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Over the past 15 years, the study of Israel in Russian has developed at an unprecedented pace. If in previous years most of the literature published in Russia about Israel appeared under headlines like: "Racism under the Blue Star "(Saratov, 1981), "International Zionism in the Service of Imperialist Reaction" (Moscow, 1984), "Mines under the Olive Trees: American-Israeli Robbery in the Middle East" (Moscow, 1984), "Palestine in the loop of Zionism" (Moscow, 1988), "Zionism in the Middle East" (Moscow, 1984). brown uniform: On the activities of ultra-right, pro-fascist forces in Israel "(Moscow). 1989), then after the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries, a significant amount of balanced and even openly pro-Israeli literature was published in Moscow. It is also important to note that until 1991, the only Jewish publishing house that actually published books about Israel in Russian was the Aliyah Library in Jerusalem, but later others appeared: Gesharim/Bridges of Culture", Open University of Israel Press, " Lehaim/Text", " House of the Jewish Book/Parallels". Among the hundreds of books they have published, a considerable number are dedicated to the State of Israel. The total number of more or less serious books and articles about Israel (including the history of the Zionist movement, which was the immediate forerunner of the independent Jewish state) published in Russian is approaching 400 - a situation unthinkable just 20 years ago.

No complete bibliographic index of books and articles about Israel has ever been published in Russian. In the book " Society and Politics of Modern Israel "(Moscow/Jerusalem, 2002), an annotated index was placed (p. 401-428; comp. by A.D. Epshtein, A.V. Fedorchenko, N. G. Heimets) major works on the history, politics, economy, and social problems of the State of Israel, published in 1985-2001. It included, among other things, 80 books and articles written in Russian, and 49 books by Israeli and American authors translated into Russian. In August 2005, under the auspices of the Research Department of the Open University of Israel, the International Association of Jewish Educational and Cultural Figures "Echo" and the Academic College "Oranim", the author of this review prepared a thematic bibliographic guide to the main works on the history of Zionism, politics, economics and social problems of the State of Israel, published in Russian, which included 314 books and articles, both original (185 in total) and translated. Since then, several dozen more works have been published, and feedback from interested readers has revealed a number of relevant publications from previous years that were not included by the compiler in the bibliographic guide, an expanded reprint of which is currently being prepared.

Contrary to stereotypical expectations, only about a quarter of all publications are devoted to Israel's place in the conflict with the Arabs and its role in countering Islamic extremism and terrorism. I consider this fact positive, because I am very saddened when the social, cultural and political life of such a unique country as Israel remains in the shadow of the Arab-Israeli (and in a narrower sense, the Palestinian - Israeli) conflict. Approximately 10% of Russian-language publications are devoted to the history of the Zionist movement and the Jewish community of Palestine/Eretz Israel in the pre-state period, about a quarter - social, political and legal aspects of Israeli life, about 10% - economic, agricultural and foreign trade issues, about the same amount-the development of culture, science and education. The number of books and articles published in Russian about the Russian-speaking community of Israel has exceeded 30 titles, and about 10 published works are devoted to Arab citizens of Israel. In other words, today, without knowing either Hebrew or English, having an excellent command of-

The review was written in the framework of the project "Development of Israeli Studies in Russia and beyond", implemented with the support of the International Association of Jewish Educational and Cultural Figures "Echo" at the Oranim Academic College and the Research Department of the Open University of Israel, and was first presented at the conference "Russia and Israel: on the 15th anniversary of the Restoration of the Jewish State". diplomatic Relations" (Moscow, Diplomatic Academy under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, October 12-13, 2006).

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Especially for Russians, you can collect several solid shelves of literature on almost all major areas of Israel's history and its present day.

Gradually, a situation has developed in which publications about Israel appear in Russian, written by three groups of authors: researchers and journalists living and working in Russia (occasionally in Ukraine and Belarus); sociologists, political scientists and ethnographers who emigrated to Israel from the CIS countries; Israeli and American (extremely rarely - European and American). Arab) scientists, diplomats, and publicists. In the total number of publications, a little more than a third are written by authors from the CIS countries, about a quarter are written by Russian-speaking Israelis, and about 40% are translations of works published in the original in foreign languages. Authors from different countries also meet at scientific conferences, in particular at the annual forums of the Association of Jewish Scholars and Teachers at Sefer Universities, where two or three sections are always devoted to modern Israel. This state of affairs ensures constructive enrichment of the Russian and Russian-Israeli "market of ideas", which brings obvious benefits to both authors and readers.

At the same time, it is impossible not to mention a number of problems that complicate the development of Russian-language Israeli studies.

First, almost all authors who are professionally engaged in Israel in the former Soviet Union live in Moscow and collaborate (usually simultaneously) in three Moscow research institutions: The Institute of Oriental Studies, the Institute of the Middle East, and MGIMO. Almost every one of the specialists is the only expert in their field in Russia: A.V. Fedorchenko - on the Israeli economy; T. A. Karasova - on the Israeli party and political system; S. M. Gasratyan-on the role of religion in Israeli public life; G. G. Kosach and N. A. Semenchenko - on Israeli left - wing radical movements; T. V. Karasova-on the role of religion in Israeli public life. Nosenko and G. A. Melamedov - on the problem of Jerusalem; I. V. Masyukova - on the Russian-speaking community of the country; E. Y. Usova - on Israeli foreign policy; A. E. Lokshin-on the history of Russian-Israeli relations; V. P. Vorobyov - on Israeli constitutional law; G. I. Mirsky, I. D. Zvyagelskaya and E. Ya. Satanovsky - recognized experts on a wide range of Middle Eastern issues, in particular the Arab-Israeli conflict. Outside of Moscow, literally only a few people are engaged in Israel at any acceptable level. E. Epstein - in St. Petersburg, S. V. Wolfson-in Tomsk, A. A. Kornilov - in Nizhny Novgorod, M. G. Agapov - in Tyumen, D. T. Shevelev - in Minsk, Yu.Korogodsky-in Kiev. However, they have very few publications not only in the international, but even in the central Russian scientific periodicals. As a result, Russian academic specialists in Israel have virtually no one to engage in intellectual polemics with: each of the above - mentioned authors is a de facto "monopolist" in their field of specialization. For one reason or another that deserves a separate study, the number of Russian-speaking graduate students and graduate students working in Israel is very small both in the CIS countries and in Israel itself, and the level of knowledge of almost all of them is very far from what would allow them to fully participate in scientific discourse. Just because diplomas and dissertations about Israel are written and defended in different places does not mean that they are all of scientific significance, and this situation does not seem likely to change in the foreseeable future. In recent years, several dozen dissertations and diplomas have been defended in Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and other cities on various aspects of Israeli politics, public life and culture, but only a small number of these works represent truly original author's research, and not rewriting in their own (and not always in their own) words already published publications. The number of young Israeli researchers who have joined scientific institutions and are published in recognized scientific periodicals remains very small.

Secondly, almost none of the authors listed above write in English, which is why their work is inaccessible to foreign colleagues. More than 100 books on the history of Zionism and the State of Israel, published in the original Hebrew, English and (in rare cases) French, have been translated into Russian, but none of the books about Israel written in Russian have been published in any other language (as far as we know, the exception is only the work of V. P. Vorobyov " The Constitutional and legal system of the State of Israel "(Moscow, 2002), translated into Hebrew).

This applies to such important books written by Russian experts as, for example: "Jerusalem. Three Religions - three Worlds "(Moscow, 2003) T. V. Nosenko; " History and Ideology of the Jewish people.

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Russian religious movement of the XIX - XX centuries. From the Prehistory of the State of Israel "(Moscow, 1999) and" Religious Parties of the State of Israel " (Moscow, 1996) by S. M. Gasratyan; "The MAARACH Bloc in the party-political system of Israel "(Moscow, 1988) by T. A. Karasova; "The State of Israel "(Moscow, 2005) by I. D. Zvyagelskaya, T. A. Karasova and A.V. Fedorchenko; "The Economy of the Resettlement society (the Israeli Model)" (Moscow, 1998) by A.V. Fedorchenko; "The economy of Israel in the 90s" (Moscow, 1999) by E. Ya. Satanovsky; " Water Resources the Jordan River Basin and the Arab-Israeli conflict "(Moscow, 1998) by K. Z. Khamzin (A. R. Aganina); "Essays on the history of Israeli literature "(St. Petersburg, 1998) and " Hebrew Literature in the XX Century "(Moscow, 2005) by A. A. Kryukov; " Compatriots in Israel "(Moscow, 2006) by A. V. Krylov; and others. As well as the works of Russian-language scholars who emigrated to Israel: "History of the State of Israel "(Herzliya, 2003) and" History of the City of Jerusalem " (Herzliya, 2006) by M. Shterenshis; "The ground is under your feet. From the history of settlement and development of Eretz Israel from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the end of the First World War " (Kiev, 2003) by F. Kandel; ""Russian" Israel: between the two Poles" (Moscow, 2003) by E. Kant. Feldman; " Russians and Power in Modern Israel "(Moscow, 2004) by V. Khanin; " Wealth and Poverty in Israel. Israeli Society in the XXI Century "(Moscow, 2004) and " Big Money in a Small Country "(Moscow, 2006) by B. Dubson; " The phenomenon of Israeli theater. A Look into History and Modernity "(Jerusalem, 1997) 3. Zaretskoy; " Wars and Diplomacy. The Arab-Israeli conflict in the XX century "(Kiev, 2003), " Israel and the problem of Palestinian refugees "(Moscow, 2005), " Israel in the era of "post-Zionism": science, ideology and politics "(Moscow, 2006) and " Why did the Road Map fail?""(Moscow, 2006) A.D. Epshteyna.

The only book about Israel published in Russian, which is being prepared for publication in English, is "Russian Street in the Jewish country. A study of the folklore of emigrants of the 1990s in Israel" (Moscow, 2005) by M. Elenevskaya and L. Fialkova. Collections of articles that Russian and Israeli scientists worked on together, such as " Migration Processes and their Impact on Israeli Society "(Moscow, 2000) and " Society and Politics of Modern Israel "(Moscow, 2002), edited by A.D. Epstein and A.V. Fedorchenko, or "East Jerusalem and West Jerusalem". The Jordan River Bank: Possible Settlement Parameters "(Moscow, 2006) by G. A. Melamedov and A. D. Epstein, also published only in Russian. Thus, the dialogue goes exclusively in one direction: those who read Russian have the opportunity, even if they do not know enough foreign languages, to study the works of many Israeli and American scientists, diplomats and journalists in translations, but Israelis and Americans who do not speak Russian are deprived of the opportunity to follow the work of specialists on Israel who write in Russian. in Russian.

Third, neither in Israel nor in Russia does there exist any really functioning advisory editorial board that would select the most appropriate books for translation. Each organization usually translates and publishes what suits its own institutional interests. As a result, although many books about Israel have been translated into Russian, a number of important works remain untranslated. I will limit myself to listing the most important works, the absence of which in the Russian-speaking intellectual market is particularly noticeable. On the history of Zionism, G. Shimoni's book "The Zionist Ideology" (Hannover, 1995) should be published in Russian, and on the history of the State of Israel- " One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate" (N. Y., 1999), "The Seventh Million: The Israelis and the Holocaust "(N.Y., 1993) and other books by T. Segev (none of his works have been translated into Russian), on the sociology of Israeli society - " Trouble in Utopia. The Overburdened Polity of Israel "(Albany, N.Y., 1989) by D. Horowitz and M. Lissack and " Immigrants, Immigrants, Local natives. State and Society in Israel between Cultural Pluralism and Intercultural Wars "(Tel Aviv, 2004) by B. Kimmerling (published only in Hebrew), on the History of the Arab-Israeli conflict - " Righteous Victims. A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict "(N.Y., 1999) by B. Morris, "Israel, the Palestinians, and the Arab Countries in 1948" (Tel Aviv, 2005) by I. Gelber (published in Hebrew only), and "The Road Not Taken: Early Arab-Israeli Negotiations" (N.Y. 1991) by I. Rabinovich, on the history of the Israeli Army - "The Sword and the Olive: A Critical History of the Israeli Defense Force" (N.Y., 1998) by M. van Creveld. These works are among the most important books about Israel, read in all the leading departments of Israeli studies in the world, and they should certainly be read by Russian students studying the history and politics of the Middle East in general.

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Fourth, the texts of even already published books about Israel, for the most part, are not posted on the Internet, which is why they are inaccessible to a mass audience of potential readers. Major courses of the Open University include " Power and Politics in the State of Israel "(Tel Aviv, 1997-1998), "The Formation of Israeli Democracy" (Tel Aviv, 2001), "Society, Economy and Culture of Israel. The First Decade" (Tel Aviv, 2002-2003), and in total it is-18 books, nor the fundamental volume "The State of Israel" and. D. Zvyagelskaya, T. A. Karasova and A.V. Fedorchenko, neither the above-mentioned monographs of T. V. Nosenko and M. Shterenshis on the history of Jerusalem, nor the books of B. I. Dubson on the economy of Israel (I mention only the most important, truly milestone works) are posted on the Internet, which reduces the circle of their readers and influence on the formation of the intellectual software market. Israel studies in Russian. The only publishing house that publishes the full texts of its books on the Internet (albeit with a delay of a year and a half) is the publishing house of the Middle East Institute. To date, the book, although published but not posted online, has a very small distribution, but, unfortunately, no one anywhere has set itself the goal of creating a large-scale "virtual pavilion of Russian-language Israeli studies", which would become the portal where interested users could find information about Israel. The sites of the Electronic Jewish Encyclopedia and the Open University of Israel are probably by far the most comprehensive and authoritative sources of scientific information on this topic, but they are very far from what needs to be created in order for Russian-language Israeli studies to be presented on the Internet adequately to the level of its current development.

Thus, despite these problems, we can say that today Russian-language Israeli studies is not inferior in terms of its level of development to a similar discipline in France, Germany and other most "advanced" countries of the non-English-speaking world. In the mid-1980s, this was only a dream come true.


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