Yu. F. KHARLAMOV. The Anti-War Movement in the Fight for the Nuclear-Free Europe
The author draws on wide factual material to trace the history of the movement for the nuclear-free Europe and to conclude on the growing significance and urgency of the struggle for the wide range of peace forces. As the nuclear threat became more real the anti-war, anti- nuclear movement intensified. It became a most massive, genuinely popular movement and a socio-political factor.
[G. Kh. RABINOVICH,] V. N. RAZGQN. Present-Day American and British Historiograph on the Russian Bourgeoisie in the Imperialist Period
The article presents a critical analysis of contemporary American and British works on the history of the Russian bourgeoisie in the imperialist period. The authors demonstrate that all of them are influenced by conceptions and methodological schemes prevalent in bourgeois historiography (the theories of "Russian exclusiveness", "Westernisation", "stages of economic backwardness") when discussing the role of the bourgeoisie and the state in the Russian capitalist industrialisation; the national, regional and branch heterogeneity of the Russian bourgeoisie, the relations between Russian and foreign capital. The article brings to light some new phenomena in American and British historiography to the question under discussion: revision of the concept of the leading role of tsarism and foreign capital, more cautious approach to the role of the Russian bourgeoisie in the economic development of the country at the turn of the century. They are regarded by the authors as a result of concrete historical studies based on factual material and of the influnce of Soviet historiography which makes bourgeois historians alter their unfounded schemes and look for new ideological versions.
P. E. LYUBAROV. The Russian Revolutionary Movement and August Bebel
The author investigates the attitude displayed by the Russian revolutionary and working-class movement to August Bebel, a prominent figure in the German and international working-class movement of the 1870-early 20th century. High assessments of Bebel's role in the development and implementation of the Marxist theory given by Lenin and his Bolshevik comrades-in-arms show that Bebel was deeply respected in the Russian revolutionary circles. In his studies the author drew on little-known archive and other sources to demonstrate the attitude of the Russian working-class movement to Bebel's theoretical works and his activity as a leader of the German Social-Democratic Party, as a Reichstag deputy and as one of the leaders of the international working-class movement.
Critical assimilation of Bebel's experience helped the Russian working-class movement tackle historical tasks posed in the early 20th century by the shift of the centre of the world revolutionary struggle to Russia.
N. A. SOBOLEVA. Development of Russian and Soviet Sphragistics
The author takes as her subject the evolution of sphragistics as a scientific discipline. For a long time stamps and seals were associated solely with the history of diplomacy. In the latter half of the 19th century they became a subject of historical study. It must be indicated, however, that since history was mainly concerned with stamps and seals as monuments of the dominant feudal class such studies lacked historisrn and, therefore, were of a limited nature. Progress in archaeology at the turn of the century brought to light large complexes of metal seals and made historians, Nikolai Likhachev in the first place, aware of their place in history. In the early 20th century sphragistics became a scientific discipline with' the clearly defined object of study, aims, tasks, methods and principal research trends. Soviet historians revealed the discipline's socal aspect. Sphragistic materials are widely used in dealing with most important historical problems.
B. S. ABALIKHIN. Napoleon's Strategic Plan for Autumn 1812 and Its Collapse
The author takes up one of the controversial questions: where Napoleon planned to lead his army from Moscow in early October 1812, what his plans were. War correspondence and other sources indicate that the French warlord headed for the Ukraine where he expected to find military support from Austria, Saxony and the Duchy of Warsaw. After the rout of the 3rd Western and the Danube Armies he planned to stay for winter and to resume his Russian campaign in spring 1813. Kutuzov, who clearly saw what Napoleon planned to do, was firm and consistent in his operations. Having defeated the French at Maloyaroslavets he forced the invaders to retreat along the Old Smolensk Road, already plundered by the enemy in the summer campaign. This spelled the doom of the Grande Armee.
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