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G. A. BAGATURIA. Marx and Engels: The Character of Creative Collaboration
The article examines from the historical point of view the close collaboration of the founders of scientific communism in the sphere of theory, tracing the principal stages of their joint creative works ("The Holy Family," "The German Ideology," "Manifesto of the Communist Party," the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, systematic ideological exchange in the form of correspondence which became particularly intensive in the 1850's and 1860's, Marx's participation in the creation of "Anti-Duhring" and Engels' participation in the creation and popularization of "Capital," etc.). Such unparalleled cooperation over a period of nearly forty years was based on fundamental identity of views and the fact that Marx and Engels happily complemented each other. This provided the groundwork for a peculiar division of labour between Marx and Engels. The author brings out the different forms of their scientific cooperation, beginning with the exchange of opinions and information and ending with the joint creation of fundamental works. The collaboration of Marx and Engels is regarded as a brilliant example of collective labour which constitutes a distinctive feature of modern science.
T. N. SHIPELINA. The Rout of the Counter-Revolutionary Forces Led by General Kaledin
The article highlights the organizing role played by V. I. Lenin and the Bolshevik Party in strategically planning and carrying out the defeat of the counter-revolutionary forces on the Don, the nation-wide struggle against the Cossack units led by White guard General Kaledin. The author graphically shows the erroneousness of the tactic employed by the Bolsheviks in Rostov and elsewhere in the Don Country in joining together with the Mensheviks and Socialist- Revolutionaries the Revolutionary Military Committee of "United Democracy" in November 1917.
The article shows the composition of Soviet army units operating against General Kaledin, the role of the Southern Front general staff headed by V. A. Antonov-Ovseyenko, as well as the activity of Party organizations of the Donets-Krivoy Rog Basin, which became genuine organizers of the masses in the period of struggle against the Don counterrevolutionaries commanded by General Kaledin.
A. G. KUZMIN. The "Varangians" and the "Rus" in the Baltic
The article reverts to the old question concerning the ethnic origin of the "Varangians" and the significance of the records made in ancient annals about the identity of the "Varangians" and the "Rus." A close analysis of "The Tales of Temporal Years" and Western sources brings the author to the conclusion that in Kiev Rus the word "Varangians" originally applied to the population of Slavonic Pomorye, and that only later, beginning with the 12th century, was it extended to embrace the Scandinavian peoples. The "Rus" or "Ruthenians" was the name given to the inhabitants of Riigen (Ruyana) Island and a sizable part of Pomorye's coastal areas, particularly those lying between the Vistula and the Oder. The people inhabiting Pomorye and the Baltic islands were ethnically heterogeneous, but in the 10th century most of them spoke Slavonic. Hence, the penetration of "Varangians" into the areas bordering on Lake Ladoga and into the territories on the Upper Volga contributed to the spread of the Slavonic language in those parts of the country. The route leading "from Varangians to Greeks" started precisely from Slavonic Pomorye, which in the 8th - 9th centuries played a conspicuous part in trade between Northern Europe and the East. In the 10th century Kiev Rus was closely connected with Pomorye, and the "three groups" of the Rus mentioned in the Arab sources are, in the author's opinion, the areas adjacent to the Dnieper and the Baltic regions inhabited by the Slavs. In the 11th century these areas were isolated from each other. The loss of independence by the Pomorye Slavs in the 12th century and the spread of Catholicism there still further deepened the process of alienation and caused the very concept of "Varangians" to undergo transformation.
V. F. ZYBKOVETS. The Origin of Religion as Reflected in Contemporary Bourgeois Historiography
The author analyzes the crisis of the bourgeois science of religion caused by the progress of modern historical knowledge. The latest discoveries in paleoanthropology, paleoarcheology, historical psychology and other branches of scientific knowledge have completely demolished creationistic conceptions. That explains the attempts of bourgeois sociologists to construct new religious conceptions (entelechic, praetheistic, etc.) which are allegedly distinguished for more "elasticity" and do not come into direct conflict with science. But all such attempts are futile, for the religious-mystical and the scientific world outlooks are incompatible. At the same time it is graphically shown that every new achievement of historical knowledge, which deepens and renders more precise scientific conceptions of the genesis of ideological phenomena, confirms the Marxist conception of religion as an historically transient phenomenon, as a secondary and parasitic growth on the mighty tree of genuine human knowledge.
A. K. GORFUNKEL. "City of the Sun" and "Messianic Monarchy"
The article analyzes two aspects of Tommaso Campanella's Utopia-his ideal of a communist society reflected in the "City of the Sun" and his plan of establishing a universal theocratic monarchy put forward in the "Messianic Monarchy." Contrary to the advocates of the "simulation theory" who denied the sincerity of Campanella's theocratic constructions, and contrary to the assertions of contemporary Catholic historians concerning the "accidental" nature and insignificant place held by the "City of the Sun" in the literary heritage of the Calabrian thinker, the author regards Campanella's communist and universalist programme as the expression of a uniform plan for socio-political transformations. Campanella's utopia is viewed as one which arose on the soil of objectively existing social contradictions and conflicts in Southern Italy, as an expression of eschatological sentiments and hopes for radical changes and the establishment of the reign of God on Earth, as an expression of the plebeian opposition to the inhuman forms of class oppression, as a protest against inequality and social injustice. In his Utopian political programme Campanella tried to find an answer to the social problems of that period. At the same time many brilliant ideas and views of the great Utopian retained their significance for subsequent centuries.
I. N. KHLOPIN. Indo-Iranians: Farmers or Cattlebreeders?
The article criticizes some of the views accepted by science as postulates, according to which the ancient Aryans described in the Avesta were cattlebreeders and originally inhabited a vast zone of Eurasian steppelands; then they moved southward and settled in the argicultural oases of Central Asia and Iran to engage in farming there. The author seeks to prove that the livestock- breeding economy could not arise independently in the steppeland zone but appeared there only as a result of its transfer from southern regions, whose population, on its own ecological basis, made the transition from appropriative to producing economy several millenniums before the first indications of cattlebreeding emerged in the steppe zone. This can only mean that the main, natural movement of peoples proceeded exclusively in the direction from south to north and from east to west, and not vice versa as was believed hitherto (this view is of pan-European origin). The attempt to show the mechanism and dynamics of the process of emergence, consolidation and development of the livestock-raising basis of European steppelands is the main content of the article under review.
M. Y. VOLKOV. The Specific Features Attending the First Stage of Primitive Accumulatiori in Russia
The article is devoted to the problem of primitive accumulation in Russia, the discussion of which in the columns of our journal was resumed by L. V. Milov (see "Problem's of History" No. 7 for 1969). The author draws attention to a number of peculiarities typical of the process of primitive accumulation in its first stage, the beginning of which the author dates back to the second quarter of the 17th century and the end to the middle pf the 19th century. The process of primitive accumulation in Russia began after the establishment of serfdom. This circumstance and the existence of extensive undeveloped territories in the southern and eastern parts of the country determined the slow rates of its development as well as the absence for a protracted period of time of sufficiently "clear" manifestations of this process. ''
In the period between the 17th and the first half of the 19th centuries only some bl the results of expropriation of the immediate producers, which occurred in the process oi disintegration of the old system, became an organic part of primitive accumulation. In the 17th century these results led to the emergence in Russia of a labour market and to, its growth predominantly at the expense of socage tenants. The corvee peasants deprived of the means of production prior to 1861 but not appearing on the labour market at the time, likewise began to sell their labour power following the abolition of serfdom.
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