Libmonster ID: U.S.-501

Author: Nauka v Sibiri (Science in Siberia), 1999 Prepared by Emma SOLOMATINA

page 73


The incidence of forest fires in Russia now stands at more than 30 thousand a year. These fires affect areas of 2 to 3 min hectares and, in what experts call extreme cases, such as took place in 1999, for example, the size of the affected areas can be doubled. Atmospheric pollution with aerosols resulting from forest fires is commensurate with those caused by volcanic activities; in fact, the mass of the annually incinerated organic matter is steadily approaching the one-billion-tons mark, which will soon be attained if experts fail to work out a strategy and tactics of crisis management in the nearest future. The problem of forest fires is now on an international cooperation agenda, with Russia being represented by the Institute of Forestry named after Vladimir Sukachev (the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk).

The Institute has been dealing with the problem of forest fires since 1958. A decade later Dr. Nikolai Kurbatkin, who set up the laboratory of forest pyrology and started the Siberian school of research in this field, turned for support and assistance to the Institute of Chemical Kinetics of Combustion (the Siberian Branch of RAS, Novosibirsk). It sent a team of young researchers who focused on the mechanisms of physical and chemical processes occurring during the combustion of plant and vegetable matter in labs and at test sites.

Practical studies of forest fires, however, require effective remote sensing methods and equipment. Researchers working in this field had to design and build sets of instruments and equipment for early forest fires detection, including TV cameras, spectrometers and radiometers mounted on aircraft.

The first flying lab like that was set up in 1974 on board an AN-2 aircraft and was later modified and improved to be mounted on board bigger IL-14 planes. Its new version, carried by an AN-30 plane, was launched in 1984 and featured not only remote sensing equipment, but also a minicomputer for data collection and transmission within a radius of 600 km. With this country's mounting economic problems in the early 1990s, the flying lab was grounded, although by that time the scientists had worked out methods of forest fires monitoring in separate (test) areas. They could also obtain-directly from board the flying lab-radiation-reflectory data on the source of fire which could be used for on-the-spot prognostication of forest fires with the help of mathematical methods.

Earth soundings from space were started in this country back in 1974 on the initiative of the Institute of Space Studies of what was then the USSR Academy of Sciences. Academician Alexander Isaev was the founder and head of the project for remote studies of forests. Using the above flying lab, researchers of the Institute of Forestry working under his direction worked out methods of interpretation of space photographs, with the first patents for forest fires monitoring instruments and equipment issued in 1989. But due to our economic constraints a regular pattern of research in this field could not be maintained.

The situation changed for the better in 1992 with the arrival in Krasnoyarsk of some leading experts from Canada, the United States and Germany with whom the Siberian researchers established good working relations. As it turned out later, NASA was preparing to launch a space probe for global ecological surveillance over the whole of Asia including its Russian part. On the initiative of Academician Isaev- Director of the Center for Problems of Ecology and Forests Productivity of the Russian Academy of Sciences-and R. Murphy of NASA, it was decided to set up in Krasnoyarsk a reception station NRPT (USA) for input data from the NOAA polar orbital satellites. This station was commissioned in 1994. Later on, in keeping with the decision of the Joint Chernomyrdin-Gore Commission on space research, and the US-Russian Working Group on Earth Science, studies were launched of boreal forests and the building of an appropriate database.

Thus Krasnoyarsk became a center for continuous monitoring of forests across the Asian regions of this country. Over Siberia space photographs can be obtained six times in 24 hours over a belt of 52-68 N stretching for 2,400 km. Such observations make it possible to assess the forest fires hazard in the whole of this region and its dynamics, detect new sources of fires, prognosticate their spread with due account of weather conditions, and also evaluate the scale of damage from such calamities.

The Institute of Forestry is studying so-called "green fires" caused by harmful insects such as silkworms. Working in cooperation with Russia's Ministry for Emergencies, scientists monitor various natural and technogenic calamities and help file timely reports to the appropriate authorities.

All this work is conducted under the supervision of Academician Ye. Vaganov. Director of the Forestry Institute of the RAS Siberian Branch, and involves contacts and cooperation with experts from the United States, Canada, South Korea, China, Germany and Switzerland.


© libmonster.com

Permanent link to this publication:

https://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/MONITORING-SIBERIAN-FORESTS

Similar publications: LUnited States LWorld Y G


Publisher:

Libmonster OnlineContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster: https://libmonster.com/Libmonster

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

MONITORING SIBERIAN FORESTS // New-York: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 08.09.2018. URL: https://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/MONITORING-SIBERIAN-FORESTS (date of access: 24.05.2024).

Comments:



Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
 
  • There are no comments yet
Related topics
Publisher
Libmonster Online
New-York, United States
342 views rating
08.09.2018 (2084 days ago)
0 subscribers
Rating
0 votes
Related Articles
A HEAVENLY TREAT WITH A CHINESE TWIST
Catalog: Science 
7 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
MIGRATION TRANSFORMING CHINA
Catalog: Sociology 
19 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
China. KARAOKE EDUCATION
Catalog: Pedagogics 
37 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
QUOTATIONS FROM THE EIGHT BOOKS IN THE EARLY RUSSIAN CHRONICLES, OR HOW THE MEANING OF HISTORICAL MESSAGES CHANGES
Catalog: History 
59 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
ISRAEL-TURKEY: A CONTROVERSIAL PARTNERSHIP
Catalog: Political science 
63 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
WORLD POLITICS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION
Catalog: Political science 
64 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
CHANDRIKA - "MOONLIGHT" OVER SRI LANKA
Catalog: Political science 
67 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
SUMMARY
Catalog: Pedagogics 
76 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Catalog: Ecology 
78 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
A NEW STAGE IN THE PALESTINIAN-ISRAELI CONFRONTATION
Catalog: Military science 
79 days ago · From Peter Nielsen

New publications:

Popular with readers:

News from other countries:

LIBMONSTER.COM - U.S. Digital Library

Create your author's collection of articles, books, author's works, biographies, photographic documents, files. Save forever your author's legacy in digital form. Click here to register as an author.
Library Partners

MONITORING SIBERIAN FORESTS
 

Editorial Contacts
Chat for Authors: U.S. LIVE: We are in social networks:

About · News · For Advertisers

U.S. Digital Library ® All rights reserved.
2014-2024, LIBMONSTER.COM is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)
Keeping the heritage of the United States of America


LIBMONSTER NETWORK ONE WORLD - ONE LIBRARY

US-Great Britain Sweden Serbia
Russia Belarus Ukraine Kazakhstan Moldova Tajikistan Estonia Russia-2 Belarus-2

Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of affiliates, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. Once you register, you have more than 100 tools at your disposal to build your own author collection. It's free: it was, it is, and it always will be.

Download app for Android