Libmonster ID: U.S.-1463
Author(s) of the publication: A. Y. URNOV
Educational Institution \ Organization: Institute of Africa, Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: USA, Africa, US-Africa Summit, Africa Economic Growth and Trade Opportunities Act, AFRICOM

"Easy track" is a metaphor commonly used by Washington in an effort to downplay the extent of its military penetration of the continent. In fact, since the end of 2011, the Obama administration has been engaged in an undisguised but purposeful expansion of US military positions in Africa. The Tom Dispatch Research Center estimates that the U.S. Department of Defense is present at some level in 49 of the 54 countries in Africa.2

"The United States is increasingly tightening the military noose on the continent, constantly expanding its military command of AFRICOM, "wrote Glen Ford, one of the critics of US African policy, in the Black Agenda Report.3

MILITARY AFFAIRS

The US military has previously cooperated with African partners, L. Thomas-Greenfield said in October 2013. What's new, she said, is that over the past five years, this cooperation has become "more engaged, more direct, more coordinated and more strategic."4. The wording is streamlined, but the meaning confirms the words of G. Ford.

Military cooperation with African States is carried out both on a bilateral and multilateral basis within the framework of global and specially developed continental and sub-regional programs for Africa. The first are the programs "Control of international drug trafficking and enforcement of law and order", "Foreign military financing" and "International military training". The second category includes "Training and assistance to Africa for emergency response", "Stations of the Partnership with Africa at Sea", "Trans-Saharan Counter-Terrorism Partnership" and a number of others.

At a hearing before the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee on March 6, 2014, the Commander of AFRICOM, General D. Rodriguez, reported that assistance and support to African partners is provided in six "functional areas": combating extremist organizations that use violence; building institutions and defense forces; strengthening maritime security; peacekeeping operations; and responding to humanitarian and humanitarian issues. other disasters; countering drug trafficking, illegal arms trafficking, and human trafficking 5.

The main efforts are focused on improving the capacity and effectiveness of the armed and special forces of African States through training, briefings, joint exercises, material equipment, providing intelligence, airlift of formations involved in peacekeeping operations, etc. At the same time, the United States shies away from participating in joint combat operations, preferring pinpoint strikes using unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) and special forces.

The US military is settling down in Africa seriously and for a long time. In 2009-2012, $390 million was spent on the expansion and modernization of the Camp Lemonniere base in Djibouti.6 According to the Los Angeles Times, another $200 million was allocated for this purpose in 2013. Over the next 25 years, it is planned to spend $1.2 billion on further expansion of the base. The Pentagon intends to make Camp Lemonniere "the center of a constellation of US military installations in Africa," the 7 newspaper wrote.

Within the framework of bilateral military ties, numerous projects are being created.-


Ending. For the beginning, see: Asia and Africa today. 2015, N 1.

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designated "security cooperation points" and "forward operations points". According to a report from the Congressional Research Service, in 2010 The U.S. Air Force and Navy used the air and sea ports of 12 countries8. American drone bases were located in the Seychelles, Djibouti, and since February 2013 - in Niger.

In 2012-2013, steps were taken to strengthen the combat capabilities of AFRICOM, with a focus on improving its readiness for rapid response operations. The interaction between the air and naval forces, marine corps and special forces groups subordinate to AFRICOM and the US European Command has now been implemented under joint operational leadership.9

AFRICOM became the first U.S. geographic command to be assisted by the Army's 2nd ("dagger") Brigade of the 1st Infantry Division, stationed in Kansas. [10] These units are regularly sent to the countries of the continent, where they master the African specifics and, together with AFRICOM, train the ground forces of the host country. In June-December 2013, soldiers of this brigade carried out 37 different actions in 19 African countries11.

As D. Rodriguez told the Senate Committee, in 2013, the United States conducted 55 operations, 10 maneuvers and 481 security cooperation actions in Africa. According to the General, AFRICOM has become "an extremely active geographical command." 12

The discussion of military issues at the summit was held without loud sensations. Speaking to African leaders, Barack Obama assured them that " the United States has no desire to expand and increase its military presence." But he immediately called for "deepening security cooperation with African countries." 13

The President of the United States announced a "new initiative" to help African countries build "professional security forces", which is planned to start implementation in Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Tunisia. Six other countries, Ethiopia, Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda, which Obama assessed as the best performers in peacekeeping, were promised partnership training for rapid deployment peacekeeping forces deployed in UN and AU operations.14

The US President also promised to support efforts to strengthen the African Union's peacekeeping institutions, provide additional equipment to African peacekeepers in Somalia and the Central African Republic, and help improve the system of early warning and response to crises in West Africa.15

The discussion of "good governance" has been reduced to traditional arguments about the virtues of democracy, the inadmissibility of abuse of power and corruption. "We have decided to convene our experts to develop an action plan that promotes transparency as an essential condition for economic growth," Obama said on 16. And everything.

WASHINGTON SCHOLARSHIPS

In our opinion, the Obama administration's multifaceted work with African youth deserves special consideration.

In Africa, where 60% of the population is under the age of 35, and for every three inhabitants of the continent there is one between the ages of 10 and 24, 17 a change in the generation of managers is expected in the very near future. Hence Washington's increased focus on African youth. "Investing in the next generation of African leaders is critical to ensuring the success of Africa, its democracy and economy," the presidential press service said in a statement.18

It is clear that the fate of Africa concerns Washington primarily from the point of view of its own interests. In essence, we are talking about the formation of an "American column" in Africa, which in the near future should become a US-oriented ruling class on the continent. The task is to select capable and enterprising young Africans and involve them in the sphere of American influence through political processing, assistance in obtaining higher education and high qualifications, creating and developing their own businesses, completing internships in American companies, and promoting them to the authorities and structures of the African Union (AU).

"Working with young African leaders is a key focus of U.S. activities in Sub-Saharan Africa, a priority for our embassies and missions of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)," the presidential press service noted. 19

The beginning of this work was laid back in 2010, when Barack Obama launched the initiative " Young African Leaders "(MAL). In the same year, the White House hosted a meeting of the President of the United States with a group of young Africans, called the "forum". Youth Councils operate in 25 United States embassies in Africa. From 2010 to mid-2013, the US government organized and conducted more than 2,000 events on the African continent "aimed at developing the next generation of civil and business leaders."-

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The moat of Africa". 76 partnerships with African universities were established within the framework of the MAL, for which USAID allocated $100 million. Large private companies, such as the Rockefeller Foundation, Microsoft, Masterkad, and others, were invited to participate in the initiative. 20

During his speech at the University of Cape Town, the US president announced the establishment of a new program - the Washington Scholarships for Young African Leaders, which the White House press service called a "major expansion" of the MAL initiative. Starting in 2014, the program provided for the annual admission of at least 500 Africans to universities and colleges in the United States. Short-term training and internships were planned to be conducted "in three vital areas: business and entrepreneurship; civic leadership; and public administration." Obama said that along with the interstate US-Africa summit, a summit with 21 young African leaders will be held in the US capital.

On the eve of the summit, the Washington Scholarships project was named after Mandela. Applications for participation in it were submitted by 50 thousand people. The 500 selected Africans represented 49 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Age-from 25 to 35 years, half of them are women. 75% of the fellows held "mid-level" leadership positions, 48% had educational diplomas, 25% worked in non-governmental institutions, and 39% owned their own business. The fellows had to master the "vital" American disciplines for six weeks 22.

"You are the foundation of our partnership with African youth," President Obama said at the summit. In the United States, he said, they will "develop their abilities to become the next generation of leaders in civil society, business, and government." 23

"Some people ask, who is the United States to teach us how to govern? We have different systems, different traditions, " Obama said. While not denying the need to take into account the peculiarities of countries and societies and respect for traditions in politics, the President warned that the use of" basic mechanisms " of democratic governance is a prerequisite for successful development. The audience was given to understand that if Africa is to succeed, it should follow the example of the United States, where these mechanisms work. "Don't be fooled by the idea that we have a different path, the African path." 24

Obama's rejection of the "African way" was combined with assurances that he was ready to listen to the participants of the meeting, to get acquainted with their own "vision for the future of Africa", which should be "built together"25.

The President announced plans for further expansion of the MAL project. It is planned to double the number of annual Washington scholarships starting in 2016, use new forms of work, increase the number of events held (training courses, trips, meetings), and create regional centers in Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, and South Africa in 2015, which will help young Africans, including aspiring businessmen, to solve their problems. problems 26.

Plans are being made for many years to come.

The relations established in Washington will be of a long-term nature. "We are investing in you so that you can invest in your own countries and in the US-Africa partnership," US Secretary of State John Kerry said at the meeting. Kerry 27.

Thus, an extensive network of young Africans who are personally obligated and often dependent on the United States is being created in key sectors of African society. Cadres decide everything!

OIL AND POLITICS

At the summit, although muted, the topic of competition between different countries on the African continent was discussed.

"We understand that we need to do something to keep up. Europe and China are moving faster than the United States, " co-chairman Michael Bloomberg said at a business forum on 28.

"We don't just want to extract minerals for the growth of the United States. We want to build a genuine partnership that will usher in the next era in Africa's development, " Obama said, alluding to the fundamental difference in the approaches of the United States and China to economic relations with Africa.29

In view of the recent "shale boom" in the United States and the reduction of oil imports from Africa, the question arises whether this process will lead to a decline in the economic importance of the continent for the United States. In the first half of 2014, the US trade surplus with Africa turned out to be positive for the first time30. It is expected that by 2030 The United States itself will become an oil exporter 31, and consequently its dependence on African hydrocarbons will steadily decrease. But this is only one side of the matter.

"While Africa may become less important for U.S. energy security, it may become more important for U.S. national security in broad terms," the Institute for Strategic Studies and the U.S. Army War Press College said in a summary of a joint study on the impact of rising production and production costs.

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Impact of Africa's hydrocarbon reserves on the national security interests of the United States and China 32.

Based on data on discovered and projected reserves, experts conclude that by 2035, Africa will overtake Latin America and East Asia in oil production, come close to North America, and will be second only to the Middle East and Eurasia. The development of the continent's hydrocarbon resources will require $2.1 trillion of investment during this period33.

According to the authors of the study, the United States can benefit from this double benefit. First, they have ample opportunities for large profitable capital investments. Second, given that China's dependence on African oil will continue until at least 2040, "Washington's growing energy security will make Beijing even more acutely aware of its growing energy insecurity."34

It seems that when Washington decided to convene the US-Africa summit, it also took this perspective into account.

BILATERAL RELATIONS AND CRISIS SITUATIONS

Issues of bilateral relations and crisis situations were discussed with the participants of the summit. Kerry. The most painful situations for the United States at that time were in Libya and South Sudan.

During a meeting with Libyan Prime Minister Al-Thani, the US Secretary of State called the situation in Libya "very critical" and considered it necessary to emphasize that the" relocation "(not the evacuation) of American diplomats is "temporary" and took place solely for security reasons.35

John Kerry said that the United States will continue to work with "Libyan friends" and "make efforts to help the government acquire the ability to be able to restore stability in the country."36 The convoluted wording indicates that the Libyan government does not have this ability, but that it is confident that it will be able to acquire it. the Secretary of State doesn't.

Against the background of the obvious failure of the US Libyan policy, the Secretary of State refrained from traditional praise of it this time. This was done for him by al-Thani, who thanked the United States for its"unwavering and boundless support for Libya." The Prime Minister recalled the" special role "of the United States and the American people in the period leading up to the" liberation of Libya", and praised Barack Obama's decision to freeze the assets of Gaddafi and his entourage. The Prime Minister again linked the prospects of Libya's exit from the "critical stage" to the provision of "support from friends and, above all, the United States"to his government.37

Meanwhile, the chaos in Libya was escalating. In the ongoing armed clashes, the initiative was taken by groups of Islamic extremists. The UN Security Council resolution of August 27, 2014 noted "an increase in violence in Libya, especially in the Tripoli and Benghazi areas" and "an increase in the number of terrorist groups and individuals associated with al-Qaeda operating in Libya." 38 These are the grimaces of the "peaceful and democratic transition" that the United States once promised the Libyans.

The situation in South Sudan by J. R. R. Tolkien Kerry held talks in Washington with President Kiir and the leaders of the International Organization for East African Development (IGAD), the Presidents of Djibouti, Kenya and Tanzania, and the Prime Minister of Ethiopia.

In the South Sudanese conflict, IGAD acted as a mediator, seeking from its participants a cessation of hostilities and the creation of a transitional government of national unity. The warring parties were led by the President of South Sudan, S. Kiir, who belongs to the Dinka people, and the former Vice-President of South Sudan, R. Mashar, who represents the Nuer people. During the conflict, several thousand people were killed, the number of internally displaced persons exceeded 1 million, and millions of South Sudanese were threatened with starvation.39

The United States has been actively involved in the political settlement of the conflict between North and South Sudan. Washington's harsh pressure was an important factor in prompting Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir to agree to a referendum on self-determination for the South and recognize its unfavorable results for the North.40

In the statements of J. R. R. Tolkien, According to Kerry in Washington, there were elements of balancing and diverging assessments on South Sudan. During his meeting with Kiir, the Secretary of State publicly accused Machar of violating the truce, warning that if they continued, "the international community would lose patience." 41 But in the statement following the meeting with the IGAD leaders, J. Kerry has already spoken of "tribalist attacks on both sides," demanding that "the parties" immediately put an end to the "war" and sit down at the negotiating table. 42 The killing of six aid workers in Upper Nile State on August 6 was, according to the Secretary of State, the result of "leaders' failure to resolve this senseless conflict", while South Sudanese are having to pay a "terrible price"for it.43

"Neither side is negotiating seriously," the US Secretary of State said on August 11 in connection with the failure of S. Kiir and R. Mashar to comply with this IGAD.

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promises to form a national unity government within no more than 60 days. "I call on IGAD and the African Union to immediately implement appropriate action that will bring peace to the people of South Sudan," he said. Kerry 44.

At the end of August 2014, Kiir and Machar signed another agreement in Addis Ababa to end the armed confrontation in order to establish a negotiation process. The agreement is still being observed. There is no clarity about the creation of a national unity government today.

Other interlocutors of the Secretary of State were the leaders of countries with which relations were presented as a success of US policy on the continent.

At a meeting with the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, J. Kabila noted his efforts to strengthen democracy in the DRC, the contribution of the Congolese armed forces to the suppression of militant groups in the east of the country.

According to J. R. R. Tolkien: According to Kabila, after the US Secretary of State's visit to Kinshasa in May 2014, things were moving "in the right direction"in the DRC. The President even claimed that the country had entered an "era of peace." 45

The US Secretary of State's talks in Luanda in May 2014 were followed by his meeting in Washington with Angolan Vice President M. Domingos Vicenti.

"Angola is one of the countries that serves as a witness to the changes that are taking place in Africa," he said. Kerry. "Very, very important" he called the" leadership role " of Angola and personally of President dos Santos in efforts to resolve the crisis in the Great Lakes region and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. There was talk of strengthening economic relations with Angola and of the United States ' intention to do "even more." 46

Meeting with Ethiopian Prime Minister and AU Chairman-in-Office Hailemariam Desalegn, the Secretary of State described the bilateral relationship as "strong and productive." John Kerry did not skimp on praise, talking about the leading peacekeeping role of Ethiopia in South Sudan and Somalia. The Secretary of State recalled the $800 million in aid provided to Ethiopia by the United States47.

Hailemariam Desalegn spoke in favor of attracting new American investments to Ethiopia. Touching upon climate change, food security, and the fight against terrorism and extremism, he thanked the United States "for its leadership on all these issues" and expressed "deep interest in working closely with them."48

The Secretary of State congratulated Mauritanian President Mohamed Abdelaziz on his election as the next chairman of the African Union, saying that the United States will work with him as a "key leader" on a wide range of issues. To the first place in the bilateral cooperation of J. P. Blavatsky. Kerry put the fight against terrorism, the assistance that the United States provides to the armed forces of Mauritania. The President's "leadership role" in facilitating a ceasefire agreement between the Government and three rebel groups in northern Mali was highlighted. The President, for his part, expressed "deep satisfaction" with the state of bilateral relations and thanked the United States for its assistance in countering terrorism in the Sahel region49.

Ghana is one of the closest African states to the United States, and the meeting of J. R. R. Tolkien Kerry with President John Kerry Mahama was a demonstration that such intimacy is richly rewarded. The meeting was organized to sign an agreement to provide the American Millennium Challenge Corporation with $498 million for the development of the Ghanaian energy sector. This largest deal ever signed by the U.S. government under the Africa-Energy program is expected to boost $4 billion in private investment in Ghana.50

"We have a Mahama-Obama axis here," said J. R. R. Tolkien. Kerry. "By signing this agreement, we are taking our partnership to the next level."

In a brief historical digression, the Secretary of State argued that " the United States has always been on the side of Ghana." He also had kind words for its first President, Kwame Nkrumah, whose work "ignited the independence movement across the continent from a spark in Ghana" .51 The Secretary of State chose not to mention the overthrow of Nkrumah by the pro-Western Ghanaian military.

J. Mahama, for his part, called the signing of the agreement with the American federal Millennium Challenge Corporation 52 "another historic moment in bilateral relations between the United States of America and Ghana"53.

During the meetings of the US Secretary of State with President of Burundi Pierre Nkurudziza and President of Burkina Faso Blaise Compaore, the interlocutors noted the fruitfulness and favorable prospects for the development of bilateral cooperation in various areas, including peacemaking and strengthening national and regional stability.54

During his meeting with Tunisian Foreign Minister Mongi Hamadi, the Secretary of State twice referred to the country as a "beacon of hope." In the first case-in gratitude for the reception and accommodation of the US Embassy staff evacuated from Libya, in the second - for the fact that, despite all the difficulties, Tunisia is successfully implementing the "transition to democracy"55.

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John Kerry promised his interlocutor US assistance in countering threats to the security of Tunisian borders and the emergence of "internal unrest" in the country created by Libyan extremists and militants returning from Syria.56 At the same time, the fact that both are the fruits of American intervention in Libya and Syria was ignored.

The importance of the "dialogue on security issues", which the parties agreed to hold during the visit of J. R. R. Tolkien, was emphasized. "We are determined to deepen our relations with the United States, which have always been extremely good," Hamadi 57 said.

In a complementary and constructive way, conducted by J. R. R. Tolkien. Kerry met with Chairman of the African Union Commission N. Dlamini-Zuma.

"The United States has a very special relationship with the African Union, which we respect and value extremely highly," the US Secretary of State said.58 In the denoted J. Kerry mentioned issues of democracy, human rights, economic development, and security as areas of cooperation between the United States and the AU 59.

N. Dlamini-Zuma gave the main place in the system of African-American relations to economic relations. According to her, American investors and businessmen want "the best possible return." "I think the best return is in Africa," said Dlamini - Zuma 60.

In our opinion, the issue of the Ebola outbreak in West African countries was not given due attention at the summit. However, it was discussed at a meeting of leaders in the White House. As a result of this discussion, the United States decided to establish a Medical Control Center in Africa. It is not known whether the participants of the meeting reached any other practical agreements.61

At the final press conference, Barack Obama spoke in favor of uniting the efforts of the world community in the fight against this scourge. 62 On August 7, the US president made a personal video message to the people of West Africa, in which he promised them help and even gave a number of practical tips on how to behave in order to avoid infection.63

Subsequently, the United States launched a large-scale effort to counter the epidemic in West Africa, in which AFRICOM was involved.

It remains to be regretted that the US President did not hesitate to use this acute global problem in his deceitful and hypocritical attacks on Russia.

THE SUMMIT IS OVER. what's next?

At the final press conference, Barack Obama, on behalf of all participants and himself, declared the meeting a success. It was decided to hold regular US - Africa summits. The summits, according to the president, "will make us accountable for our commitments," will become "a mechanism that forces decisions and actions, "and will" support the moment of our movement."

"I will strongly encourage my successor to continue this work, because Africa needs to know that it will always have a strong and reliable partner in the United States of America," Obama assured 64. A little later, he said that the summits will be held every four years.65

It seems that from the point of view of the interests of the United States - as they are now understood in the White House-the convening of the summit was an overdue and justified step. Only time will tell whether the United States will be able to implement the plans that they associate with the summit, and what its impact will be on the development of US-African relations in the coming years. In the short term, it has, in our view, helped to strengthen the influence and position of the United States on the continent.

Africans know from their own experience about Washington's hegemonic aspirations. At the same time, they are really interested in cooperation with the United States in the economy, healthcare, peacekeeping and the fight against terrorism. The US plans to expand this cooperation on the continent are generally viewed positively. African States, of course, will try to extract the greatest possible benefit for themselves from these plans. But here it is as if someone is lucky. Their overseas partner is many orders of magnitude stronger, and these states themselves are very different both in terms of internal capabilities and in the nature of the ruling regimes.

* * *

There is no doubt that the growth of US activity will lead to an intensification of competition for Africa. China, Japan, India, the EU and other global actors will not compromise their interests on the continent. And this can help Africa in its policy of balancing and playing on the contradictions of competitors.


Mitchell Jon. 1 The Africa Pivot: American's New Battle Ground // Foreign Policy Journal. October 25, 2013 - http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2013/10/25/the-africa-pivot-americas-newbattlground/

Turse Nick. 2 The Startling Size, Scope and Growth of the US Military Operations in Africa // Tom Dispatch. September 5, 2013 www.alternet.org/world/huge-growth-us-military-ops-africa

Ford Glen. 3 The Obamas do Africa // Black Agenda Report. June 30, 2013 - http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/6/30-2

4 LiveAtState: US Foreign Policy and Security Cooperation in SubSaharan Africa. Remarks. Linda Thomas-Greenfield, Assistant Secretary Bureau of African Affairs; General David M.Rodrigues, Commander, AFRICOM. October 23, 2013 - http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ime/ 215819.htm#

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5 Senate Armed Services Committee. Statement of General David M. Rodrigues, Commander, US Africa Command, Before the Senate Armed Services Committee Posture Hearing. 6 March, 2014. P. 6 http://www.armed-services.senate.gov/http://tinyurl.com/lg2g3ku

Mitchell Jon. 6 Op. cit.

Bengaly Shashank. 7 US Military Investing Heavily in Africa. October 20, 2013 -www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-usmilitary-africa20131020-story.html#page=1

Plock Lauren. 8 Africa Command: US Strategic Interests and the Role of the US Military in Africa // Congressional Research Service 7-500. July 22, 2011. P. 9-10 - www.crs.gov

9 Senate Armed Services Committee. Statement of General Rodrigues. 6 March, 2014. P. 6.

10 Senate Armed Services Committee. Statement of General Carter Ham, Commander, US Africa Command. 7 March, 2013 www.globalsecretary.org/military/library/congress/2013_hr/130307ham.pdf

Turse Nick. 11 US Military Averaging More Than a Mission a Day in Africa. March 27, 2014 - http://www.tomdispatch.com/blog/175823/tomgram%37_nick_turce_america's_non-stop_ops _in_africa.

12 Senate Armed Services Committee. Statement of General Rodrigues 6 March, 2014. P. 3.

13 Remarks by the President at Press Conference After U.S. -Africa Leaders Summit. August 6, 2014. White House Office of the Press Secretary - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-prss-office/2014/08/06/remarks-president-press-conference-af ter-us-africa-leaders-summit

14 Ibidem.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 Fact Sheet: The President's Young African Leaders Initiative. Office of the Press Secretary, June 29, 2013 - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/29/fact-sheet-president-s-young-africanl eadears-initiative

18 Ibidem.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

21 Remarks by President Obama at the University of Cape Town. Cape Town, South Africa. June 30, 2013 - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/30/remarks-president-obama-university- capetown.

22 Young African Leaders Initiative. The Mandela Washington Fellowship for Young African Leaders - http://youngafricanleaders.state.gov/washington-fellowship

23 Remarks by the President in Town Hall With the Washington Fellowship for Young African Leaders Presidential Summit. July 28, 2014 - www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/07/28/remarks-presidenttown-hall-washingtonfell owship-young-african-leaders

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid.; Remarks by the President at the US-Africa Business Forum August 5, 2014 - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/08/05/remarks-president-us-africa-business -forum

Kerry John. 27 Remarks at the Presidential Summit of the Washington Fellowship for Young African Leaders. July 28, 2014 www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/07/229830.htm

Pace Julie. 28 Obama Pledges $33 Billion to Africa Commitment // Associated Press. August 5, 2014 - www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/obama-pledges-33-billion-africa-commitment

29 Remarks by the President at the US-Africa Business Forum. August 5, 2014.

30 United States Census Bureau. Foreign Trade. Trade in Goods with Africa - http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c0013.htm

Brown David E. 31 Executive Summary. Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press. Africa's Booming Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Production: National Security implications for the United States and China - www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/files/1186-summary.pdf

32 Ibidem.

33 Ibid.

34 Ibid.

Kerry John. 35 Remarks with Prime Minister of Libya Abdullah al-Thinni Before Their Meeting. August 4, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230197.htm

36 Ibidem.

37 Ibid.

38 United Nations Security Council resolution S/RES/2174 (2014). August 27, 2014 Preamble.

Kerry John. 39 Deeply Concerned by the Failure of South Sudan Peace Talks to Meet Region's Deadline. August 11, 2014 www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230500.htm

Kerry John. 40 Press availability in Addis-Ababa. May 1, 2014 www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/05/235467.htm

Kerry John. 41 Remarks with South Sudanese President Salva Kiir Before Their Meeting. August 5, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230298.htm

Kerry John. 42 Remarks with IGAD Leaders After Their Meeting, August 5, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230294.htm

Kerry John. 43 Attack against Aid Workers in Maban County, Upper Nile State, South Sudan. August 6, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/ remarks/2014/08/230336.htm

Kerry John. 44 Deeply Concerned by the Failure of South Sudan Peace Talks to Meet Region's Deadline. August 11, 2014.

Kerry John. 45 Remarks with Democratic Republic of the Congo President Joseph Kabila Before Their Meeting, August 4, 2014 www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230199.htm

Kerry John. 46 Remarks with Angolan Vice-President Manual Domingos Vicente Before Their Meeting. August 4, 2014 www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230201.htm

Kerry John. 47 Remarks with Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn Before Their eeting. August 5, 2014; www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230297.htm

48 Ibidem.

Kerry John. 49 Remarks with President of Mauritania Mohamed Ouel Abdel Asis Before Their Meeting. August 4, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230222.htm

Kerry John. 50 Remarks with Ghanian President John Mahama and Millennium Challenge Corporation CEO Dana Hyde at the Signing of the Ghana Power Compact. August 5, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230295.htm

51 Ibidem.

52 For more information, see: Urnov A. Y. US - Africa Summit // Asia and Africa today. 2015, N 1. (Urnov A.Yu. 2014. Summit USA - Africa // Aziya i Afrika Segodnya. N 1) (in Russian)

Kerry John. 53 Remarks with Ghanian President...

Kerry John. 54 Remarks with Burundi President Pierre Nkurunziza Before Their Meeting. August 4, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230200.htm; Kerry John. Remarks with Burkina Faso President Blaise Compaore Before Their Meeting. August 4, 2014 www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230212.htm

Kerry John. 55 Remarks with Tunisian Foreign Minister Mongi Hamadi Before Their Meeting. August 4, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230223.htm

56 Ibidem.

57 Ibid.

Kerry John. 58 Remarks with African Union Chairperson Dr. Dlamini-Zuma Before Their Meeting. August 5, 2014 - www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/08/230296/htm

59 Ibidem.

60 Ibid.

61 Obama pushes for "global effort" to combat spread of Ebola. August 7, 2014 -www.theguardian.com/society/2014/aug/07/barakobama-ebola-spread-global-efford-who

62 Remarks by President at Press Conference after US-Africa Leaders Summit, August 6, 2014.

63 President Obama Delivers a Message to West Africans on Ebola. August 7, 2014 - www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFRj-xyKMbY

64 Remarks by the President at Press Conference...

Hudson David. 65 President Obama Engages with African Leaders in Final Day of the US - Africa Leaders Summit. August 6, 2014 http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2014/08/06/prsident-obamaengages-african-leaders-final-da y-us-africa-leaders-summit


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