V. Y. ZEVIN. Lenin's Great Heritage (a brief survey of the new edition of V. I. Lenin's Collected Works)
The article sums up certain results of preliminary work involved in the publication of V. I. Lenin's Complete Works in 55 volumes, bringing out the most important features and significance of the new edition. Tne author points out that the new edition will embrace Lenin's entire literary heritage. The forty-five volumes already published to date and containing V. 1. Lenin's principal works (the remaining volumes are devoted to correspondence) include nearly a thousand works which did not appear in previous editions, with 140 of them being published for the first time. The article examines a number of new documents published in the complete edition of V. I. Lenin's works, which contain important propositions and directions on diverse aspects of socialist and communist construction, foreign policy of the Soviet state, inner-Party life, strategy and tactics of the CPSU, the international Communist and working-class movement. Unlike its predecessors, the present edition of V. I. Lenin's Collected Works includes plans, abstracts, preliminary drafts, variants, notes and other preparatory materials for Lenin's works and speeches. The article clearly reveals the significance of these documents, laying particular emphasis on draft copies of unfinished or unwritten works. The author highlights the extensive research work carried on by the CPSU Central Committees' Institute of Marxism-Leninism in the process of preparing V. I. Lenin's Collected Works for the press. As a result of analyzing and comparing the texts of Lenin's works, published and unpublished documents and other materials, it became possible to identify more than 30 articles and other works as written by Lenin, though this required a good deal of painstaking effort, considering that they appeared unsigned, under a pseudonym or under the Central Committee's signature, and that the manuscripts were irrevocably lost. Our research workers have also succeeded in defining more accurately the dates of appearance of a series of Lenin's works. The painstaking effort in the field of verifying and comparing the works included in the present complete edition with original sources has made it possible to give the exact Lenin's text, elucidate a number of vague and indistinct passages, decipher V. I. Lenin's abbreviations and remove the inaccuracies and errors committed in previous editions. The present edition of V. I. Lenin's Collected Works is abundantly supplied with diversified scientific reference data, commentaries, explanatory notes, etc.
M. L. ITKIN, V. I. SELITSKY and I. S. CHERNOMAZ. Contemporary Soviet Historiography of Workers' Control (1917 - 1918)
The principal results achieved during the past decade in the elaboration by Soviet historiography of the history of workers' control instituted in 1917 - 1918 consist, in the authors' opinion, in disclosing more profoundly the organizing and directing role of the Communist Party in the proletarian movement, in studying the history of formulating the slogan of workers' control by V. I. Lenin, in more intensive research in the problem of workers' control according to individual areas, tracing the origin and initial steps of workers' control, analyzing its specific functions and intensifying research in the organizational forms of the movement for workers' control. The authors make a point of stressing that individual research works inadequately highlight the question of workers' control over the distribution of products, the role of workers' control in strengthening the alliance of the proletariat and the poorest sections. of the peasantry, its close links with mass revolutionary strikes and other forms of the working-class movement, the limited scale of workers' control in the period preceding the October Revolution. The authors note that most of the researches devoted to workers' control are not based on generalized data illustrative of the results of its introduction and steady growth.
R. Y. PLAKSIN. The Church Counter-Revolution in the October Days of 1917
The article reveals the reactionary attitude of the Orthodox Church towards Soviet power in the days of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The author shows how from the very first days of the socialist revolution the clergy resorted to every conceivable means in their active struggle against it. Much space in the article is devoted to the participation of the clergy in the counter-revolutionary manifestations organized in Moscow in October 1917 and to the anti-Soviet stand taken by the All-Russian Episcopal Council of the Orthodox Church. The author clearly shows that the Council's decision to elect a patriarch was aimed at intensifying the clergy's anti-Soviet activity and lending it an organized character. The author gives a brief characteristic of Patriarch Tikhon, describing him as a rabid counter-revolutionary and irreconcilable enemy of Soviet power. In this respect the author polemizes with present-day Orthodox Church leaders. The article shows how the election of the patriarch stimulated the counter-revolutionary activity of the Church, spearheaded against Soviet power, in the very first days of the October Revolution. The article is based on extensive archive materials and press publications.
V. A. SIDOROV. Measures Aimed at the Labour Reeducation of Former Kulaks
The article describes the measures taken by the Communist Party and the Soviet government with the aim of rendering material assistance to the former kulaks, exiled to the country's outlying areas, in order to create the necessary conditions for their labour activity. More than half of the exiled kulaks were provided with jobs in the timber, building and mining industries. A considerable proportion of them continued to engage in agriculture.
The author highlights the work carried out by the Communist Party and Soviet government in the field of re-educating former kulaks and gradually enlisting them in the process of socialist construction. The results of this work are illustrated by the author on concrete examples. In the period 1930 - 1932 the former kulaks and their families were provided with the necessary living and working conditions. In the Siberian Territory alone, nearly 17,500 former kulaks were reinstated in their-civil rights in 1936 for their active labour effort and loyal attitude to Soviet power. Having convinced itself that the expropriated kulaks had ceased their struggle and conscientiously participated in socially useful labour, the Soviet government deemed it possible to re-establish all former kulaks in their civil rights. An overwhelming proportion of the former kulaks earned the confidence of Soviet power by their devoted labour effort and participated in the work of building a socialist societv. The article is based on extensive archive materials.
I. Y. ZLATKIN and S. K. ROSHCHIN. Historical Experience Gained by the Mongolian People's Republic in the Field of Non-Capitalist Development
Drawing on extensive factual material, the authors of this article, which is devoted to the 40th anniversary of the Mongolian People's Republic, vividly illustrate the country's big leap from a backward feudal economy, complete illiteracy and ruinous social diseases to civilization and socialism. The changes effected in the country over the past four decades are the logical result of the Mongolian people's advance from feudalism to socialism along the non-capitalist path of development, by-passing a whole historical epoch of capitalism.
Analyzing the progress of the Mongolian revolution, the authors emphasize that its victory was predetermined by the fact that the struggle of the masses for national independence, democracy and socialism was guided by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. Another cardinal factor which vastly contributed to the victory of the revolution was the selfless and all-round fraternal assistance of the Soviet Union. The article dwells in detail on the specific features attending the period of Mongolia's transition to socialism. Ushered in by the victory of the national-democratic revolution, the transition period ended in complete victory of socialist relations of production in the country. The resolution adopted by the 14 th Congress of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party declares that the Mongolian revolution has entered a new stage-the stage of consummating the construction of socialism.
Mongolia's experience is of immense international significance because an ever-increasing number of countries that have chosen the path of sovereign development are rejecting the discredited capitalist system. The article analyzes this experience which helps many newly-independent countries to find correct solutions to the complex theoretical and practical problems connected with the non-capitalist path of transition to socialism.
A. F. MILLER and M. A. POLTAVSKY. Soviet "Universal History" and Its Appraisal by Bourgeois Historiography
The authors single out three groups of foreign authors who have responded to the Soviet nine-volume edition of "Universal History" by contributing historiographical articles. The first group consists of Marxist historians whose views and opinions deserve special examination in a separate article. -
The second group is represented by those bourgeois authors who, though fettered by deeply-ingrained biassed notions of Marxist-Leninist science, nevertheless express their opinion in the polite form of scientific argument, manifest a clear desire to seek objective truth and recognize the achievements of Soviet historiography. Among the most typical representatives of this trend is American Professor John S. Curtiss, who reviewed Vols. VI - IX of "Universal History" in four articles written in 1961 - 1964. Some of his concrete critical remarks are scientifically justified, others are patently unacceptable. The general impression is that Mr. Curtiss was much closer to the viewpoint of the authors of "Universal History" in his appraisal of Vols. VI - VII than in his critical review of Vols. VIII - IX.
The third group includes critics who resort to methods borrowed from the arsenal of the "cold war" and often substitute an objective scientific appraisal by unobjective and clearly biassed opinions. Among typical representatives of this group reference can be made to Georg Stadtmuller, director of the Munich "Osteuropa" Institute, and his cob leagues, who published a number of personal and joint articles on Vols. I - VII of "Universal History." These would-be critics were able to find certain positive elements only in Vol. I, while the remaining volumes served them as the starting point for highly tendentious speculations.
A feature that is common to the second and third groups is that in criticizing the Marxist-Leninist conception of the historical process, their representatives proved incapable of advancing any constructive programme of their own either for interpreting and appraising the history of mankind as a whole or for explaining other, less important problems. It is to be presumed that this phenomenon has now become common to all authors of identical bourgeois editions ("Historia Mundi," 1952 - 1961, etc.).
N. A. EROFEYEV. England's Industrial Revolution as Reflected in Bourgeois Historiography
Analyzing a number of historical works which appeared in the past decade, the author notes the heightened interest shown by bourgeois historians in the problem of industrial revolution and reveals certain new trends in the approach to it as well as in its treatment. The technicai-scientific revolution which has assumed wide scope in recent years provides added confirmation that the leap-like development of productive forces is a natural phenomenon. The theory of the even evolutionary process, which does not recognize any deviations from gradual development, has proved its insolvency, as is clearly reflected in W. Rostow's "take-off" conception. This is one of the most important reasons prompting bourgeois scientists today to revert to the term "industrial revolution," which they studiously tried to avoid in the past. However, the author points out that bourgeois scientists still continue to interpret the industrial revolution as a purely technical phenomenon, completely disregarding its social aspect.
Characterizing the subjects of historical research in this field, the author points to the persisting tendency of bourgeois historians to investigate not general but particular phenomena and processes, as well as various deviations from general laws, to their gravitation towards the pathology of the industrial revolution, so to say. One cannot but notice the growing interest shown by bourgeois historians in finance, trade and economic situation, which is connected to a considerable extent with the mounting influence of the quantitative trend in economic science. At the same time, attempts at frank apology of capitalist businessmen are becoming more frequent (socalled "business history"). Tracing the causes of the industrial revolution, the author highlights the polemic concerning the role of demographic factors (a discussion aimed at establishing whether it was the declining death rate or the increasing birth rate that played a more important part). The article concludes with a detailed critical analysis of the attempts made by certain historians (T. S. Ashton, R. Hartwell and others) to question the facts furnished by contemporaries, as well as by T. Rogers, A. Toynbee, Sr. and other representatives of the older generation of researchers about the negative influence of the industrial revolution on the position of the working people.
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