Yu. S. FAYZRAKHMANOVA
Kamchatka State University n.a. Vitus Bering
Keywords: Republic of Korea, borrowings from the Korean language, onomatopoeic words, hangul, han
For a long time, Korea was a "hermit", closed to prying eyes, a country whose rich national culture remained unappreciated. During the period of isolation (XVII-XVIII centuries), when all contact with foreigners was forbidden, the understanding of one's own exclusivity, soaked in the dew of tradition, became the soil on which the culture and national character of Koreans were nurtured.
The country of morning freshness opened its doors relatively recently, at the end of the XIX century. Jaded with Western culture, a person who has crossed the threshold of Korea * feels the morning freshness wash over his mind with a flood of new impressions and sounds. But even if you stay outside of Korea, you can get in touch with the" Korean world", being under the surging wave of Korean culture.
Hallyu means spreading South Korean culture outside the country. This cultural phenomenon began with TV series, Korean pop music, and popular online games. Today, this wave has swept not only Japan and China, but also spread far beyond Asia, covering Europe and America. Russia also did not stand aside. In addition to having a purely cultural effect, the Korean Wave also makes an active contribution to the development of the country's economy. According to the Korea Foreign Trade and Investment Promotion Agency (KOTRA), in 2013, the economic effect of Hallyu, which is manifested in generating income from the sale of Korean pop culture and tourism products and services, was about $620.9 million in Europe alone.1
After the cancellation of visas between Russia and the Republic of Korea, the flow of Russian tourists to Korea has increased since January 2014. The South Korean government has adopted a comprehensive plan that provides for an increase in the number of Russian tourists to 350 thousand people a year by 2017. In February 2014, at a meeting of the heads of departments of the South Korean economic bloc, it was noted that the introduction of a visa-free regime would bring our countries closer together.2
FUNNY KOREAN WORDS
In the process of learning a non-native language, a bilingual * * * always experiences to some extent the influence of his native, autochthonous language, which is manifested in the phonetic, lexical, and grammatical plane. As one Chinese writer said about Japanese students learning English: "For Japanese people to speak Japanese as their first language, they must either become less Japanese, or English must become less English."****
Russian linguist Z. G. Proshina, who develops the theory of language contacts, also notes that, despite the high level of language proficiency, the speech of non-native speakers can be characterized by a"phonetic, grammatical, phraseological or pragmatic accent"3. Linguistic influence can manifest itself not only in the direction of the influence of the native language on the non-native one, but also, to a lesser extent, the native language of a bilingual person is exposed to a foreign language, which is manifested in the acquisition of borrowings from this language, many of which are naturalized by the grammatical system of the native language. Moreover, when learning a foreign language, there is a borrowing of culture, the native speaker of which is the language itself.
In 2011-2012, during my studies with twenty other students from different parts of Russia at Yongjin College, located in the fourth largest city of South Korea - Daegu, my speech was enriched by a large number of Korean words. Here, however, it should be noted that since the Korean language is not very popular in
* It will be about the Republic of Korea. Unofficial name: South Korea.
** Hallyu-means "wave" in Korean.
*** Bilingual - a person who speaks two languages.
**** An example given by Professor Ohashi Katsuhiro at the symposium "Ideal and Real in the system of teaching English in Japan" in the framework of the annual conference "JACET Kyushi Okinawa Chapter Annual Conference" on October 11, 2003 (author's note).
In Russia, the fact of borrowing Korean words can only be recorded in the speech of students studying Korean, or in the speech of people who are somehow connected with the Korean language and Korean culture.
Here are some examples from personal communication with classmates while studying in South Korea:
"When do we go kombuhat?" ("kombuhada" - learn)
- Let's go to shchine! (shchine - city center)
- Today is bulgym! ("bulgym" - literally translated as "fire Friday" - the end of the week, "so you can relax, go to a bar and relax")
- I spent the whole day in noreban ("noreban" - karaoke bar).
Russian speech, rich in Korean words, may certainly be incomprehensible to other people who are unfamiliar with the Korean language and Korean culture, but such language inserts are a kind of password code to this society of Russians who know the Korean world.
Words such as "ebosee" - hello, "ibalso" - men's barber shop, "otsuson" - repair shop, "ebo" - dear/dear are neutral in Korean, not culturally marked, but due to the fact that for a native Russian speaker such a combination of sounds is associated with profanity. words get a completely different connotation and fall into a different sphere of use. And now the word "ebosee" is used to express a whole range of emotions, from joy to annoyance.
WORLD OF SOUNDS
Even a cursory acquaintance with the Korean language makes it clear that it is a very harmonious language. The Korean alphabet, hangul, was created by a group of Korean scholars in 1443 by order of the 4th King of the Joseon Dynasty, Sejong the Great.
Hangul is a phonetic letter, i.e. each sound has its own sign. According to the American linguist Gary Ledyard, Distinguished Professor of Korean History at Columbia University, hangul was based on the Mongolian square letter* created by the Pagba Lama**4.
The hangul project was published in 1446 in the document "Hunmin Chonim"***. A common legend said that King Sejong came up with a general pattern of signs after seeing a tangled fishing net. However, the purely folklore basis of the legend was confirmed after the discovery in 1940 of a document dated 1446 and entitled "Hongmin Chonim Hyere".
This document explains the shape of letters denoting consonants from the standpoint of articulatory phonetics, and the shape of letters denoting vowels from the standpoint of yin and yang * philosophy and vowel harmony 5.
If you look at onomatopoeic words in Korean, you can find words that convey different sounds of nature. A Russian person, once in the world of "Korean sounds", feels that even at the phonological level, this language is saturated with harmony:
ususu - the sound of falling leaves,
ppigok-ppigok - strong wind with rain,
sallan-sallan - a light breeze,
basak-basak - the sound of leaves underfoot or something crunchy,
Ttallan-ttallan-the sound of a toy,
chinchan-chinchan-the sound of a violin,
bangyt-bangyt - gently smile.
However, this does not mean that the world of sounds is richer for Koreans. The fact is that each language has its own set of tools for reflecting reality, and each of the methods of language representation contains national and cultural information. The linguistic picture of the world becomes a reflection of the general national idea of the world, including the configuration of values, fixing the results of the national spiritual activity of the people. For example, the reflection of the color spectrum is not the same in different languages. For a part of the color spectrum denoted by the words "blue" and "blue" in Russian, one word corresponds to blue in English. In the language of one of the peoples living in Liberia, all the colors of the rainbow are indicated by only two words: one means the colors that artists call "warm" (red, orange, yellow), the other -
* Mongolian square letter - an alphanumeric-syllabic letter of the Indian type with a square shape of letters and vertical direction of lines (author's note).
** Pagba Lama-one of the five founders of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, the first theocratic monk of Tibet (author's note).
*** "Instructing the people on the right sounds."
**** Explanations and examples of "Hongmin Chonim".
***** Chinese Yin-Yang philosophy expresses the idea of a universal duality of the world. author's note).
cool colors (blue, purple, etc.)6.
This does not mean that native speakers of other languages do not distinguish colors, but it does indicate that one language picture tends to differentiate such colors, while others do not.
The culture of Koreans and their mentality are reflected at the language level. By learning Korean, you can immerse yourself in harmony and experience the world as Koreans see and hear it.
how old are you? WHAT'S YOUR BLOOD TYPE?
The first thing people will ask you in Korea is, " How old are you?"and "What is your blood type?", which is not due to idle curiosity at all.
Such questions may seem tactless and too direct for a Russian person who still tries to keep a distance from strangers when they first meet. Hence, misunderstandings, failures in communication, which at best will end with the end of communication itself, and at worst-will lead to conflicts and mutual resentment. The reason for this lies in the conflict between the cultural worldviews of the Russian and Korean people. However, if you get a closer look at Korean culture, you can understand why Koreans ask such questions.
The first question: "How old are you?" - will determine the tone and style of communication with you. So, if you are older than the interlocutor, then he should use a respectful form, but if you are younger than the interlocutor, then he can use panmal*.
There is another interesting fact that will make you 1-2 years older in South Korea. In South Korea, the East Asian age account is widely used, at which a child is credited with one year of life immediately from birth. Since growing up does not occur on the day of birth, but on January 1 according to the lunar calendar, a child born, for example, in December 1990, will already be 2 years old on January 1, 1991. It is necessary to specify what age you were given in South Korea - East Asian or Western.
Second: "What is your blood type?" Koreans believe that blood type determines a person's character and destiny. Therefore, in a social network or on a dating site, you can also specify your blood type, if you do not want to make a mistake in choosing your significant other or just a friend. If you have, for example, type I blood, then you are a fairly open, inquisitive person; energetic, sociable, fussy and ambitious.
"RUSSIAN SOUL" AND "KOREAN HAN"
If we talk about the similarity of Russian and Korean cultures, then it is worth mentioning the concepts of "Russian soul"and" Korean han"**. The Russian soul remains a mystery to foreigners, but the Korean han is also a core of Korean culture, which is not so easy to understand, and perhaps you need to be born Korean to understand it.
Han is something that lies so deep in the Korean soul, which determines and shapes the behavior and psyche of the Korean people, their consciousness. What shocks or surprises a Russian person in the behavior of a Korean, whether at the national, historical, international, or interpersonal level, can be explained by the han factor 7.
Han does not have a Russian equivalent, which is understandable, since this is the reality of Korean culture. If the Russian soul is more often described using such concepts as melancholy, sadness, and fate, then the Korean han is also defined using similar concepts: sadness, melancholy, and bitterness.
Whether or not we Russians and Koreans are sad about the same thing, it seems that the Russian soul and the Korean han will serve as a link in establishing linguistic and cultural contacts between Russia and Korea.
* Panmal-colloquial speech (approx. author's note).
** Khan - there is no equivalent in Russian, it can be translated as "toska" (author's note).
1 Korean Hallyu Cultural Wave-the engine of the South Korean economy - http://www.k-window.com/economics/korejskaya-kulturnaya-volna-hallyu-dvigatel-yuzhnok orejskoj-ekonomiki/
2 South Korea relies on Russian tourists - http://www.rg.ru/2014/02/27/koreya-site.html
Proshina Z. G. 3 Dinamika razvitiya angliyskogo yazyka v ego regional'nykh variantsii [Dynamics of the development of the English language in its regional variants]. Philology series, pp. 200-206. (Proshina Z. G. 2012. Dinamika razvitiya angliyskogo yazyka v ego regionalnykh variantakh / / Vestnik IGLU. N 2 (18). Philology) (in Russian)
Ledyard Gari. 4 The International Linguistic Background of the Correct Sounds for the Instruction of the People. In Young-Key Kim-Renaud, ed. The Korean Alphabet: Its History and Structure. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997.
5 Korea: Hangul and the Great Man who created it // TLJ. The Language Journal - http://www.thelanguagejournal.com/2011/12/korea-hangul-and-great-man-who-created.html
Vasiliev S. A. 6 Philosophical analysis of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. Киев, Наукова думка. 1976, с. 25. (Vasiliev S.A. 1976. Filosofskiy analiz gipotezy lingvisticheskoy otnositelnosti. Kiev) (in Russian)
7 Psychology of Korean Han http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/opinon/2012/10/27241770.html
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