A major event in the development of Russian science in recent years is the publication of a new fundamental work by Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences M. L. Titarenko " The Geopolitical Significance of the Far East. Russia, China and other Asian countries" (Moscow, Monuments of Historical Thought, 2008, 623 p). The book is a continuation of the author's long-term comprehensive research work on a wide range of problems of interstate and intercivilizational relations, as well as international security issues. The focus is on the integration of our country into the economic and civilizational space of the Asia-Pacific region (APR), the place and role of the Russian Federation and its Far Eastern regions in Asia.
In recent years, academician M. L. Titarenko has actively defended and scientifically substantiated the idea of Russia's Eurasian orientation. For the first time, this concept was most clearly expressed in his book "Russia facing Asia" (1998), and then developed and enriched in his works: "China: civilization and Reforms "(1999), " Russia. Security through Cooperation: the East Asian Vector "(2003) and in a joint work with B. N. Kuzyk "China - Russia 2050: a Strategy for Co-development" (2006).
In his new book, M. L. Titarenko consistently defends the theory of new Eurasianism and analyzes the phenomenon of Russia's unique geopolitical identity. "For domestic and international well-being," he writes, " it is necessary to consistently adhere to the principle of balance, the equivalence of attention to both the western and eastern azimuths of domestic and foreign policy. In other words, it is necessary to steadily follow the Eurasian geopolitical identity of Russia" (p. 7).
It is important to note that the author's conclusions about the Eurasian self-identification of Russia have acquired today not just theoretical, but first of all concrete and practical significance. Currently, the author emphasizes that the Asia-Pacific region, which is emerging as the most powerful center of global economic and cultural development (60% of world GDP), is a sphere of vital interests for Russia, and therefore occupies an increasingly important place in the hierarchy of Russian foreign policy priorities. Determining the place of the Russian Federation in the Asia-Pacific region, it is necessary to take into account the specific interests of the regions of Siberia and our Far East, the development of which is largely the key to Russia's economic recovery (pp. 358, 382). At the same time, as M. L. Titarenko rightly points out, the main obstacle to Russia's more active participation in the integration processes of the Asia-Pacific region, in particular East Asia, is the low level of Russian involvement in the economic life of the region (p.23). Therefore, until Russia fully enters the markets and other sectors of the Asia-Pacific economy, the prospects for its real integration into the region's economic space remain very problematic.
A special place in the book is occupied by sections devoted to a new form of strategic interaction-the dialogue of the three great powers of the Eurasian continent-Russia, China and India. Strengthening mutual understanding and cooperation between these countries, the author emphasizes, becomes fateful in conditions when humanity is going through a difficult, critical stage in its history, associated with a change in the paradigm of civilizational development.
Russia and China entered the twenty-first century as two great powers - strategic partners, largely solving similar development problems and facing similar challenges and threats in the context of globalization.
China is gradually becoming an economic giant in East Asia. Moreover, it has not only established itself as a strong regional Power, but is also being thoroughly promoted as a new global force. It is quite natural to conclude that this is what determines the priority role that partnership with the PRC can play for the realization of Russia's national interests, and that the Chinese direction is the most natural and effective way to strengthen Russia and its entry into the integration field in East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region as a whole (p.43, 275).
The similarity, and often even coincidence, of the fundamental national interests of two countries can lead to:
become an important factor in Russia's economic development (especially in its eastern regions) and strengthen its international position. This also applies to the PRC. Speaking about the prospects of Russian-Chinese cooperation, the author emphasizes that China is an optimal partner for the Russian Far East in many respects, in particular, the presence of complementary economies: energy resources, heavy industry, knowledge-intensive industries and extractive industries - in Russia; light industry, the presence of excess labor, a significant amount of foreign exchange reserves-in China (p. 222).
The book contains a deep, comprehensive analysis of the problems and prospects of political, economic, scientific, technical and innovative cooperation between Russia and China.
Assessing the prospects of Russian-Chinese relations, the best option for cooperation between the Russian Federation and the PRC, the author considers the transition (naturally, based on a breakthrough in trade, economic and public relations) to the model of real co-development of the two countries. Without excluding the possibility of certain frictions and contradictions between Russia and China in the process of globalization, M. L. Titarenko at the same time emphasizes that at the global level "the potential for positive interaction between Russia and China visibly exceeds some asymmetry of their positions" (p.36). Moreover, the Chinese leadership strongly emphasizes the peaceful nature of its future rise, which is interpreted as harmonious co-development and cooperation with all states of the world community.
The emergence of global threats gives a new impetus to the positive development of relations between Russia and China. In addition to the possibility of parallel actions by Moscow and Beijing on such priority world problems as building a multipolar world and creating a new international political and economic order, there is a need to jointly fight international terrorism, schism and separatism. The author emphasizes that the model of Russian-Chinese relations is a contribution to the theory and practice of modern international relations (p.199). A solid legal basis for the development of constructive strategic cooperation between the two countries was laid by the Treaty on Good-Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China (July 2001). The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) plays an important role, which has become a significant achievement of Russian-Chinese cooperation in Asia, a special, valuable mechanism for Russia's integration into the Asia-Pacific region (p. 469).
Along with the analysis of the political and economic situation in the PRC, a significant place in the book is devoted to the study of the foundations of Chinese culture, the peculiarities of Chinese spirituality and civilization in general, and the Chinese national character in particular. It is extremely valuable that M. L. Titarenko considers his concept of new Eurasianism as equal interaction and co-development of different cultures in terms of civilizational dialogue between Russia and China, in terms of better mutual understanding between the two societies. "China is located on the Eurasian continent and therefore inevitably participates in the formation of the Eurasian worldview," he writes. "In this regard, knowledge of the spiritual culture of China is also of fundamental importance for Russia, which is developing the idea of national self-identification during the most difficult period for us" (pp. 115-116).
The author makes a well-reasoned statement on a number of pressing issues of Russian-Chinese relations. In particular, he writes about the enormous harm of sinophobia (spreading the thesis about the" Chinese threat"," demographic expansion " of Beijing) for the interests of Russian-Chinese dialogue and cooperation. The author does not hide the fact that his statements are directed against Russian " Westerners "who are ardent propagandists of the" Chinese threat " and opponents of cooperation with the PRC (p.61). He draws attention to the repeated statements of contemporary leaders of the People's Republic of China that China will not seek hegemony and pursue a superpower policy from a position of strength (p. 190). Unfortunately, the author is forced to state that the remnants of the Cold War have not yet disappeared in the public consciousness (p.280).
The value of the book is not only in the rich scientific and theoretical content. It is replete with concrete proposals and recommendations aimed at further development and implementation of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the Asia-Pacific region, which, we hope, will be taken into account and implemented by our foreign Ministry. In particular, the author emphasizes the need to develop a concept of Russia's foreign policy course as a Euro-Asian power, suggests creating a special government body-the Ministry for the Development of Siberia and the Far East, think about organizing special economic conditions ("special customs territory") for the Russian Far East, etc.
I would like to emphasize the exceptional relevance of the presented work. The global nature of the research, the entire set of materials presented in the book, and the scientific reasoning of Academician M. L. Titarenko are subordinated to one goal-to emphasize the role of the Chinese factor for the future of Russia, the need to further deepen Russian - Chinese cooperation, and ultimately-to protect Russia's national interests.
Yu. V. CHUDODEEV, Candidate of Historical Sciences
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