Libmonster ID: U.S.-1473
Author(s) of the publication: T. A. STOYANOVICH

Messages and publications. ON MOLDOVAN-RUSSIAN AND ROMANIAN-RUSSIAN RELATIONS

Author: T. A. STOYANOVICH

(Review of documents in the Library of the Romanian Academy of Sciences)

Professor T. A. Stoyanovich

The manuscript department of the Library of the Romanian Academy of Sciences has quite a significant number of documents related to Romanian-Russian relations. Some of them are available in originals, others in copies. The most interesting documents, both in their antiquity and in their content, are the following::

1. Letter from Archimandrite Varlaam, who later became Metropolitan of Moldavia and Ambassador of the Gospodar Miron of Barnovo in Moscow, to Tsar Mikhail Romanov. The letter was written in Slavonic in 1637, in Suceava, after Varlaam's return from Moscow. It asks for permission to print one book in Moscow, as Moldavia, as the Metropolitan writes, is under the " heavy hand of the Hagar (Turks)". This letter proves that Russia at that time gave great support to the cultural development of Romania, which, although it used the services of a printing house obtained from Russia, could not freely print books due to Turkish control.

2. Letter of the Ruler of Moldavia Vasili Lup to Tsar Mikhail Romanov dated July 12, 1639. The letter is one of a number of letters sent to this king. It shows the friendship that existed between the two peoples at that time, and the assistance that Russia provided to Moldavian art.

3. A letter from the same gospodar, sent to Mikhail Romanov in the same year 1639, announcing the arrival of Russian icon painters sent to paint the Church of the Three Hierarchs, which was built by Vasili Lupu in Iasi. In the letter, the gospodar also praises the icons that arrived from Moscow, which he says "were made with perfection and beautifully."

4. A letter dated November 20, 1645, addressed to Vasily Lupus, the successor of Tsar Michael-Alexey Mikhailovich.

5. A letter from the Hospodar Gheorghe Stefan to Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich, dated May 16, 1656, in which he asks for help in the struggle of his people for liberation from the Turkish yoke and recommends ambassadors going to Moscow to negotiate for help.

6. Declaration of Metropolitan Gideon, Ambassador of the Gospodar Gheorghe Stefan, on the purpose of his arrival in Moscow. There is no date on the document, but it was undoubtedly written in 1656, when the trip of the ambassadors took place. This declaration was probably submitted to the Embassy Order in Moscow.

7. The text of the oath of allegiance of Gospodar Gheorghe Stefan to the tsar, sent by him through his ambassadors-Metropolitan Gideon and Logothete (a position corresponding to the current Minister of Foreign Affairs. - Ed.) by Grigory Naniul (1656). Write the document in Russian. In the oath, the Romanian ruler undertakes to stand on the side of the tsar in his military struggle against the Turks, since both peoples have the same aspirations in this regard, and never betray the common cause or go over to the side of the enemy. This document reveals the common ground between the two peoples, who are forced to confront common enemies, and shows the foundations of active military cooperation, which took place already in the times of the Romanian gospodars Petru Rares and Mihai Vityazul. This is the oldest document known so far, which pays special attention to military cooperation between the two peoples. At present, there is no known document that would relate to the XVI and XVII centuries., in which it would be a question of a military alliance.

8. Treaty of Alliance between Moldavia and Russia, signed on May 17, 1656 by the ambassadors of Gheorghe Stefan. The contract is written in Greek. The Romanian Academy of Sciences has only a photocopy of this document. The contract is concluded between two equal partners. Russia undertakes to respect the social and political structure of the Moldovan state, not to interfere in the internal affairs of the country and not to collect any tribute.

9. Letter dated February 4, 1658 from the Lord Gheorghe Stefan to Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich.

10. Two letters of 1668 from Gheorghe Stefan, who had become an exile by that time, to Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich, in which he asks for help.

11. Letter from the Gospodars Stefan Petreceicu, Prince of Moldavia, and Constantin Sherban, Gospodar of the Romanian Principality, to Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich. In this letter, dated 1673, both gospodars ask the tsar to conclude an alliance with them. It should be noted that the tsar responded to this request the following year. He offered his help "on condition that they truly and sincerely want to be subjects of Russia and that they did not make the same request to the King of Poland earlier." As a result of the request of these two gospodars and the assurances given in relation to Poland, in August 1674, an agreement was concluded (consisting of 17 points), in which the tsar promised to provide assistance to the troops of Romodanovsky and the hetman of the Zadniprovsky Cossacks.-

page 101

lovich. This agreement was published in the Complete Collection of Laws No. 1324.

12. Letter of August 15, 1679, from the Romanian Metropolitan Dosoftei to Patriarch Joachim of Moscow, in which he asks the latter to send him a printing press: "We ask... may the most honest and merciful father have mercy on us... and send us a printing house so that we can print books... because our literacy has completely disappeared." This document is a clear response to those who have always denied that Russia provided major material support to the cause of spreading culture to the broad masses of Romania. It should be added that the request of Metropolitan Dosoftei was granted and in the same year a printing house was sent to him. Most of the Romanian books of that time were printed in it, as can be seen from the notes made on them: "This book was printed in the printing house of the Holy Metropolia in Iasi, which was sent to help from Moscow by His Holiness, our Father Patriarch Joachim" ("Life of the Saints", 1682) - or on "The Holy Cross".Rules "1683:" In the printing house of the country, which was given to us as a gift by His Holiness our Most Blessed Father Joachim, Patriarch of the illustrious Patriarchate of Moscow". Attaching great importance to this material assistance of the Russian people to the Romanian people, Dosoftei, who was also a skilled poet of his era, wished to perpetuate this fact in a poem printed in the same printing house and preserved in the library of the Romanian Academy of Sciences. The poem says: "And from Moscow the light shines, spreading long rays and good fame on the earth."

13. Letter of September 1, 1679, from the Lord of Moldavia, George Luca, to the Chancellor of Russia.

14. A letter dated November 10, 1689, from Constantin Cantemir, the Ruler of Moldavia, father of Dmitry Cantemir, to Tsars Peter and John, as well as instructions from the same ruler sent to his ambassador in Moscow - Yurashko. These letters show how necessary the Rumanian-Russian friendship was by the end of the seventeenth century, even for such a rather cautious ruler as Constantin Cantemir. These documents indisputably prove that the statement of the Moldovan chronicler Ion Neculce that long before Dmitry Cantemir, "many Muscovites arrived" is not an empty word. They also prove that the friendship between the two peoples was not an accident, but a consistent and established tradition.

15. An important document is also a letter dated November 8, 1700, from Metropolitan Theodosius of the Romanian Principality to Patriarch Adrian of Moscow. On five pages of this letter, the Romanian metropolitan complains about the poor situation of the church in his country, which is still occupied by the Turks, expresses concern about the growth of Catholic propaganda and asks for help to get out of this predicament. Let the tsar not forget, the metropolitan writes, that in Romania the people " suffer under pagan rule and are oppressed and robbed by heretics (Turks, Austrians)... don't let him leave it... and he will not leave him a victim of these painful sufferings and sorrows, but will raise him up as one who has fallen." The trust that Russia enjoyed in the Romanian principalities is quite obvious. The metropolitan's letter only emphasizes it. Despite the fact that the Romanian metropolitan was dependent on the Patriarchate of Constantinople from the point of view of the church hierarchy, he nevertheless asks for advice and help from Russia. This fact is certainly not accidental and cannot be explained solely by the personal friendship that existed between these two figures of the church.

16. Another document of great importance is the treaty concluded between Moldova and Russia in Lutsk. This agreement, drawn up on 11 sheets, was concluded between the authorized representatives of Dmitry Kantemir and Peter the Great on January 3, 1711. For a very long time, S. " was kept a great secret because the class of Romanian boyars did not like him. An alliance with Russia then meant arming the people (hence the fear of social unrest within the country), as well as disturbing the peace of the Turks, with whom the boyars of Romania were closely associated. Turkey's sovereignty over the Romanian principalities was a guarantee of prosperity for the boyars of Romania. In addition, certain articles of the treaty affected some of the many privileges of the Romanian boyars, in particular, when the gospodars were elected, the latter were given more power and influence. Therefore, whenever the Rumanian people fought against the Turks and formed an alliance with Russia, they invariably won the battle against the reactionary Boyar class. With this treaty, Russia pledged to support the struggle for the liberation of the Romanian people. On the basis of this treaty, the Russo-Romanian-Turkish war was launched, which, unfortunately, ended unsuccessfully for the Allies. The document itself is extremely important, as it reveals Russia's policy towards the Romanian people.

17. Another document of equal importance for the history of Romanian-Russian relations is the manifesto of Dimitri Cantemir, issued on the occasion of the union between the two peoples. The manifesto points out the need for a joint struggle and the new prospects that open up for Moldova in the event of victory. He calls on the people to support the Russian troops arriving in the country as well. The Romanian people, who saw in their liberation from the Turkish yoke also their liberation from boyar oppression, responded broadly to this manifesto. The chronicler Niculce wrote that when the Russian troops arrived, the entire population of Sergeyev, Soroki and Lapushna (Kishinev. - Ed.) and followed General Sheremetev until he crossed the Prut River." With the same enthusiasm, the population met Russian troops in other places of Romania.

page 102

18. The Romanian Academy of Sciences also possesses a letter dated August 2, 1711, in Iasi, signed by the boyars - Grand Colonel Lupu Costac and Hetman Antohie Jora, This letter is addressed to the Russian General Rantz. Both boyars, who were leaders of the pro-Turkish party in Romania, tried in their letter to wrest a promise from the Russians that they would not allow Cantemir's family to inherit the throne of Moldavia, and that the boyars would retain their old privileges so that they could thus reimpose the dual Turkish - boyar state on the people as soon as possible. the yoke. This letter shows that the true enemies of the Romanian people were the Romanian boyars, and not the Russians, as interested reactionary Romanian historians too often claimed. This fact is obvious to those who have read the agreement concluded between Dmitry Cantemir and Peter the Great, and this letter.

19. The Romanian Academy of Sciences also has two letters from Dmitry Cantemir addressed to Chancellor Golovkin in the 18th century. They were written during the stay of this hospodar in Russia, on March 4 and 18, 1719. Both letters were personally signed by the former gospodar.

20. In the same library there are two letters from one of the most famous Romanian chroniclers, Ion Niculce, addressed to Chancellor Golovkin, They are dated March 4 and November 27, 1719. The letters were written during the wanderings of this talented writer in Russia, where he followed his hospodar Dmitry Cantemir after the unsuccessful Russian-Romanian-Turkish campaign in 1711, and show how well the refugees were treated in Russia and what understanding they found in this country.

21. In the dossier of the Romanian Academy of Sciences there is also another important document of the XVIII century-the agreement concluded by Moldovans with the Russian General Minich in Iasi in 1739. In this document, the Russian general recognizes the independence of Moldova. Recognition of the independence of the Romanian states of Muntenia (Wallachia. - Ed. ) and Moldavia were then defended by the Russians and at the peace congress in Nemirov. This recognition was opposed by representatives of Austria, Turkey and France.

22. Of particular interest are the documents of December 1769, in which the delegates of Moldavia, Russian Bishop Innocent, Ion Millo, Ion Pallade, and others. they ask Catherine II to liberate the country from the Turks. The Romanian delegates set out the country's wishes on several pages and ask, as has often happened in the past, for the help of a powerful neighbor. Catherine promised them all possible support, assuring them that " both principalities, Moldavia and Muntenia, will retain their internal structure completely at their discretion." This promise was not forgotten: in connection with the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1792, in which Russia initially fought on the side of Austria. Russia demanded that Austria recognize the creation of the Dacian kingdom as one of the goals of the war.

23. An interesting document is the work of the priest Ion Popovich, who vividly describes his journey to Moscow. This description lists all the most significant monuments of Moscow that Ion Popovich saw in 1710. This is the first description of Moscow written by a Romanian.

24. From the documents of 1769 in the library of the Romanian Academy of Sciences there is a call of Lieutenant Colonel Nazari Karamzin in connection with the recruitment of volunteers from the Romanian principalities to fight against the Turks.

25. General Pyotr Rumyantsev's proclamation "To the population of the Principality of Wallachia" is dated 1770, in which he, reporting on Russian victories over the Turks and the capture of the fortresses of Akkerman, Kilia, Izmail, Brailov and Bender, calls on the population to show "a benevolent attitude towards the troops" and provide them with food.

26. In the appeal of the same general of February 9, 1771, to the population of Moldavia, the population is called upon not to tolerate any violence and to apply in case of such violence to the local judges, and in case of incorrect decisions - directly to him.

27. The Library of the Romanian Academy of Sciences has at least 84 proclamations and other documents relating to the period between 1828 and 1877, which report on measures of a public nature intended to promote the maximum development of the principalities. Among these documents, special attention should be paid to: "Regulations on the rationing of volunteer detachments (napdurs) in Great Wallachia "(1831) with Russian and Romanian texts, which represents the act on the creation of the modern Romanian army; the manifesto of Nicholas I of June 14, 1853, issued on the occasion of the entry of Russian troops into Turkey; another manifesto, from October 20, 1853, on the occasion of the beginning of the Russo-Turkish war; two manifestos of 1854 on the occasion of the rupture of diplomatic relations between Russia, France and England; the appeal and manifesto of Grand Duke Nicholas in connection with the beginning of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877, which eventually brought Romania independence, as well as a number of other documents. order.

28. The same library contains the original text of the draft "organic regulations" as drafted by the commission chaired by the Gen. Minchaks. This document, which is the first recorded constitution of Romania, consists of 96 sheets.

29. Among the letters sent from the State administration, the Romanian Academy of Sciences has a large folder of correspondence from Serdar Anastasius Lupu to various individuals in Russia, both official and private. This correspondence contains over 70 letters and dates back to 1721-1751. It shows the close friendship between A. Lupu and his Russian correspondents.

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30. The library also has a significant number of spiritual books printed in Russia and widely distributed in Romania. They are monuments of significant material assistance provided by Russia to Romania in spreading culture among the masses. Among them, three books were printed in Ostrog (1581-1598), two in Stryatin (1604-1608), fourteen in Lviv (1614-1715), three in Vilna (1617-1638), one in Uboritsa (1618), and fourteen in Kiev (1625-1697). three were located in Kuteni (1637-1650), one in Yevna (1641), two in Chernihiv (1696-1697), and twenty in Moscow (1647-1712).

The number of these books indicates the large scale of cultural assistance that Russia provided to Romania in the XVI-XIX centuries: in addition to sending printing houses and printing masters to develop printing in the Romanian principalities, Russia also imported books to Romania. As can be seen from the above, this assistance was constant and carried out on a large scale.

In another section of the library of the Romanian Academy of Sciences - in the "Engravings" section-there are numerous documents, portraits and photographs of various Russian figures of the XVIII and XIX centuries, in particular during the war of 1877-1878, as well as portraits of major Russian commanders of the XVIII century, among which we find portraits of Suvorov and Kutuzov.

More thorough research conducted both in the library of the Romanian Academy of Sciences and in other Romanian archives will undoubtedly provide new details and documents.


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