Libmonster ID: U.S.-1471
Author(s) of the publication: I. Cheban

Moldova's relations with Moscow occupy a very important place in the history of the Moldovan people. A modern historian cannot study the history of Moldova outside of these links. Bourgeois science, especially Rumanian science, if it was concerned with these questions, it was only in order to justify the aggressive policy of Rumanian imperialism. The articles and studies available in Russian also do not show the actual state of affairs, as they relate almost exclusively to church - religious relations. In addition, almost all Romanian and some Russian pre-revolutionary scholars mistakenly considered Moldavia as an inseparable part of Rumania.1 Soviet historical science quite correctly considers Moldavia as a country developing independently of Wallachia or Rumania.2


Our main task is to show the diplomatic and cultural ties between Moldova and Moscow and their importance for the history of both countries on the basis of various materials (scattered in the works of authors dealing with the history of Russia, Bessarabia, Moldova and Romania) and documents.


The foundation of friendship was laid in the joint struggle of the Russian and Moldavian peoples against the common enemy of the Slavs and Moldovans-the German knights, in 1409-1410, when, according to some scholars," the vassal and allied princes of Moldavia, Wallachia and Bessarabia sent auxiliary detachments to Jagiella3, who participated in the Battle of Grunwald.


Friendly relations between the Moldavian gospodars and the Grand princes of Moscow began under the Moldavian Gospodar Alexander the Good (1400-1432). In the second half of the 15th century, diplomatic relations were established between the governments of both countries.4


The southern Slavs were defeated in the Battle of Kossovo Pole (1389). Serbia, the stronghold on the path of Ottoman conquest, had fallen, and there were no Christian countries left in the south that could offer serious resistance to the Turks in the struggle for their freedom and independence. In 1453, Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium, fell. In the 15th century, Moldavia fell under the rule of Turkey. The lords of Moldavia became vassals of Turkey and paid tribute to it. At this time, in the far north, around Moscow, Russia was being united into a single national central government.-

1 However, the well-known Romanian historian P. P. Panaitescu, analyzing the reasons for the independence of Moldavia and Wallachia, basically correctly approaches the issue of the independent development of these countries. Dece au fost tara romaneasca sie Moldova tari seperats? "Rev. Fund. Heg" N. 6. 1938.

2 Sergievsky M. Moldavian etudes, p. 64. M. and L. 1936; Derzhavin N., akad. The origin of the Moldavian people. Sovetskaya Nauka No. 12 for 1940.

3 Zalessky V. Grunwald battle-a prototype of the unity of the Slavs, p. 194. Kazan. 1911.

4 Yatsimirsky A. Charity of Russian sovereigns in Romania in the XVI-XIX centuries. Russkiy Vestnik, May-June 1899, p. 608.

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the named state. It was then that the peoples of the Balkan Peninsula turned their eyes to Moscow, which became the "third Rome" 1. The voivodes of the Moldavian Principality increasingly began to turn to the Russian tsar for help in the struggle for their native land and its independence from the hated oppressors - the Turks.


The closest comprehensive connection between Moldavia and Moscow was established under Stephen the Great (1457-1504). This wise politician very early felt the need for rapprochement with the united strong Russia. Stefan established ties with the Olelkovich princes of Kiev2, close friends of the Moscow princes, and married Grand Duchess Evdokia, sister of Grand Duke Simeon (of the Olelkovich family).


In addition, in 1483. Ivan III married his son Ivan the Young to Olena, daughter of the Moldavian ruler Stefan the Great and Eudokia.


The marriage of the son of Ivan III with the daughter of the Moldavian Gospodar is an obvious evidence of Stephen the Great's departure from Poland and his rapprochement with Russia.3


In 1486, the Moldavian voivode Stefan the Great asked the Moscow Prince Ivan III to arm himself against the foreign Turks, 4 who were smashing up Stefan's lands and trying to conquer Europe. Ivan III wrote on this occasion to the Polish King Casimir: "If we were not so far away and it would be possible, then we would sincerely want to do this work and stand up for Christianity. Stephen the voivode also sent to us with a request that we persuade you to help him; if Christian princes are near and can do this work, then every Christian ruler should protect this work and stand for Christianity. " 5


In 1499, the ambassadors of Stephen the Great again asked the Tsar of Moscow for help against foreigners.6


But since there were no common borders between Moldavia and Russia at that time, the latter, with all its desire, could not directly help the Moldavian ruler. However, there was an indirect help, and it consisted in the fact that Russia repeatedly diverted Polish forces in the north, thereby unleashing Stefan's hands in the fight against the Turks. Conversely, when Stephen the Great diverted the forces of Poland or Turkey and the Tatars in the south, Prince Ivan III of Moscow could take care of his internal affairs to unite the Russian lands.


Moldavian ruler Stefan Voivoda is rightly called the Great 7. He was indeed an outstanding political figure and a great commander of Moldavia, who created a strong Moldavian state and its military force. For about half a century, Stefan Voivode was able to defend the country's independence almost without any direct help from other states. Under Stephen the Great gospo-

1 "Russian charity to the monasteries of the Danubian states in the XVI-XIX centuries "Government Bulletin" NN 19, 20, 21 for 1903.

2 Yatsimirsky A. Edict. Soch. "Russkiy Vestnik" for May-June 1899, p. 610 see also Karamzin N. Istoriya gosudarstva Rossiyskogo [History of the Russian State], Vol. VI, p. 112; Ulyainsky M. Materials for the history of Russia, Poland, Moldavia, Wallachia and Turkey in the XIV-XVI centuries, p. 112. Moscow, 1887.

3 Panaitescu P. Contributii la istoria lui Stefan сel Mare "Memorille sectiunii istorice", seria III. T. XV, p. 71. Academia romana. Bucuresti. 1934.

4 Ulyanitsky V. Decree, op., p. 115, see also "Russian charity to monasteries".

5 Solovyov S. History of Russia since ancient Times, Vol. V, stb. 1448, St. Petersburg; see Ulyanitsky V. Decree, op., p. 115.

6 See Ulyanitsky V. Decree, op., pp. 179-80.

7 See (Karamzin N. Decree op. T. VI, p. III Xenopoi A. Isloria romanilor diе Dacia Traiana, p. 11 - 94. Vol. 4. Bucuresti. 1927.

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darstvo has reached the peak of its power. The country's economy was highly developed. As you know, Moldova has long been a trading gateway between East and West. Moldavian cities-Belgorod-Dniester (Akkerman) on the Black Sea and Kilia at the mouth of the Danube-were the centers from which Moldavian and Western European merchants sent their goods to the Crimea, Asia Minor and the Balkans. Goods from Kaffa also arrived here from the Tatars, Genoese and Turks to be sent to the west1. Moldavia imposed high customs duties on these goods. Gospodars and boyars became extremely rich very quickly. Moldavia was in this position almost until the 17th century. On the basis of the economic development of the principality, the cultural flourishing of the country also took place. 2 The wealth of Moldavia was fueled by the predatory apetites of Turkey, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Tatars, etc. They dreamed of conquering it and taking possession of the mouth of the Danube. Moldavia often became a source of contradictions between great states. Therefore, the gospodars sought help from Moscow 3.


The son of Stephen the Great, Peter Raresh (1527-1588), who did not possess the qualities of his father, even more needed the help of the Russian sovereigns. In 1542, under the pretext of buying furs, falcons and other gifts to the sultan, he sent envoys to the Moscow Prince Ivan IV to negotiate for help in the fight against Turkey. At the same time, the Grand Duke of Moscow promised to help Peter 4. On this occasion, an embassy was sent by the Russians to the then capital of Moldova, Suceava, but due to strained relations between Russia and Poland, the latter did not allow the ambassadors to pass - and the negotiations were interrupted.5


Despite the failures with the embassy, Ivan the Terrible built monasteries in Moldavia, sent master artists to decorate them, patronized them, and made rich contributions and donations. 6 Educated people gathered in these monasteries, and the young people of the principality were brought up there.


During the second reign of the Moldavian ruler Alexander Lopushneanu (1563-1568), the envoy from Moldova to the court of Ivan the Terrible was Euthymius, an intelligent and educated hieromonk and abbot of the Cyprian Monastery (which still exists near Chisinau). Alexander Lopushneanu turned to the tsar for financial assistance, assuming to use the money received to buy the Moldavian throne from the Turks.7


Tsar Boris Godunov (1598-1605)also "helped the co - orthodox voivode of Moldavia Michael against them (the Turks-I. Ch.); in addition to money for military needs, church decorations and images were sent to Moldavia." 9


Moldovans and Greeks enjoyed special privileges in the Muscovite state. In the reign of Ivan Vasilyevich despite the neras-

1 Bogdan I, Inscriptole dela Cetatea Alba staparirea Moldovei asupra ei, p. 38.

2 Kapterov N. The nature of Russia's relations to the Orthodox East in the XVI-XVII centuries, p. 104. Moscow, 1885.

3 Ulyanitsky V. Edict. op., p. 116.

4 "Russian charity to monasteries", "Government Bulletin" NN 19, 20, 21 for 1903.

5 Palauzov S. Romanian gospodarstva Wallachia i Moldavia, pp. 77-78, 82-83. SPB. 1859.

6 Yatsimirsky A. Decree, op., p. 506; 607.

7 Syrku p. From the history of Russian relations with the Romanians. "Proceedings of the Department of Russian Language and Literature of the Imperial Academy of Sciences", vol. I, pp. 517-519, St. Petersburg, 1896.

8 At this time, Jeremiah Grave (1595-1606) was the ruler of Moldavia, not Michael, although according to Iorga. The rule of the Wallachian ruler Michael the Brave (1593 - 1601) lasted about a year .(1600) and Moldavia.

9 Solov'ev S. Decree of soch. Vol. VIII, p. 712.

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Moldavian merchants traded in Moscow along with the subjects of the Russian .


From year to year, the Turks penetrated deeper into Moldavia and subordinated it to the Ottoman Empire. And the more the Turkish press pressed, Moldavian gospodars turned to Russian tsars more often, and Moldavia's ties with Moscow became closer and closer.


In the 17th century, these ties became more solid and comprehensive.


Under the Moldavian Ruler Vasili Lupu (1634-1654)2 Metropolitan Varlaam of Moldavia in 1637 wrote to Tsar Michael Fyodorovich of Suceava and urgently asked him to help print Calistus 'sermons in Moldavian:" and the desire of the book of St. Calistus to talk the holy gospel premyaniti in the language of Volos 3 is read by the priest in the church for the instruction of the faithful Voloch, and it is ready and written by tkmo in druk dati drukovati, but when the hand of Agarensk is ready to protect us, and we are not free from those harachas, neither priests nor vladykovs, if we are subject to them, for this reason we ask for help from you, and from your generosity to the kingdom for this cause. " 4


This translation of Calistus ' sermons was published in 1643 and is the first printed book in the Moldavian language. It is clear that Varlaam received all the necessary printing supplies from Moscow. Thus, the printing business in the national language of Moldova was brought to the Moldavian land from the Moscow state.


Vasily Lupu, being an educated gospodar, was able to take into account the enormous importance of the developed Slavic culture of that time for Moldavia. The name Lupu is associated with the era of national revival of Moldovans5; the introduction of the Moldovan language into the everyday life of the church and state, the educational activities of Vasily Lupu are a valuable contribution to the history of the Moldovan people. He built the monastery of the Three Saints in Iasi and decorated it with images and jewels received at his request from the Moscow tsar. This monastery was painted mostly by Russian painters sent by the Moscow tsar. 6 At the monastery, Lupu created the Latin Academy, where sciences were taught in Latin and Slavic languages. 7 and here, for the first time in history, the teaching of the Moldavian language began. Moldovan scientists who received their education in Kiev, Moscow, Lviv, and Bar came to the Academy, and teachers and scientists from other Slavic countries8 were also invited.


In 1644, Vasili Lupu expanded the Moldavian printing houses, which printed many books of a secular and ecclesiastical nature. The Gospodar of Moldavia did this on the advice and with the help of the Metropolitan of Kiev, Peter Mogila 9, a native of Moldavia, the son of the Moldavian gospodar.-

1 Kostomarov N. Essay on trade of the Moscow State in the XVI-XVII centuries, p. 46. St. Petersburg, 1889.

2 Xenopol A. Op. cit. Vol. 7, p. 9 - 137. 1928.

3 In charters and other historical documents, the expressions "Voloki language", "Voloki ruler", etc. are very common, while they refer to the Moldovan ruler or language. D. Cantemir says that Poles and Hungarians called Moldovans "vlochs". See his Descriperea Moldovej, p. 179 de G. Pascu. Bucuresti. 1923.

4 Dragоmir S. Conlributii privitoare la relatiik bisericei romanesti su Russia in veacul al XVII, p. 91. Bucuresti. 1912.

5 Arseny, Bishop of Pskov. Studies and monographs on the history of the Moldavian Church, p. 530. St. Petersburg, 1904.

6 Dragomir S. Op. cit., p. 98.

7 Arseny, Bishop of Pskov. Decree, op., p. 386.

8 Yatsimipsky A. Romanino-slavyanskie ocherki [Romanian-Slavic essays]. Issue 4. Part 2. "Romanian History and Culture", etr. 7. St. Petersburg, 1903.

9 Arseny, Bishop of Pskov. Decree, op., p. 530. For the Metropolitan's activities, see S. R. Peter Grave, Metropolitan of Kiev. "Readings in the Imperial Island of Russian History and Antiquities at Moscow University" for January-March 1877.

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meona Graves. Peter Grave, a scholar who attained the metropolitan dignity in Kiev, founded a theological academy there. Being an ardent patriot, he always aspired to the development of education in his native Moldova. He sent typefaces, printing presses, books, etc. to Moldavia. 1


During the reign of Vasili Lupu, the Moldovan poet Eustratius Logothete 2 compiled a legal code with a lengthy preface written in verse. The Code is based on the Greek model. At the same time, palaces, temples, schools and other buildings were built in Moldova, which were an expression of the national style in Moldovan architecture. Vasili Lupu was known far beyond the borders of his country for his deeds. According to Paul of Aleppo, "the tsars and nobles of Moscow considered it a great happiness to receive a letter from him, and the bearer of such a letter was showered with all sorts of generosity." 3 In his letters, the Gospodar always informed the tsar about Turkish political affairs.4


The Moldovans had a very close connection with the co-religionist Cossacks, 5 with whom there was a common state border. The Ukrainian hetmans Loboda, Nalyvaiko, Konashevich-Sagaidachny, Bohdan Khmelnitsky and others repeatedly opposed the Turks and other enemies in alliance with the Moldovans. Bogdan Khmelnitsky and Vasyl Lupu were also related: the latter married his daughter Roksanda to Timosha, the son of Khmelnitsky.7


In August 1654, Bohdan Khmelnitsky promised Gospodar George Stefan help in the fight against the enemies of Moldavia. At the same time, he informed Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich of Moscow that the lords of Moldavia and Wallachia wanted to "be under the protective hand of the tsar." 8


In the same year, George Stefan himself wrote to Moscow and asked Alexey Mikhailovich to accept the Moldavian ruler under the high hand of his Majesty. The request of the hospodar is not clearly stated in the letter, but it should have been explained by the Moldovan Ambassador Ion Grigori9.


Alexey Mikhailovich answered quite clearly to the voivode George Stefan 10: "And we, great sovereign, you, Stefan, the ruler of Moldavian lands, because you have sought our royal favor and want to be a Christian sovereign under our sovereign's high hand and are looking for freedom from the yoke of Busurman, we grant you, we mercifully praise, and under our sovereign's high hand you want to be a Christian sovereign. with your imperial Majesty, I lift up the hand of you, Stephen, voivode and ruler of the Moldavian lands with all the Moldavian land accepted by the great"11. But then the Moscow prince could not send help, the annexation actually did not take place.


In 1655, George Stefan, through the Patriarch of Jerusalem Paisius, again asks the Russian tsar to accept Moldavia under his patronage-

1 Arseny, Bishop of Pskov. Decree, op., p. 402.

2 Encyclopedia of Pomegranates, vol. 36, Part 7. "Romania", p. 123: 7th ed. 1941.

3 The journey of Patriarch Macarius of Antioch to Russia in the middle of the 17th century, described by his son Archdeacon P. of Aleppo. Translated from the Arabic Murkus, Issue 1, pp. 61-62, 1896.

4 Dragomir S. Op. сit., p. 95.

5 Nistor I. Contributii la relatiunile dintre Moldova si Ucraina in veacul al XVII, Academia Romana, Memoriile sectiunei istorice, seria III, t. 13. Bucuresti. 1932 - 1933.

6 Stadnitsky A. Gabriel Banulescu-Bodoni, Exarch of Moldovlahia (1808-1812) and Metropolitan of Chisinau (1819-1821), p. 30. Chisinau, 1894; see also Batyushkov. Bessarabia. Historical description, p. 107. SPB. 1892.

7 See "The Wedding of Timosha Khmelnitsky". Kievan Antiquity magazine for March, May 1887.

8 Batyushkov P. Decree, op., p. 115.

9 Dragomir S. Op. cit., p. 29.

10 Arsenyev Yu. Moldavian ruler Stefan George and his relations with Moscow. "Russian Archive", p. 160-186. Moscow, 1896.

11 Complete Collection of Laws of the RUSSIAN Empire (PSZ), vol. I, p. 384, 1830.

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and the defense of the Moldavian land, which "the Hagarans often ravage with their raids, desecrate broken churches and take Christians in full" 1.


This was followed, in 1656, by the official proposal of the Moldavian gospodar, brought to Moscow by Metropolitan Gideon of Moldavia, to accept the Moldavian ruler as a subject of Russia, just as Khmelnitsky was accepted. 2


Along with the offer of Russian citizenship, the tsar was also given the conditions under which Moldavia intended to join Russia. Here are some of the most important points from this agreement in our editorial.


Moldavian Gospodar requested: 1. Not to break the system and customs of the country, but to leave them as they were under the old gospodars before the Turkish rule. 2. Foreign gospodars should not enter Moldavia. 3. Not to violate the rank and honor of the State and to promote its strengthening. 4. To return the towns and fortresses on the borders of Moldavia and its former lands occupied by the Port, if they are liberated by Russia from the Turks. 5. Do not take taxes and tribute, as the Turks take, but only gifts annually. 6. The great tsar should not be angry with the Moldavians when the Crimean tsar and the Lyakhs crowd our people and drive them by force against the tsar's army. 7. When the tsar goes to war against the scum, the Moldovans pledge to support him3.


On June 29, 1656, the tsar approved these conditions and accepted George Stefan, voivode of Moldavia, along with the entire country "under the royal hand".


George Stefan was waiting for ambassadors from Alexey Mikhailovich to confirm the tsar's decision, but the ambassadors did not arrive. Russia was then in a state of war with Poland, and then with Sweden, and could not provide real assistance to Moldova in the fight against Turkey, with which Alexey Mikhailovich tried in every possible way to maintain peaceful relations.


George Stefan in 1663, already deposed by the Turks from the throne, personally visited Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich and asked him to speak out against the Turks together with the whole of Europe. Alexey Mikhailovich shared the views of the gospodar on the need to fight against Turkey, but his proposal for Russia's action against Turkey was met coldly, 4 since he was then busy in the north.


On December 31, 1674, the Moldavian ruler Stefan Peter and the Wallachian voivode Konstantin Sherban again wrote to Alexey Mikhailovich and asked him to protect their lands from the Turks and to keep the Crimean Tatars from joining with ataman Doroshenko. Alexey Mikhailovich accepted Moldavia and Wallachia as eternal subjects and promised to defend them from their enslavers.5 But due to the long distance, lack of common borders with Moldova and wars between Russia, Poland and Sweden, this treaty was not implemented.


At the end of the 17th century (between 1670 and 1690), an indomitable fighter for the national culture of the Moldovan people and for rapprochement with Russia appeared on the political arena - the Moldovan and Suceava Metropolitan Dositheus 6. He was born in Iasi between 1625 and 1630, and was educated, according to some sources, at the Latin Academy in Iasi, according to others-in Poland. Metropolitan Dositheus was the most educated man of his time, and spoke six languages: Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Old Slavonic, Russian, and Polish. He zealously carried out the cultural initiatives of Vasily Lupu.

1 Kapterev N. Decree, op., p. 266.

2 Ibid., p. 267.

3 PSZ. Vol. I, pp. 385-386.

4 Arsenyev Yu. Op. ed., pp. 175-185.

5 PSZ. Vol. II, pp. 965-970.

6 Xenopol A. Op, cit. Vol. 8, p: 201-204.

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On March 23, 1679, Dosifei asked Nicolae Milescu Spafarii, a Moldavian native and the first-hand translator of the tsar's embassy order, 1 to petition the Russian Patriarch Joachim for printing equipment for Moldavia. Dositheus wrote: "To grant me (Joachim. - I. Ch.) a single typographic stamp and a few words that print sheets and tuyeres, from which words are poured. And the seal of small words, because great scarcity is most holy to the church and to us in that matter. " 2 When Dositheus received no answer to the letter, he turned directly to Joachim: "Send us a printing house and let's make ourselves books with their own interpretation from gretsk and Slavyansk to volosky language." And further asked to send "shruv with pritiskom izhe pritiskaet charters as literi and leteri send yakovimi est drukovali Bible, drobnii and sredny scho on psalms, and on service books and on the gospel" 3.


The Metropolitan of Moldavia received the necessary printing equipment from Russia and printed many books, about which Dosifei later wrote to the Moscow Patriarch.4


A talented cultural and religious figure and poet, Dosifey is a bright personality in the history of Moldova. He was very active in educating his people and introducing the European civilization started by Vasili Lupu to his country. He translated and printed the prose psalter, the prologue, the prayer book, the service book, the book of Hours, the Akathist, the liturgy, the Octoechos, and many other books into Moldavian5; all of them are printed in Slavic script. Especially noteworthy is his translation of the psalter in verse, modeled after the Polish poet Jan Kochanowski. This work is of great importance for the history of the Moldovan language and writing and is the first more extensive attempt at literary versification. In addition, as Professor Iorga points out, there are hints in the psalms about the plight of Moldavia in Turkish slavery. Thanks to the fruitful activity of Dosifei in monasteries and churches in Moldova, almost all services were conducted in the language of the flock, in the Moldovan language. 6 Dosifei drew words and images for his translations from the living folk language, from folklore, which contributed to the enrichment and creation of the Moldovan literary language.7


The metropolitan was known not only in his own country. In exile in Poland, Dosifey made many remarkable translations into Russian.8 Unfortunately, these works did not see the light of day.


Peter the Great highly valued the Metropolitan of Suceava for his tireless efforts to liberate Moldavia from the Turkish yoke. 9 In 1684, Dosifei addressed Peter I on behalf of the voivode Stefan Peter, the clergy and boyars of Moldavia. In this address, he describes the unbearably difficult situation of Moldavia under the yoke of foreigners. The address ends with the following words:" And all our lordship, great and small, the lowest servants of your kingdom, we all surrender ourselves as subjects. " 10

1 Yatsimirsky A. Nicolai Milescu Spafarii-a page from the History of Russian-Romanian relations of the 17th century. Kazan. 1908.

2 Dragomir S. Op. cit, p. 126.

3 Ibidem, p. 127.

4 Ibidem, p. 129.

5 Arseny, Bishop of Pskov. Decree, op., p. 54.

6 Ibid., p. 53.

7 Bianu Ion. Despre introducerea limbii romanesti in biserica romanilor, p. 13. Bucuresti. 1904.

8 Yatsimirsky A. Romanino-slavyanskie ocherki [Romanian-Slavic essays]. Issue 4. Part 2, p. 7 St. PETERSBURG, 1903.

9 Arseny, Bishop of Pskov. Decree, op., p. 53.

10 Dragomir S. Op. cit., p. 134 - 135.

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In the same year, during an interview in Kiev (on the way to Moscow), Dosifey again repeated that "the Volos de ruler, having agreed with all the Volos inhabitants, sent him to biti chel the great sovereign, so that the great sovereigns would grant, ordered their volokogo ruler with all the land to accept as a subject" 1, since this land is final ruined by the Turks.


The XVIII century is a black period in the history of the Moldovan people. The leading stratum of the ruling class of Moldavia became the Phanariots - Greek merchants and tax collectors (from the suburbs of Constantinople - Phanars). Among the Phanariots, the gospodars of Moldavia were also nominated.


However, before the beginning of the Phanariot rule (1711), there were gospodars in Moldavia who were interested not only in personal enrichment, but also in the economic and national development of the people, looking for ways to liberate Moldavia from the yoke of the hated invaders. They repeatedly appealed to Russia, the only country that could free Moldova from Turkish slavery.


In 1709, Mikhail Rakovitsa turned to Peter I with a request for help in the fight against the Turks. As a result of negotiations, an agreement was reached. Peter sent a detachment of Russian troops to Iasi. But this event ended in failure. The Wallachian gospodar Brinkoveanu, an agent of the Porte, warned the Sultan of the impending march 2.


Peter the Great, the first of the Russian tsars, had the opportunity to actually help the age-old desire of the southern Slavs, Moldavians and Wallachians to free themselves from the yoke of invaders. In 1711. Peter concluded a secret alliance with the Moldavian ruler Dmitry Cantemir (1673-1723) and began to prepare for the Prut campaign. He set up supply bases near the Turkish borders and brought troops there. Dmitry Cantemir hated the Turks because of the persecution of his people. Most of the Moldavian boyars and the people were looking forward to the appearance of the Russian army. At the same time, Cantemir held negotiations with the Russian government, as a result of which an agreement was reached between Moldova and Russia, according to which: "1. Moldova holds the old borders along the Dniester River, including Budjak. All fortresses remain with her. For the time being, the fortified places are occupied by Russian troops, but when the gospodarstvo is put in proper order, they are replaced by Moldavian troops. 2. Moldova does not pay any tribute. 3. The lord (prince) can never be deprived of the throne, except in the case when he betrays the common cause, or departs from Orthodoxy. The country then elects one of his sons or brothers to succeed him, at will. But the throne can never go out of the line of Cantemir until it is extinct. 7. The country during the whole duration of the war has 10,000 men on the military leg, who receive a salary from the imperial treasury. 8. Russians can never hold positions in the gospodarstvo. 9. Russians can never buy estates in Moldavia. 10. Similarly, they cannot marry Moldovan women. 12. The title of Gospodar of Moldavia should be "Most Illustrious Gospodar (Prince) of Moldavia, Autocrat and Ally of the Russian Empire". 13. The emperor will never make peace with the Turks, in which it will be decreed that Moldavia will again return to the yoke of the Moslems. " 3

1 Dragomir S. Op. cit, p. 137.

2 Kochubinsky A. Relations of Russia under Peter I with the Southern Slavs and Romanians. "Readings in the Imperial Society of Russian History and Antiquities at Moscow University" for April-June 1872, pp. 23-24. Moscow.

3 Kochubinsky A. Decree, op., pp. 46-47; see also N. G. Peter the Great on the banks of the Prut. "ZHMNP" for January-February 1847, p. 51-52. SPB.

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The treaty was announced to the Moldavian boyars and the people. He became known to the Turks as well. Russian troops were rushing to the aid of Cantemir. After many grueling days of marching, the troops stopped south of Iasi at the village of Stanilesti on the Prut, where the battle later took place.


Before the Russians entered Moldavia, Peter I wrote to Sheremetev: "At the entrance to Moldavia, we are under the death penalty in the army, so that no one takes anything from Christians - neither livestock, nor bread - without a decree and without money, and the inhabitants are not embittered by anything, but act like friends." 1


Some time later, Peter himself arrived in Iasi. He was given a stormy welcome. Notable boyars, the Metropolitan of All Moldavia, clergy and the population of the capital marched through the streets. Everyone said that the head of the Russian troops who had come to save Moldavia from Busurman rule was in Iasi. The people celebrated this meeting with a great holiday, festivities, and celebrations. Peter picked up Dmitry Cantemir in his arms, hugged and kissed him as a sign of loyalty 2. A dinner was held in the Gospodar palace, where toasts were raised in honor of the eternal union and friendship of Moldova with Russia. On the second day, the emperor visited the sights of the Moldovan capital. Peter admired the beauty of the churches, monasteries and other buildings of Yass. He especially liked the church of Golia. He said that it combines three architectural styles: Byzantine, Polish and Russian.3


Before the outbreak of hostilities, Peter I sent the Wallachian ruler Brynkovyan three hundred purses of gold to organize additional detachments and purchase food for the troops. Brynkoveanu treacherously violated the agreement concluded earlier with Peter, and betrayed the latter's plans to the Turks. 4 However, Brynkoveanu was not supported by most of his close boyars. Being ardent patriots of their fatherland, they gathered under the chairmanship of Bishop Athanasius and sent a representative to Iasi to visit the emperor in order to expose Brinkovian's treacherous policy. The messenger of the Wallachian boyars was warmly received by Peter. "I assure you, Your Majesty," said the messenger Thomas Kantakuzin, " he (to Brynkovyan. - I. Ch.) will not deliver either supplies or an auxiliary detachment, that he had a secret project to succumb to the Austrian emperor in case the Russians won a victory over the Turks, but that the boyars, merchants, and people want to succumb to Peter, and not to the German" 5. The war after the betrayal of Brynkovyan - when Peter found himself without supplies, without the additional help of Serbian detachments that were ready to support him-lasted for several days and ended in peace between Peter I and the Turkish vizier. After that, Dmitry Cantemir with 24 boyars, among whom was the " Moldavian chronicler Ion Neculce, former hetman of the Moldavian troops in the Prut campaign, was forced to go to Russia. Together with the gospodar and the boyars, many ordinary soldiers who entered the service of the Russian army or received land in Russia also left.7 They became citizens of their new homeland. The ruler of Moldavia himself received rich estates in the Kharkiv region. Boyars received 13 villages in the vicinity of Kharkiv 8. For ordinary Moldovans

1 Solov'ev S. Edict op. T. XVI, p. 65.

2 The meeting of the Russian Emperor in Iasi is well described in the Moldavian chroniclers of the XVIII century. Ion Neculce and Nikolai Kostin. См. Koglniceanu М. Letopisetele tarii Moldovei. T. II, pp. 98 - 108; 302 - 341. Bucuresti. 1872.

3 Kochubinsky A. Decree, op., p. 57.

4 Ibid., p. 60.

5 Ibid., see N. G. Peter the Great on the banks of the Prut, pp. 72-73.

6 Kochubinsky A. Decree, op., pp. 69-70.

7 Ibid., p. 70.

8 Ibid., p. 71.

page 67

Peter wrote: "Identify from Sloboda and other Ukrainian settlements" 1. It is assumed that they were settled on the Don and in the current Donbass.


Moldavian ruler Dmitry Cantemir 2 was known not only as a far-sighted politician, but also as one of the most educated people of that time. He spoke Turkish, Persian, Arabic, Greek, Latin, Italian, Russian, and French; studied history, architecture, philosophy, mathematics, geography, literature, and Turkish music; and had many works in the field of science and art. His famous work, The History of the Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, 3 written in Latin, has been translated into English, "German, and French," and to some extent has not lost its significance at the present time. Of great value are his works " Ancient and Modern History of Dacia "( in Moldovan)., "The history of the Brinkoveanu and Cantacuzino surnames "( in Moldovan). Cantemir also wrote a "Historical, geographical and political description of Moldavia", which is still used as a primary source in our time. He also drew up a geographical map of Moldova for the first time5. Cantemir's name is associated with the first novel in the history of Moldovan literature called "The History of Hieroglyphics", written in Moldovan. Cantemir is the first person to put Turkish music on sheet music. In addition, the scientist had other works: "The system of Turkish religion", "The World and the soul", "The History of Creation", "Universal Abbreviated Logic", etc.


When Peter the Great launched a campaign in Persia, Cantemir was appointed head of the imperial chancellery and wrote appeals to the Persian population.


Cantemir could not return to his homeland, which was under the yoke of the Turks. He spent many years in the country of his friendly people, giving himself completely to science. Cantemir is dear not only to Moldovans, but also to Russians.


Among the educated people of the eighteenth century who were connected with Russia, as already mentioned, we should mention the Moldavian chronicler Ion Neculce (1672-1745), who, like Cantemir, could not develop his activities in Moldavia due to the oppression of the Turks. He lived for a long time in Russia, then returned to his homeland, but no longer held important political posts and devoted the rest of his life to the annals of Moldova. Neculce played an outstanding role in the historical and cultural development of the Moldovan people and in relations with Moscow. He loved his country and gave his all for the good of it. His lifelong dream was to see Moldova become an independent country.7


Neculce was an ardent supporter of Russia, which he saw as a hope for the liberation of Moldavian land. The Russian culture of that time strongly influenced his activities. The Nekulce chronicles are full of hatred for the enslaved Turks - and especially for their henchmen, the Gre-

1 Kochubinsky A. Decree, op., p. 70.

2 Xenopol A. Op. cit. Vol. 8, p. 204 - 212.

3 See Candres A. concerning the works of Cantemir. si Adamescu G. Ditctionarul enciclopedic ilustrat "Cartes romaneasca". Bucuresti. 1931; Encyclopedia of Brockhaus and Efron.

4 Puscariu S. Istoria literaturii romane, epoca veche. p. 161 - 182. Sibiu. 1930.

5 Ibidem, p. 177.

6 Xenopol A. Op, cit. Vol. 10, p. 289 - 293.

7 Puscariu S. Op. cit., p, 156.

page 68

kam-phanariotam. No wonder says the chronicler: "The fire can be extinguished, the water can be stopped and diverted, the wind can be sheltered in a shelter, the sun hides behind clouds, the darkness of the night passes and morning comes again, only there is no urine to get rid of the Greeks." 1


The Moldovan people are proud of the outstanding statesman and faithful son of his homeland, Ion Neculce. He was the first collector of Moldovan folklore and the founder of the epic narrative in the history of literature. He recorded a lot of popular legends about gospodars, boyars, princes, and relations between the people and the nobility, transmitting them in the authentic folk language 2. If Dosifey is considered the founder of the church Moldavian language, then Nekulche is the master who summed up the linguistic and literary heritage of his predecessors and raised the literary language to a more perfect level.


After Dmitry Cantemir left for Russia, the rule of the Turks in Moldova became unlimited. The Porte became convinced that the majority of the Moldavian people and boyars were hostile to the Turks, and in order to strengthen its rule in Moldavia, it sold the throne of Gospodar to the Phanariots.


This period in the history of the principality is replete with continuous changes of lords: the one who promised to pay more to the sultan became the ruler. Funds for payment were obtained by robbing the people. The phanariots insulted the national feelings of the Moldovan people, destroyed their culture, plunged the country into ignorance, exhausted its wealth, ruined the economy with arbitrary taxes, tributes and collecting gifts for the Ministers of the Port and their own enrichment.3


The Moldavian people bitterly groaned under the unbearable yoke of foreign enslavers and hated them. He vigorously fought against the tyranny of the Phanariots, but any attempt to get rid of the Turkish yoke was nipped in the bud.4 The disruption of the country's economy by the gospodars, the ruin of the peasants, and the persecution of the Church by the Turks also had a detrimental effect on the young national culture, which decayed and then fell into decline. 5


Alexey Nakko and some other historians claim that the Phanariots opened schools in Moldova and raised the level of "education and intellectual development of the people to the highest level"6. In fact, if there were schools in Moldavia, it was only in Greek, and the children of the Greek nobility and the sons of some Moldavian boyars were taught there, in which the Phanariots managed to suppress national consciousness and attract them to their side 7. This part of the boyar youth was introduced to Greek history, ancient culture, philosophy, language, etc. so that they may forget their nation. The people were condemned to starvation, poverty, and a disenfranchised existence. 8 "As a matter of fact, in the eighteenth century there was no science or literature in Moldavia, 9 except for a few translations, among which we note the "Theological Grammar" in Moldavian, compiled by the Khotyn epi-

1 Koglniceanu М. Letopisetele tarii Moldoveige Ionu Neculce. Т. II, p. 229. Bucuresti, 1872.

2 Pusсariu S. Op. cit, p. 160 - 161.

3 Stadnitsky A. Decree, op., p. 11.

4 Ibid., p. 19.

5 Ibid., pp. 20-21.

6 Nakko A. History of Bessarabia, part 2, p. 423. Odessa, 1876.

7 Stadnitsky A. Decree, op., p. 13.

8 Ibid., p. 19.

9 Nakko A. Decree, op., p. 442.

page 69

en masse by Anfilochius on the theology of Metropolitan Platov of Moscow and other church books, published in Iasi in 1795.1


Moldova's ties with Russia grew stronger every year. The Moldovan people believed that the great country of Russia would free them from the power of the Turks. In 1738, at the peace Congress in Nemirov, Russian ambassadors demanded the independence of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. Russia's demand was rejected. Shortly after the Nemirov Congress, war broke out between Russia and Turkey. On September 1, 1739, Russian troops entered Iasi. Then a Moldovan delegation came to the commander-in-chief of the Russian army, General Minich, and recognized Empress Anna Ioannovna as her sovereign.2 Minich wrote about this to the Empress Anna: "The Moldavian statesmen showed considerable joy at seeing such a glorious Christian army, which, as they said, came to their deliverance." 3


Moldovans often crossed the Russian border in search of refuge from Turkish oppression. At the end of May 1745, the Russian ambassador to Turkey, Vishnyakov, informed Empress Elizabeth Petrovna that a group of Moldovans was requesting permission to settle in Russia. He wrote: "Recently, several poor Moldovans came to me, who, having fallen into extreme poverty from the unspeakable persecution and plunder of the rulers, were forced to leave their homes and flee under the protection of Your Imperial Majesty, as their only legitimate sovereign protector... Many of their brethren looked to Russia as a sure refuge in trouble"4. But when a decree was issued not to allow foreigners without passports to enter Russia, the Moldovans were detained at the border. Vishnyakov asked that this decree be repealed, and reported that he was sending these Moldovans to the borders of Russia on the Don 5.


During the first Turkish War, which began in 1769, the Moldavians and Wallachians sent a deputation to Empress Catherine II thanking them for saving their country from the double yoke of the Turkish and Phanariot, and asking them to accept them under the protection of Russia. Bishop Innocent of Moldova made a wonderful speech in gratitude for the patronage of Russia. The Empress promised Moldovans to return the freedom of citizenship. After this war, a peace treaty was concluded with Turkey on very favorable terms for Moldavia and Wallachia, but this did not last long, 6 since the Port did not fulfill the terms of the treaty.


Moldavian prominent figures on behalf of the entire nation repeatedly appealed to Moscow for protection, until 1812, when Bessarabia was annexed to Russia. In 1807, due to the Russo-Turkish war, Moldavia was occupied by Russian troops. Metropolitan Veniamin Kostake of Moldavia, on behalf of twenty of the most prominent boyars and bishops, sent an extensive letter to General Apraksin of the Russian army asking for the annexation of Moldavia to Russia, on the model of Georgia, Ukraine and other countries, in order to protect it from the Turks. 7


Russia was interested in Moldova joining it. The Moldavian Principality was the gateway to the Balkans, to the Aegean Sea; it was the key to the Danube basin. Brisk trade between Europe and Asia passed through Moldavia.

1 Batyushkov P. Decree, op., p. 86.

2 Solovyov S. History of Russia, Vol. XX, p. 1392.

3 Ibid., p. 1393.

4 Ibid., Vol. XXII, p. 380.

5 Ibid., pp. 380-381.

6 Stadnitsky A. Decree, op., pp. 34-35. There is given in full the speech of the Moldavian Bishop Innocent. See also Soloviev S. Decree. op. t. XXVIII, p. 641.

7 Erbiceanu Constantin. Istoria mitropoliei Moldovei si Sucevel, p. 82 - 83. Bucuresti. 1888.

page 70

In the friendship of the Russian and Moldavian peoples, the common culture, expressed in the common language and writing, and the common Orthodox religion, borrowed from Byzantium through the Bulgarians, were of great importance.


It is known that when Bessarabia was annexed to Russia in 1812, there was not a single school there. But already in 1858-1859 there were two gymnasiums in Kishinev alone, two county and two church schools, two Jewish state schools, two men's boarding schools that were equated with county schools, three women's boarding schools of the county type, and six men's educational institutions. All schools in Bessarabia were 389 at that time1. Some of these educational institutions were intended for Moldovan youth, while others taught the Moldovan language until the 70s of the last century2. At that time, many books of a secular and ecclesiastical nature were translated into Moldovan or compiled and published.


On the eve of the centenary of the annexation of Bessarabia to Russia, the Moldovan poet-Bessarabian, who graduated from the Kiev Theological Academy, Alexey Mateyevich, an active fighter against the Romanization of the Moldovan language, wrote: "The annexation of Bessarabia to Russia proved to be a salutary act both for the Moldovan language and for the Moldovan divine service." 3 This is how the Moldovan intelligentsia evaluated the annexation, following the entire nation.


Russia liberated Moldova from the Turkish yoke and helped it preserve its national culture. In difficult times, the best people of Moldova found refuge in Russia. Moldova has produced a number of outstanding figures of science, literature and art who were brought up on Russian culture.


In the memorable year of 1940, the Moldavian people were completely freed from all oppression and asked the Soviet government for the reunification of Moldavia with the Soviet republics.

1 Zashchuk A. Materials for geography and statistics of Russia. Bessarabia region, p. 399-403. SPB. 1862.

2 Ibid., p. 402.

3 Mateevich A. Moments of church influence in the origin and historical development of the Moldovan language. Kishinev Diocesan Gazette No. 52 for 1910, p. 1933.


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