A. I. RUMYANTSEV. Social Sciences in the USSR and the Present. V. P. ELYUTIN. On Measures to Fulfil Resolutions of CC, CPSU on Social Sciences in Higher Schools.
The articles examine in detail the measures being worked out and implemented by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and the U.S.S.R. Ministry of Higher and Special Secondary Education for carrying out the Resolutions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union "About the Measures for Further Developing Social Sciences and Enhancing Their Role in Communist Construction" in the institutions of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in higher schools.
P. A. GOLUB. The Counter-Revolutionary Plot in the South of Russia Late in 1917 and Early in 1918.
The article examines the insufficiently explored problem of the Great October Socialist Revolution as a single interdependent process, of the determinative influence of the victory of the proletariat in the key centres upon the establishment of Soviet power all over the country, of the radical change of the correlation of the class forces in outlying districts of Russia under the influence of the titanic transforming activity of the Soviet state in the interests of the working people. The author shows the irresistible process which took place in the course of the development of the revolution - the process of the isolation of the White Guard and bourgeois nationalistic "governments" in Russia from the masses, the unification of those "governments" on an anti-Soviet platform and their closing up with international imperialism to fight the revolution. Many new facts and documents are brought in about the anti-popular activity of the forces of the governments of the imperialist powers in the events in Russia, about their preparation of a military intervention against the triumphant revolution. The article examines in detail the role of the ruling circles of the United States, Great Britain, France in organizing and carrying out the first act of the foreign military intervention in Russia - the occupation of Bessarabia by Rumania ruled by a militant gentry, it also gives an analysis of the sources of the strength and heroism of the working masses that rose to struggle for their social and national liberation.
S. N. KANEV. The Collapse of Russian Anarchism
The article traces the evolution of Russian anarchism in the period from the eve of the February 1917 revolution to its disintegration. The anarchists appeared in the revolution under the slogan of "extreme revolutionism," recruiting into their ranks individuals disappointed with the compromising policy of the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries. The article vividly depicts the consistent struggle waged by the Bolsheviks under the leadership of V. I. Lenin against the anarchists' petty-bougreois revolutionism, pointing out that this struggle helped the working masses to discard dangerous delusions in the days of the revolution and in the period of socialist construction. Taking advantage of the democratic freedoms won by the revolution, the anarchists continued to extend the network of their organizations from February 1917 to the spring months of 1918. But the subsequent period witnessed a marked decline of the anarchist movement and the rapidly developing process ot its disintegration. The article analyzes the causes responsible for the emergence of many different trends within Russian anarchism (anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism, anarcho-individualism, Christian or peaceful anarchism, anarcho-federalism, pan-anarchism, anarcho-universalism, anarcho- interindividualism, etc.). The autor demonstrates the failure of the anarchists' attempts to establish their own party and closely examines the factors behind the anarchists' division into adherents and opponents of Soviet power. It was this division that prompted honest revolutionaries to break with the ideology, programme and policies of anarchism, whose bankruptcy became clearly apparent in the course of the revolution and in the subsequent period of socialist construction; the most advanced and forward-looking of these revolutionary-minded elemenb joined the BoJshevik Party, while the remaining part of the anarchists, having replenished their ranks with criminal elements, went over to the side bourgeois counter- revolution, constituting an important reserve of the latter. Such was the logical and inglorious end of Russian anarchism.
N. E. ZASTENKER. The Ideological Bankruptcy of Modem Neo-Proudhonism.
The history of scientific Communism is full of the relentless struggle against all varieties of petty-bourgeois socialism, including Proudhonism. Extensive historiographic material is used in the article to show how the bourgeois and reformist ideology has been trying to use Proudhon's ideas which were wrecked as far back as the XIX century. The author retraces three campaigns of "return to Proudhon" since the time of the Paris Commune. Such organized attempts to revive Proudhonism have something in common: the ripening and aggravation of the crisis of capitalism, the growth of the magnetic force and influence of the ideas of Marxism. After World War II Proudhon took up much room in the bourgeois and reformist publicism. The latest campaign of "return to Proudhon" is a direct result of the new historic situation which is characterized by the colossal successes of socialism and the Communist movement. The classical dogmata of the Proudhonist theory, however, are no longer good for the opposition of Proudhon to Marx. That makes the followers of the Proudhonist ideas modernize them. Hence the constructions of the neo-Proudhonists about the system of "industrial democracy", the idealist conception of Proudhon's ideorealism" and other discoveries that were widely propagandized in particular at the international collogue devoted to the problem of the "actuality of Proudhon" in 1965 in Brussels. The author exposes the bourgeois and reformist methods of disguising Proudhon which are to link him with th? successes of the contemporary workers' movemeBt and socialism.
V. I. KOZLOV. The Types of Ethnic Processes and the Main Specific Features of Their Historical Development
The article characterizes the essence of the ethnic processes which, in the author's opinion, lead to changes in the ethnic origin of men, and defines the basic types of these processes-ethnic division and ethnic unity. The latter, in turn, is divided into two subtypes: consolidation characteristic of the interaction of kindred ethnic groups which are still in the process of formation, and assimilation characteristic of the heterogeneous and firmly-established ethnic groups or individual parts thereof. The author examines the peculiarities attending the historical development of each type and subtype of the ethnic processes according to different socio- economic formations, showing the extensive development of the ethnic division processes under the primitive communal system and of the ethnic unification processes under different class formations. The article closely analyzes the main causes that led to the development of the former and the latter, as well as the factors determining them.