N. I. SMOLENSKY. Historical Reality and Historical Conception
The basic content of this work consists in the attempt to prove that scientific historical conception emerges first of all as a reflection of the historical process in its developed form, of its maturest variant. Marx, Engels and Lenin proceeded from the premise that the substance, of historical categories depends on the degree of maturity of the historical process on of the thing reflected. A mature'form of the historical process constitutes the basis of the concept in the sense that it opens the possibility of cognizing other phenomena of one and the same class both within the limits of one and the same epoch and in relation to the progressive development of history as a whole, every new stage in which serves as the starting point of cognizing the past.
N. I. SHISHOV. The Soviet Military Administration and the Assistance Rendered by the U.S.S.R. to the Peoples of Central and Southeastern Europe in 1944 - 1945
The article highlights the establishment in 1944 - 1945 of the Soviet military administration bodies and the measures carried out by these bodies and by the Soviet Armed Forces with the aim of normalizing the situation and the conditions of life in the towns and ruralcommunities of the Central and Southeast European countries liberated by the Red Army, of promoting friendly relations between the Soviet fighting men and the population of these countries. The author makes a point of stressing that the actions of the Soviet army command and military administration bodies were a clear manifestation of the humane nature of the socialist system, of the principles of proletarian internationalism. The author draws on a wide range of archive documents, newspaper and magazine articles, Soviet historical literature and research works produced by scientists in a number of other socialist countries.
M. T. LIKHACHOV. The State, Central and Special Committees of the Provisional Government
Drawing on diverse archive sources and published materials, the author examines the organizational structure and basic functions of the new state institutions set up by the Provisional Government, which operated for a short period from February to October 1917. They were called upon to put into effect bourgeois reforms in the sphere of food supplies, labour legislation, agrarian relations, economics, material supplies, means of communication, education, to relax the revolutionary situation in the country and contribute towards perpetuating the capitalist system in Russia. The author graphically shows that in the conditions created by the revolutionary situation these committees proved ineffectual both politically and organizationally. Together with the entire apparatus of the Provisional Government, they ended their transient and useless existence in October 1917, being liquidated by Soviet power.
O. M. MEDUSHEVSKAYA, M A. PEREZHOGIN. The "Archeographical Yearbook": Results and Prospects
The article highlights the importance of the Yearbook and outlines the prospects of its development. Examining the contents and significance of the materials published in the Yearbook over the period 1967 - 1976, the authors show how it reflects the progress of Soviet historical science, the broadening of the social functions of using archive documents in scientific and practical activity, the integration processes under way in archive-keeping, archeography, source research and auxiliary historical subjects
in the U.S.S.R. at the present stage. The Yearbook attaches paramount importance to problems of studying the works of Lenin and the sources on the history of Soviet society, to the methods of publishing sources on Russian and Soviet history. The prominent coordinating role played by the Yearbook is best reflected in printing materials of the Tikhomirov lectures touching on some of the major problems posed by the scientific description and publication of sources and auxiliary historical subjects.
V. V. DEGOYEV. Bourgeois Historiography of the British Policy in the Caucasus in the 1830's- 1860's
The article examines the policy pursued by Great Britain in the Caucasus from the 1830's to the 1860's as reflected in Anglo-American bourgeois historiography. The author reveals the basic conceptions of this historiography, indicating the sources of their formation and tracing their evolution. By and large, the Western historians either assert, contrary to the sources, that in the period under review the Caucasus was outside the sphere of British interests or acknowledge the existence of such interests.
R. V. VYATKIN. Historical Science in the People's Republic of China at the Present Stage
Examining the situation that has taken shape in China's historical science, particularly during the last decade, the article shows its close connection with the basic tendencies of the Maoist policy. Political actions like the "cultural revolution," the campaign of "criticizing Lin Piao and Confucius," the movement "for a revolution in historical science" have brought Chinese historiography to the brink of disintegration. The chief aspects of these campaigns included a struggle against the political opponents of Mao Tse-tung's line, against the old cadres and the intelligentsia, the whipping of nationalistic sentiments and anti-Soviet feelings with the use of historical "arguments." After the fall of the "gang of four" (1976) the most odious and absurd propositions in historiography were discarded. Nevertheless, the chief Maoist postulates continue to prevail in China's historical science, especially in the history of external relations and the history of national minorities.
V. I. POTAPOV. Mercenaries - A Weapon of Imperialism
The practice of recruiting mercenaries has been engendered by an antagonistic society and was often resorted to in ancient times, in the Middle Ages and in the contemporary period. Already in those remote times attempts were made to condemn this vile practice as a phenomenon inimical to the cause of peace. The voice of protest against the recruitment of mercenaries was raised with particular intensity after the second world war by the peoples of the colonial, dependent and developing countries, for it was used by imperialism as an instrument for suppressing the national-liberation struggle. Citing examples from the contemporary history of Africa, the author convincingly shows that the practice of recruiting mercenaries is a crime and highlights the struggle waged by mankind's progressive forces for condemning the recruitment of mercenaries in international law and for its liquidation in practice.
I. N. KHLOPIN. The Chronology of the Campaign Against Central Asia Launched by Alexander the Great
Until quite recently the Central Asian stage of the Eastern campaign undertaken by Alexander the Great was dated as an integral whole, with unjustifiably much time devoted to the military operations in Sogdiana: the years 329, 328 and the beginning of 327 B. C. After subjecting to a critical analysis the written sources, first and foremost Book XVII of "Bibliotheca historica" by Diodorus Siculus, it became possible to divide the Central Asian stage into separate campaigns: 1) the Median- Hyrcan campaign undertaken in 330 B. C. from the march from Persepolis to the winter quarters in Parthia; 2) the Aria-Drangiana campaign undertaken in 329 В. С- from marching into Aria to the winter quarters at Alexandria in the Caucasus; 3) the Bactria-Sogdiana campaign of 328 B. C.from crossing the Hindu Kush into Bactria to the winter quarters at Nautaca and Sogdiana; 4) the Sogdiana-India campaign launched in 327 B. C.
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