EGYPTIAN CONSTITUTION: ISLAMIC "YES" TO SECULAR "NO" by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician, RAS, D.I.Vinitsky, staff correspondent in Cairo
Keywords: Egypt, constitutional declaration, Mohammed Mursi, Muslim Brotherhood
Two years after the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak in a revolution of January 25 Egypt remains to be an unpredictable country, recalling a raging volcano, or, rather, a battleground.
"Muslim Brothers" are waging a brutal struggle on the political and economic fields. They are doing their best to win the right to govern the largest state of the Arab world, trying to prove to the world their consistency and moderation. However, they don't deny their goals which are not clear to the international community.
MONGOLIA. DEMOCRATS BACK IN POWER by M.I.Goleman, Dr.Sc. (History)
Keywords: Mongolia, parliamentary elections, the Democratic Party, the Mongolian People's Party, new government
In June 2012, elections to the State Great Hural took place in Mongolia. As a result of the split of the ruling Mongolian People's Party (BNP) it was defeated. After a break of many years the Democratic Party (DP) came into power. The first term of the Democrats in office in 1996 - 1999 was a failure. This time so far they are acting successfully.
WOMEN'S POLITICAL LEADERSHIP IN ASIA by A.A.SUVOROVA, Dr.Sc. (Philology)
Keywords: Asia, charismatic leaders, women's gender role, political dynasties, inheritance of power
There are not so many families whose lives have been most directly linked to the history of their countries - accept, of course, the royal dynasties. In contemporary history of Asia a unique role has been played by such influential clans as Nehru-Gandhi, Bhutto, Sukarno, Bandaranaike, Mujibur Rahman, Aquino and some others.
For many years these clans were determining the political course of India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and the Philippines.
SOUTH KOREAN TRILLION. SOME SOURCES AND CAUSES OF IMPRESSIVE ECONOMIC SUCCESS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA by M.A.Morehodov
Keywords: The Republic of Korea in the global economy system, innovative technologies, investment climat, export capacity
In December 2011, the Republic of Korea (ROK) joined the club of the leading nations of the world, which foreign trade balance exceeded^ $1 trillion, and became a member of the "community" of the most developed economies in the world. It should be noted that South Korea is the smallest country in this club. The size of its territory and population are second only to the Netherlands. And yet as far as variety of exports is concerned it firmly holds the third place among club memebers. According to this indicator only Germany and the Netherlands are ahead.
INDIA'S POSITION IN WORLD EXPORTS OF SERVICES by N.V.Galishcheva, PhD (Economy). Part 2 (Part 1 in "Asia and Africa today", 2013, N 2)
Keywords: foreign capital, Indian capital market, nonresident deposits
The article deals with the main aspects of the foreign capital's inflow to the Indian economy in the form of nonresident deposits. The author analyses the evolution of Indian government's policy towards foreign capital in the form of non-resident deposits. The data are given on volumes and structure of the non-resident deposits to India.
SCHOOL IN KENYA: ROLE OF INITIATIVE "FROM BELOW" by N.F.Matveeva
Keywords: Kenya, education, harambee schools, informal schools, slums
On the eve of independence of Kenya (1963) there were 6.000 primary schools for Africans with an enrollment of 890.000 children, and about 150 secondary school with only 31.000 students, 80,5% of the population was illiterate. Currently in Kenya there are over 20.000 primary and more than 6.000 secondary schools, which educate, respectively, 8,8 million and 1,4 million children. The literacy rate now is 85%.
CHRISTIANITY IN TROPICAL AFRICA by L.A.Andreeva, Dr.Sc. (Philosophy)
Keywords: religion, Christianity, Sub-Saharan Africa
The history of Christianity in Africa has about two millennia. Its distribution began in the II century AD in Egypt and Ethiopia. The main event of the early expansion of Christianity was formation in the IV century AD the so called Monophysite Church, which united Christians of Egypt and Ethiopia. The next stage is associated with the beginning of the Cnristianization in the XV century as a result of colonial expansion of the Catholic Portuguese. But only from the middle of XIX century, when European countries began colonization of vast African territories, one could speak of the mass conversion of the local population into Christianity.
POINT OF VIEW
HENRY KISSINGER ON PAST AND FUTURE OF AMERICAN-CHINESE RELATIONS by V.I.Trifonov
Keywords: Kissinger. Nixon. Mao Zedong, China, USA, Soviet Union, policy of PRC, American-Chinese relations
The article analyses the book by the former Secretary of State of the USA Henry Kissinger "On China" which in itself is a solid scientific work on the development of American-Chinese relations after the formation of PRC and on the most important stages of the policy of China. The book is constructed in geopolitical manner, from the point of view of the struggle of the main world powers - the USA, Soviet Union (at the period under review) and China - to secure their leading positions in the world.
Considerable part of the book is dedicated to the presentation of the modalities of American-Chinese rapprochement during 70-s of the last century. Kissinger personally played an important role in that process, not concealing his sympathy towards China. He stresses that relations between the USA and China, built on the basis of cooperation, "are necessary for the global stability and peace". But, as the author of the article points, in fact the relations between two sides took another scenario. Wc are witnessing an aggravation of confrontation between China and the USA which adopted the course of comprehensive "containment" of PRC.
AFGHAN STRATEGY OF B.OBAMA ADMINISTRATION by Sh.I.Akmalov, PhD (Political Sciences)
Keywords: Afghanistan, B.Obama Administration, Afghan Strategy of the US, Regional Security, Terrorism. Geopolitical Perspectives
The paper examines problems and positive aspects of the Afghan strategy of the Obama Administration in the context of the plans of US military withdrawal from Afghanistan in 2014. The USA in its Afghan policy pays attention not only to security issues, but also to problems of political future of Afghan state, its social and economic development. Nowadays realities in Afghanistan prove the necessity of alternative effective ways of its salvation, which would consider problems of security and sustainable development of the Afghan state and society.
RELATIONS BETWEEN CHINA AND SAUDI ARABIA by M.A.Pakhomova
Keywords: Chinese impact, Saudi Arabia. Middle East, diplomatic relations, economic statistics
The main stages and future perspectives of relations between China and Saudi Arabia are examined as an example of Chinese influence in the Middle East. The analysis is based on official data from Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China and Chinese, Arabian, Europe and Russian publications in press. The paper presents some new information about Chinese policy in the region.
YEMEN: FACTORS OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY by V.P.Kirichenko
Keywords: Yemen, political crisis, Zaydis. Shafiis, tribalism, al-Oaeda
This article analyses the causes of political crisis in Yemen that took place in 2011 - 2012. In the author's opinion, the crisis was mainly caused by the aggravation of social and economic problems such as demographic explosion and increasing unemployment in Yemen. As the political power is actually controlled by the Hashid tribes' confederation, the relations between the diverse Yemeni tribes grew worse. However, differences between two Islamic confessions presented in Yemen are not the core reason of growing
Eolitical disturbances. The latters are promoted mainly by ranches of al-Qaeda which have lately intensified their activity in the Arabian Peninsula.
FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT
RUSSIAN BIOLOGICAL EXPEDITION: MORE THAN A QUARTER CENTURY OF SCIENTIFIC WORK IN ETHIOPIA by A.N.Bragin
Keywords: Russian-Ethiopian scientific cooperation. Joint Russian-Ethiopian biological expedition
In November 2012 the ten-days Festival of the Russian-Ethiopian scientific cooperation in the field of biology took place in Addis Ababa. The event was dedicated to the 125th anniversary of Academician Vavilov's birth day, the 85th anniversary of his scientific expedition to Abyssinia, as well as the 25th anniversary of the Joint Russian-Ethiopian biological expedition, which is a good example of successful scientific cooperation between the two countries.
XI SCHOOL OF YOUNG RUSSIAN AFRICANISTS by N.A.Zherlitsina
Annual Scientific Conference - School for young Africanists ("Problems of African Studies in Russia and abroad") was held on 14 - 15 November 2012 in Kazan. At the invitation of the Institute of Oriental Studies and International Relations, Kazan (Volga) Federal University 62
people participated in the conference - students, postgraduates and young scientists from universities and academic institutes of Moscow, Kazan, St. Petersburg and Yaroslavl.
This conference is a traditional forum, conducted by the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and the Scientific Council on African countries of RAS in Moscow, with the assistance of the RAS Presidium Program "Support for Young Scientists" in collaboration with universities of various Russian cities. The main purpose of the "school" is to attract possibly widest range of young African researchers and to support scientific activity in this sphere of domestic science.
WITH DREAMS, DICTIONARY AND BRAVERY by O.Yu.Kuzmin, O.V.Zhukov. Part 2 (Part 1 in "Asia and Africa today", 2013, N2)
Keywords: Afghanistan, Mali, Soviet military interpreters
In this and previous issue of our magazine we offer to our readers the memories of people who had the opportunity to work as a military translators in different parts of the world.
The material is given in the form of a story in which the authors tell about their work in Afghanistan in 1979 - 1980 and in the Republic of Mali in 1982 - 1983, as well as about their experiences of these countries, working weekdays, some customs and daily life of the people they met with.
MONOGRAPH "ISLAM IN RUSSIA" by M.N.Gusev
The largest Indonesian publishing house "Compass" has published a monograph "Islam in Russia", written by Aji Surya, cultural advisor to the Indonesian Embassy in Moscow.
The author points out that despite the vast distances that separate Russia and Indonesia the Muslims of both countries have much in common: they enjoy special respect to the Maskhab teaching and its preacher Shafii, their prayers are also very similar in content and method of reading. When the Russian clergy come to Indonesia, their message is not in conflict with rules and norms of Indonesian Muslims, they do not cause unwanted reactions of the faithful.
Aji Surya expresses the opinion that the Russian Muslim community is still in the making after the collapse of the Soviet Union and did not develop a common vision on the development of Islam in a huge multi-ethnic and multi-religious country. And that is quite understandable.
SCIENTIFIC MONOGRAPH WITH "JOURNALISTIC ACCENT" by N.I.Petrov
Professor at the National Research University "Higher School of Economics" I.I.Filatova and professor at the same university academician A.B.Davidson have published a book "Russia and South Africa: building bridges" (Publishing House of the Higher School of Economics, Moscow, 2012) -nearly 500 pages.
The authors have given the story of not only relations between the two countries "at the official level", but also speak about cooperation with South African political and public organizations (primarily about relations with the African National Congress - ANC and the South African Communist Party - SACP). About military assistance the Soviet Union provided to the South African anti-apartheid fighters and their allies.
Hundreds of the ANC activists were trained at the Soviet universities and military academies. Many bright and even something touching episodes are given in the chapter devoted to life of those young South Africans in our country. For the most part they were coming to the "land of Lenin" with exceptional excitement. As a rule they met a warm and gracious welcome at all levels.
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