Central African Republic were not included in the list, as decisions to suspend their membership in the AU were in effect at that time. After the decisions regarding the first three States were canceled by the African Union, invitations were sent to them.

Along with the Central African Republic and Western Sahara, which was not recognized by the United States, Zimbabwe, Sudan and Eritrea were left out, whose policies were considered un-democratic and anti-American in Washington. The refusal of the invitation was motivated by the fact that these countries "do not enjoy a good reputation in the United States24.

No State refused the invitation. The summit was not attended by the heads of 8 African States. The reasons for the refusal of the King of Morocco, the presidents of Angola, Botswana and Egypt were not officially reported. The Presidents of Algeria and Zambia referred to the state of health. The Presidents of Liberia and Sierra Leone decided not to resign-

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give their countries in response to the outbreak of the Ebola epidemic. All of these States were represented by 25 Vice-Presidents, Prime ministers or foreign ministers.

The implementation of the set of events related to the summit began on July 28 with another "summit" - a meeting between Barack Obama, John Kerry and some other prominent American figures with five hundred "Washington fellows" who came to the United States for short-term training and internships, whom the administration called "young African leaders".

The main event is a multi-sided free exchange of views between all participants of the forum at the White House on August 6. It was preceded by 6 thematic meetings, where issues for discussion at the highest level were worked out. On August 4, the annual AGOA forum was held, and the next day, the first American - African business forum was held. In total, about 80 events were held at the forum 26. The American side was represented by ministers, senators, congressmen, heads of large corporations, and public figures.

The US President and Secretary of State spoke at the Youth Summit and Business Forum, where they were joined by Vice President John Kerry.Biden.Kerry also spoke at the AGOA Forum, a "thematic meeting" on civil society, a" working session " on food security, and the signing ceremony of the US-Africa Partnership. Clean Energy Finance Initiative".

The US President did not hold any bilateral meetings with his African colleagues. In his toast at a dinner hosted by the White House on August 5 in honor of the summit participants, B. Obama theatrically played up his African origin: "I stand before you as the President of the United States and a proud American. But I also stand before you as the son of an African. African blood runs in my family's veins. So the ties that bind our countries and our continents are deeply personal. " 27

Unlike other summits, the adoption of any final documents - whether a joint statement or a plan of further action - was not planned from the very beginning.

THE MAIN THING IS THE ECONOMY

Despite the diversity of the summit's agenda, the main focus was on addressing issues of US-African economic ties. Economic issues were discussed at the first of three sessions of the White House summit. The business forum was attended by the Presidents of the World Bank and the African Development Bank, heads of all departments of the economic block of the administration, representatives of about 100 US companies 28. The AGOA Forum was held at the ministerial level.

The Corporate Council for Africa, which brings together about 180 US companies that account for 85% of US direct capital investment in the continent, held a series of events on July 30 - August 8 dedicated to the challenges of increasing investment in these countries. 29 Business meetings were held with the Presidents of Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria. The Congressional Black Caucus, which includes 44 African-American congressmen, met with 30 senior officials of African companies who arrived in Washington.

As Obama said at the final press conference, " the summit helped raise about $37 billion. This is, of course, in addition to the serious efforts that we have made in the past."31

In connection with the convening of the summit, US private corporations announced new deals in Africa worth $14 billion.32 The largest investments range from $2 billion to $5 billion. "They promised Coca-Cola, General Electric, IBM, and Blackstone."

Private American corporations, the World Bank and the Swedish government decided to invest an additional $12 billion in the Africa - Energy project initiated by Barack Obama during his trip to the continent in the summer of 201334. The World Bank's share is $5 billion 35.

The project aims to "double access to electricity in sub-Saharan Africa". It was planned to start working in eight countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda). At the first stage, it was planned to increase electricity production by 10 thousand megawatts, which would allow to supply electricity to an additional 20 million households and businesses. At that time, it was planned to allocate $7 billion for the project from government sources in the next five years. The US private sector promised to invest $9 billion 36. Now a new infusion has been announced, designed to triple the number of project beneficiaries to 60 thousand 37

Another $7 billion, including $ 3 billion. Funds from the Export-Import Bank of the United States were allocated for financial support of trade and investment in Africa 38. Finally, Inter-Action, a leading non-governmental organization in the United States, announced that its members will invest $4 billion over the next three years. to maternal and child health programmes in Africa 39.

The future of the Law, which expires in September 2015, remains unresolved. Meanwhile, this issue is becoming increasingly relevant and acute in US-African relations. During his visit to Africa in the summer of 2013, Barack Obama spoke not only for extending, but also for" renewing " the AGOA and making it "more effective" 40. In his speech in Cape Town, Obama clarified that it was about "removing trade barriers", but did not go into details.41

The American side does not tire of emphasizing the important, if not decisive, importance of the AGOA for strengthening the "commercial relations" between the United States and the SSA, the benefits and benefits that it brings to the Afri states-

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ki. In a speech at the AGOA Forum, J.Kerry called the Law "a catalyst for increased trade and prosperity, ""one of the best, most vital tools to move forward the dramatic transformation we are seeing in various parts of Africa." 42

The Law has indeed produced some positive results. From 2001 to 2013 - during the years of its operation - US imports from the SSA increased from $25.4 to $50 billion, exports-from $12.1 to $35.1 billion, respectively, almost 2 and 3 times 43. Zeroing customs duties on industrial goods allowed creating 300 thousand new jobs in the SSA. An additional 1 million jobs were created in industries related to the Act's stimulated productions44.In 2001-2012, non - energy exports of SSA to the United States increased from $1.3 billion to $ 4.8 billion, and the number of African countries exporting these products increased from 13 to 22,45.

However, in our view, there is no reason to believe that the Law has played a role as a kind of locomotive for Africa's development. SSA has always been, and remains, a supplier of raw materials to the United States. The countries of the region could not fully take advantage of the duty-free export opportunities provided by the Law. Out of more than 6 thousand authorized commodity items, only 300 goods were exported. The winners were a small group of countries - South Africa, clothing manufacturers Lesotho, Kenya, Mauritius, cocoa supplier Ivory Coast 47. In more than half of the countries participating in the AGOA, the value of goods sold to the United States does not exceed $1 million.48 According to Obama himself, the volume of US trade with Brazil or South Korea alone is equal to their trade with the whole of Africa.

In mid-2014, 40 countries were eligible for AGOA preferences, including South Sudan (December 2012), Mali (December 2013), and Madagascar (June 2014), which were reinstated.49 Swaziland was removed from the list on charges of human rights violations.

The Law has always had and still has irreconcilable critics. For example, a research associate at the University of Virginia, J. R. R. Tolkien.Hickel, in his article "Trade with the Enemy," argues that " at its core, the AGOA is tantamount to a forced free trade agreement with most of the subcontinent's countries." The law gave him "eerie memories of the colonial takeover." 50

In general, however, the US does not dispute the need to extend the AGOA. The subject of discrepancies is the question of what the updated content of the Law should be, and for what time it should be extended-first for 5 years or immediately for 15.

For example, the president of the Corporate Council for Africa, S. Hayes, has advocated for tougher U.S. trade laws with Africa. S. Hayes has criticized the Law for "not creating incentives for Africans to buy American goods and open their markets to them."51 The US Chamber of Commerce recommended granting benefits strictly linked to the candidate country's creation of a favorable business climate for American companies and its promotion of bilateral trade. Fearing competition, some associations of American food producers and farmers objected to the extension of the Law for a long time.52

Africans, for their part, while recognizing the usefulness of the Law, are not inclined to exaggerate it. This was stated in a statement issued by African Trade Ministers in November 2010, which called for the updated Law to be "more inclusive, accessible and permanent".53

All African participants in the August 2013 US-Africa Forum supported updating and extending the Law. 54 The unanimous decision to seek a 15-year extension of the Law was also made at the Summit of African Ministers held during the forum in Washington, 55. However, no specific comprehensive recommendations on the content of the updated Law were identified.

Speaking on July 31, 2014, Thomas-Greenfield said that the administration is "working closely with colleagues on Capitol Hill" to fulfill the president's earlier promise to push for a "smooth update" of the Law and that the Law has bipartisan support in Congress. "It's up to Congress to decide when and for how long to extend the AGOA,"the Assistant Secretary of State said. "We look forward to the AGOA Ministerial Forum to celebrate the success of the AGOA and reflect on ways to modernize and strengthen the program," said Thomas - Greenfield 56.

Nevertheless, the matter did not go further than general conversations on the forum. Speech by Secretary of State John KerryKerry was full of general phrases and good wishes.

The only agreement reached in Washington is to convene the next forum on the Law in Gabon in 2015, i.e. before its expiration date. At the final press conference, Obama confirmed that the administration "will continue to work with Congress to achieve a smooth and long-term update" of the Law.57

It seems that if the Obama administration had already prepared a draft of the updated Law, then given the diversity of political and economic interests associated with this Law, it was considered inappropriate to make it public in the run-up to the November midterm congressional elections. The Afrosoyuz also did not have any counter-agreed proposals.

On August 5, 2014, President Obama ordered the creation of an Advisory Committee of American business representatives, whose task is to prepare recommendations for the president on expanding and strengthening economic ties between the United States and African countries. 58

As one independent researcher noted, the AGOA update "will be more of a marathon than a sprint." 59

(The ending follows)

page 6

1 Remarks by President Obama at the University of Cape Town. Cape Town, South Africa. June 30. 2013 - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/30/remarks-president-obama-university- cape-town

2 African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization. Brock R.Williams. August 2, 2013. P. 5; Congressional Research Service. 7 - 5700 - www.crs.gov.R43173; Jason Hickel. Trading with the Enemy. Foreign Policy in Focus. February 16, 2011. Washington DC; www.frif.org/trading_with_the_enemy/

3 The African Growth and Opportunity Act: Looking Back, Looking Forward. Witney Schneidman with Zenia A.Lewis. June, 2012. P. 4. Africa Growth Initiative. Brookings Institution.

4 Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa. Lauren Plock. July 22, 2011. P. 12. Congressional Research Service 7 - 5700 - www.crs.gov.RL34003

5 Fact Sheet: United States Africa Command. U.S. AFRICOM Public Affairs Office; http://www.africom.mil/get/Article.asp7art-1644&blog=all

6 Remarks by President Obama at Business Leaders Forum. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. July 1, 2013; http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/07/01/remarks-president-obama-buisness-le aders-forum

7 Remarks by President Obama at the University of Cape Town...

8 Ibidem.

9 U.S. -Africa Partnership: The Last Four Years and Beyond. Remarks Johnnie Carson. Assistant Secretary, Bureau of African Affairs. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Washington DC, January 16, 2013; www.state.gov/p/af/rls/rm/2013/202943.htm

Kerry Jonh. 10 Remarks with Ethiopian Minister Tedros Adhamon After Their Meeting. Addis Ababa. May 25, 2013; http://www.state.gov/ secretary/remarks/2013/05/209963.htm

11 The African Growth and Opportunity Act: Looking Back, Looking Forward... P. 25.

12 Ibid. P. 42.

13 Compass. Issue # 23. May 22, 2014. p. 9.

14 Там же; U.S. Direct Investment Abroad - Trends and Current Issues. James K.Jackson. December 11, 2013. P. 4. Congressional Research Service 7 - 5700 - www.crc.govRS21118

Linda Thomas-Greenfield. 15 Remarks at the Atlantic Council. Washington. July 31, 2014 - http://www.state.gov/p/af/rls/rm/2014/ 230077.htm

Linda Thomas-Greenfield. 16 LiveAtState: U.S. Commitment to sub-Saharan Africa. Remarks Washington. May 14, 2014 - www.state.gov/ r/pa/ime/226092.htm

17 Ibidem.

Linda Thomas-Greenfield. 18 Remarks at the Atlantic Council...

19 2014 U.S. -Africa Leaders Summit - http://www.whitehouse.gov/ us-africa-leaders-summit

20 Ibidem.

Linda Thomas-Greenfield. 21 Remarks at the Atlantic Council...

22 2014. U.S. -Africa Leaders Summit...

23 The White House (Washington D.C.) Africa: White House on U.S. - Africa Leaders Summit. 21 January 2014. Document By Office of the Press Secretary; http://allafrica.com/stories/201401220001.html

24 Ibidem.

25 United States-Africa Leaders Summit - www.en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/united_states_africa_leaders_summit#cite_ref_chatham-47 - 0

Linda Thomas-Greenfield. 26 Remarks at the Atlantic Council.... 27 United States-Africa Leaders...

28 Remarks by the President at the US-Africa Business Forum August 5, 2014 - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/ 08/05/remarks-president-us-africa-business-forum; Obama Pledges S33 billion to Africa Commitment by Julie Pace. Associated Press. August 5, 2014 - www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/obama-pledges-33-billion-africa-commitment.

29 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/corporate_council_on_africa; The Corporate Council on Africa. Leading the Way in U.S. -Africa Investment, A Week of Business Programs and Special Events Complimenting the U.S. Government's U.S. -Africa Leaders Summit; www.africacncl.org.

30 Congressional Black Caucus - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/congressiona 1 blackcaucus; 2014 US-Africa Leaders Summit...

31 Remarks by the President at the Press Conference After U.S. -Africa Leaders Summit. August 6, 2014 - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/08/06/remarks-president-press-conference- after-us-africa-leaders-summit

32 Remarks by the President at the US-Africa Business Forum August 5, 2014...

33 US-Africa Summit Garners over 17 billions investment pledges by Krista Hughes and Lesley Wroughton. Washington, August 6, 2014 -http://uk.reuters.com/article/2014/08/05/uk-africa-summit-idUKKBNOG50XG20140805

34 Remarks by the President at the US-Africa Business Forum August 5, 2014...

35 US-Africa Summit Garners over 17 billions investment pledges...

36 Fact Sheet. Power Africa. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. June 30, 2013 - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/30/fact-sheet-power-africa

37 Remarks by the President at the Press Conference 6 August 2014...

38 Remarks by the President at the US-Africa Business Forum..; Obama Pledges $33 billion to Africa Commitment by Julie Pace.

39 Remarks by the President at the Press Conference...

40 Remarks by President Obama at Business Leaders Forum. 1 July 2013, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...

41 Remarks by President Obama at the University of Cape Town...

Kerry Jonh. 42 Remarks at the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) Ministerial. Washington DC, August 4, 2014; www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230178.htm

43 United States Census Bureau. Foreign Trade. Trade and Goods with Africa - http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c0013.htm

44 The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. Looking Back...

45 Ibid. P. 8; Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization...

46 The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. Looking Back...

47 African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization...

48 Ibid. P. 14.

49 International Trade Administration. General Country Eligibility Provisions - www.trade.gov/agoa/eligibility

50 Trading with the Enemy. By Jason Hickel. Foreign Police in Focus. February 16,2011...

Stephan Hayes. 51 US Africa Trade Legislation Needs Updating, World Report. March 1, 2013 - www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/world-report/2013/03/01/us-africa-trade-legislation-needs-u pdating

52 AGOA: Calls for SA to Graduate out of the US Trade Program Lynley Donnelly. 4 August 2014. Sourse: mail & Gardian (South Africa); agoa.info/news/article/5478-agoa-calls-for-sa-to-graduate-out-of-the-us-trade-programm.html

53 The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. Looking Back...

54 AGOA Forum: Summary of Proceedings - http://trade.gov/agoa/ pdf/2013-AGOA-Forum-Summary-of-Proceedings.pdf

55 Asoko Insight. Africa Market Intelligence. African Sources. Africa to Push for 15-years Extension of AGOA Scheme by Staff Writer. Business Daily - asokoinsight.com/news/africa-push-15-year-extention-agoa-scheme

Linda Thomas-Greenfield. 56 Remarks at the Atlantic Council... 57 Remarks by the President at the Press Conference after U.S. -Africa Leaders Summit...

58 Remarks by the President at the US-Africa Business Forum...

59 AGOA: Calls for SA to Graduate out of the US Trade Program Lynley Donnelly....


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Ann Jackson
Chicago, United States
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07.06.2024 (15 days ago)
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