Libmonster ID: U.S.-1527

The process of globalization affects humanitarian aspects and causes active migration of the population from one continent to another, in particular from Asia to Europe, but most actively within the Asia-Pacific region (APR), i.e. from Asia to North America, Australia and New Zealand. Therefore, globalization has become the progenitor of another important humanitarian process - multiculturalism in the societies of these countries. Today, this process involves enriching Western-type cultures with Eastern traditions while preserving Europe and Asia's own cultural traditions. That is why the study of the typology of cultures of these countries of the Asia-Pacific region is relevant. It allows us to trace the continuity of traditions and understand how great the mutual enrichment of art and literature of different continents is, how it manifests itself and whether it does not prevent the birth of new trends in them.

In Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, multiculturalism is part of public policy. But only in Canada (the Multiculturalism Policy Act was passed in 1971), thanks to a set of programs, foresight and foresight of the authorities, issues that arise in society and on the world stage can be resolved at the earliest stage. Given that the United States, like Japan, is Canada's main partner and that the United States also has a multicultural situation caused by active immigration from Asian countries, it is interesting to compare how the modern cultures of Canada and the United States are developing.

The initiator of a clear definition of Canadian policy in the Asia-Pacific region was P. E. Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada in the period 1968-1984. As a result, in 1970, for the first time since World War II, a revision of Canada's foreign policy was recorded in the White Paper "Foreign Policy for Canadians"that appeared at the same time. This book consisted of six booklets, one of which was called "Pacific". It noted that "because of its geographical location, history, and current interests, Canada is a Pacific Power." , 1970, p. 11]. In accordance with the Pacific 2000 program, adopted in 1989 and designed to last until 2000, Canada strengthened state interests and international relations in all areas with the countries of East and Southeast Asia and is now taking stock. Therefore, centers for the study of Asian cultures and languages, but primarily of Japan, were actively developing in Canada, since in 1972 Canada and Japan signed a bilateral agreement on mutual cultural studies with state funding. At the same time, the Senate of Canada decided to officially establish centers for regional research of Asian countries, one each in the states of British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. In modern Canada, already in 12 universities and

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Japanese culture is studied in colleges [see Howes, 1991, p. 205]. Two of them (in Toronto and Vancouver) are distinguished by a special complexity of programs.

Thus, at present, Canada is a kind of focus of the retardation type of culture 1, developing on the principle of increment, not substitution, while returning preserved and refreshed traditions to national cultures of other continents. The growth of ethnic cultures to the already established all-Canadian culture is largely due to the state policy of multiculturalism. It contributes to the mutual enrichment of everyday, mass and artistic cultures, actively affects the relationship in society and the self-consciousness of each person. Since the "Eastern factor" in the modern culture of Canada is more important than, for example, the European one, the culture of Canada at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries can be described as "East in the West".


In the modern society of Canada, even the literature of Canadians of European descent has become particularly distinguished by its national traditions. For example, Russell Thornton (born in North Vancouver), who knows Turkish, Chinese and Arabic poetry, experiments with classical forms of oriental genres in English and French, praising the nature and climate of Canada. Marianne Blueger, a Canadian-born philosopher by training, after completing an internship in Germany in 1965, became interested in Zen Buddhism and married a Japanese Canadian (M. Blueger creates English-language poetry in the Japanese poetic genres of tanka and haiku). On her initiative, the Haiku Society of Canada was established in 1997, and in May 2002, at the Japanese Embassy in Canada, M. Bluger organized a meeting of 30 Canadian-born poets with Japanese artists and cultural figures.

Canada continues to develop the traditions of European literature, especially in France and England, in the works of natives of Canada. At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries, there is a large ethnoliterature of Asian-Canadians, whose spiritual life is still connected with the culture of their historical homeland [Zhukova I. V., Zhukova A.V., 2004].

The work of Japanese Canadians and their connection with Japanese culture is represented in Canada by the poet, publicist, and playwright Terry Watada (born in Toronto in 1951).: "A Thousand Homes" (1995) and" Ten Thousand Views of Rain "(2001) reflect Japanese and Chinese Buddhist philosophy. The term " ten thousand things "(Chinese: wan, i.e.," all things") defines the real, concretely tangible existence of beings and objects; it is the absolute, the only unconditional reality perceived in all things.

Lai Larisa's Canadian-born novel "When there are a Thousand Foxes" (1995) is a tribute to the memory of all the departed: a fox, according to Chinese and Japanese folklore beliefs, is a werewolf of the departed, and according to Shintoism of the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, it is a form that the holy spirit puts on when he comes to a Shinto temple for food (for the fox on the back of the village temple or in the side wall

1 The concept of "retardation" in biology is interpreted as "slowing down", "delay", but in linguistics it means the repetition of the phonetic feature of one of the previous sounds in the subsequent oral or written text. In the cultural sense, the concept of "retardation" is manifested in the preservation of many national traditions of the ethno-population of Canada (even those that are long gone in the countries of their origin), genetically related to the cultures of other continents.

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make a hole with a tunnel so that it can get inside, and leave food for it on low benches).

Zen Buddhists claim that martial arts, fencing, the tea ceremony, and ikebana are associated with vital energy concentrated in the area of the abdomen, which the Chinese call the "field of cinnabar" or immortality (the same Chinese character is used for both concepts). Upper "cinnabar field" - the head, the center of wisdom; The "ocean of the brain" controls a person's good and bad actions. The middle "cinnabar field" is located under the heart. Therefore, as a manifestation of the traditional thinking of Chinese and Japanese Canadians-writers should be perceived the name of not only their individual works, but also entire collections that contain the names of parts of the human body (the play of the Chinese Canadian Kwan Batty "Mother Tongue" ("Mother Tongue", 1996); the story of the Indian Canadian Baldwin Sean Singh "What the body remembers"). ("What the Body Remembers", 1999) or the word "field" (the story of Japanese Canadian Sakamoto Carrie "The Electric Field", 1998).

In the context of multiculturalism and educational work at the state level, the influence of Buddhism is noticeable in the creative thinking of Arab-Canadian writers (the Libyan poet Astour John - the book of poems "Fields of My Blood" ("Fields of My Blood", 1997)).;

"Earth" and "tree" are important concepts in any ancient culture, but in traditional Eastern and African cultures they are preserved as an aesthetically significant image. Therefore, the Indian Canadian Varma Raul's play " The Land where the Trees Speak "(1998) becomes an anthem not only for India, but for all countries. The earth in the philosophy of India, China, and Japan is symbolized by the yellow color. And this symbolism is played out in the play by Korean Canadian Kang Myung-jin "Noran Bang and the Yellow Room" ("Noran Bang: the yellow room", 1996). In addition, the yellow color in India, China and Japan symbolized the center. The red color in the symbolism of these countries meant fire and corresponded to the South as the side of the world. However, in the literature of Asian Canadians, it has much more symbolic meanings than in the traditional cultures of these countries. As an example, I will cite the novel "Daughters of the Red Land" by Chinese Canadian Li Yang ("Daughters of the Red Land", 1995) and the poetry collection of Japanese Canadian Bako Ohama "Red Poems of Rain and Voice" ("Red Poems of Rain and Voice", 1995). The subtext of the novel is that the daughters of China, no matter where they are, are always worried about the earth being burned by the fire of history, which forced their parents (or the writers themselves) to leave their homeland. In the context of B. Oham's poetry, "red poems" mean fiery and passionate, burning even rain and burning the throat with the indifference of words, rhythm, and melody. In addition, since the 12th century, the color red in Japanese culture has also meant rare, not just beautiful. The poet does not lose the sense of connection with traditional musical culture, since " red "in the philosophy of music of India, China and Japan means the note"la". A single note in Japanese music is a moment of a whole macrocosm containing the past, present and future. "La" is a high note that can express a high degree of experience of a person who suddenly turns to shouting.

In the traditional music of India, China, and Japan, there is a regular frequency of pauses between individual sounds, so even a pause in music is interpreted as a moment when the listener's perception "complements what is filled". The same is found in the recitation of Japanese classical poetry tanka and haiku; in the dramaturgy and recitative of the text of plays; in the music of the Japanese Noh theater; in the performance of fairy tales under the biwa (Japanese four-stringed musical instrument); in the philosophy of meditation in a Japanese garden and during a tea ceremony; in the genre of scroll vertical landscape painted in ink; in art calligraphy, etc., as well as in modern

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animation and cinematography of Japan and in their music [Zhukova I. V., Zhukova A.V., 2003].

An equally important motif in the cultures of the peoples of Asia and, accordingly, in the works of Asian-Canadian writers and publicists is the motif of rain, which also acquires additional symbolic features in the context of multiculturalism: the poetry books of Sri Lankan Canadian Cruz Rienji "Insurgent Rain" ("Insurgent Rain", 1997: poems of 1974-1996) and Filipino- Canadian Gill Lakshmi's "Returning the Empties" (1998, poems 1960-1990). The art and literature of Southeast Asia can not be thought of without mentioning or depicting drizzling raindrops, which are arranged in ornaments in different directions (diagonally, staggered, etc.) and are used in various ways. in combination with space symbols, geometric shapes and outlines. The book of poetry by Japanese author Ito Sally "Frogs in the Rain Barrel" ("Frogs in the Rain Barrel", 1995), the novel by Japanese Canadian novelist, publicist and historian - Kogawa Joy" The Rain Ascends "("The Rain Ascends", 1995) illustrate the aesthetics of rain combined with sadness and reflection, when it performs the function of a psychological character.

The prose of Chinese Canadians, who are quite numerous in Canada compared to other ethnic groups, is particularly stable in national traditions. The novel "The Jade Peony" ("The Jade Peony", 1995) by Choi Wason already carries health and well - being in the title (jade symbolizes health and a favorable indoor climate, peony-wealth and nobility). The novel" The Excluded Wife "(1998) by Woon Yuen-fong tells about the traditions of Chinese family life, when the husband asks permission from the first wife to bring the second one into the house. Sometimes it is difficult for the second wife to live, especially in mixed or unequal marriages in terms of age or social status, when her husband's relatives do not accept her.

The tradition of allegorical (fairy-tale) realism inherent in the cultures of the East is continued by the Chinese Canadian Bates Judy Fong ("The Chinese Dog and other Tales from the Chinese Laundry", 1997); the Indian Canadian playwright Viswanathan Padma ("Houses of Sacred Cows in Ethnic Cities: plays of the New West", 1999), the Japanese Canadian, an absurdist writer, Goto Hiromi ("Choir of Mushrooms", 1994). However, it is not always the new cultural atmosphere that nourishes or enriches those who come to Canada from the countries of the Foreign East. Sometimes it makes them suffer from what they see. This, in particular, is reflected in the poetry and prose of Chinese Canadians Lo Evelyn (the story "Choose me", 1999; the poetry collection "In the House of Slaves", 1994) and Kwa Lydia ("Colors of Heroin", 1994); Chinese Canadian playwright Cheng Marty ("Mom, Dad, I live with a white woman"). a girl", 1996).

The new multicultural atmosphere and living environment influences the perception of writers who came to Canada from Eastern countries, and brings to their work features of civilization and progress-collections of poems by Japanese Canadians Shikatani Harry "Aqueduct" (1996) and Mickey Roy " Randomly accessible files "(1996) - as well as expand artistic thinking and perception spaces around - a book of poems by Vietnamese Canadian Vuong-Riddick Swong " Two Coasts "(1995); a novel by Filipino Canadian Gill Lakshmi "The Third Infinitive" (1993); a poetry collection by Japanese Canadian Kiyoka Roy "Windows on the Pacific Ocean" (1997); a book of poetry by Indian Canadian Dulai Findar "A Poor Man from the Periphery" (1995).

In the journalism of Asian-Canadian writers, the autobiographical genre is especially common. However, even here we observe adherence to national cultures. Choi Wason described his childhood in a Chinese city, calling the essay "Paper Shadows" ("Paper Shadows", 1999), thus glorifying the Chinese genre,

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when on the streets, for a fee, a silhouette of a person, figurines, houses, etc. were cut out of dark paper.

Wong Yang wrote about China, giving the book the subtitle "A Report from a Not-quite-Foreign Correspondent" (1999). Chong Denis described the story of a Chinese woman named Kim Fook in an essay titled "The Girl in the Photograph" (1998).

For Mickey Roy ("Ruined Entrances", 1998-a collection of essays on racial discrimination) and Yi Sang-kyung ("Inside the Desert Kingdom", 1997-memories of South Korea), the problem of space and human harmony in it is important; both are outraged by the restriction of the possibility of free movement; the establishment of any borders, the existence of which is not possible. it is not perceived by their thinking due to Zen Buddhism. Kiyoka Roy described episodes from his mother's life in Canada (Mother's Stories, 1998).

Autobiographical journalism is part not only of literature, but also, above all, of the history of Canada and the peoples of other countries. That is why special attention should be paid to the creation in Canada of special textbooks on the history of their ethnic group for local national schools (Ye Pol "Struggle and Hope: stories from the life of the Chinese in Canada", 1996; Terry Watada - a textbook on the history of life of the Japanese in Canada for elementary Japanese schools, 2003).

To some extent, the fiction of other Canadians of Eastern origin reflects the features of the historical and at the same time autobiographical genre in a realistic manner: the collection of short stories "Not quite her Home" - stories from Beirut (1992) by the Libyan Canadian Nasrallah Emily, the story " My Year of Meat Eating "(1998) by the Japanese Canadian Ozeki Ruth; the novel " What Always Belonged to Her" (1999) by Indian Canadian Paramaswaran Uma.


In the United States, even today, immigrants from the East face an acute problem of cultural and personal representation, gaining recognition as individuals, and not only the possibility of identifying themselves with the concept of "US citizen", i.e., an American. The problem of the regional component of US culture is sufficiently developed in American and domestic historical and philological studies [see: Problems..., 1981; History..., 1997]. It is placed in the context of more complex intra-and cross-cultural interaction (L. Kaplan, D. Johnson, R. Kastranovo, R. Cuningham). According to researchers of the history of American literature [see: Istoriya..., 1997, p. 35; Tlostanova., 2000, p. 150-157], a multiethnoculture was formed in the US culture at the end of the XX century.

In contrast to Canada [Zhukova, 2004, p. 84-119], the United States actually operates the culture and literature of the "main stream" and various areas of European, African - American and Asian-American cultures, which are officially considered as ethno-racial subtraditions in the context of cultural multiplicity [Tlostanova,2000, p. 84-119]. p. 165]. This reality is also reflected in a number of works by Asian-American writers ("Seventeen Syllables" by the novelist Hisai Yamamoto, who immigrated from Japan, 1949;" The Fifth Chinese Daughter " by the Chinese-American novelist Jade Snow Wong, 1950).

Young Asian-Americans in the third generation do not want to identify with their genetic homeland, trying to forget its traditions and culture. In Canada, the opposite is true, as the culture and literature of Asians are developed with the official support of federal governments, which remind about Asian and African holidays of the ethnic population of the quarter, city, state, by hanging out national flags and posting relevant materials in the press and on TV. Exactly

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therefore, knowledge of the customs and culture of other peoples becomes the norm of everyday life, which is involuntarily reflected in the creative consciousness of not only professionals of one or another ethnic origin, but also natives of Canada of another national and cultural affiliation.

In the United States, they strive to distinguish between the "different" and the "other" in comparison with the general, and in Canada - to cement the unity of diversity that concerns the entire creative intelligentsia of Canada (both its natives and those from Europe, Africa or Asia).

The above highlights the general problem of revising the cultural canon in the context of multiculturalism in the United States and Canada at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. The existence of stereotypes regarding the ethno-intelligentsia and ethno-immigrants in everyday life, literature, and "mainstream" culture In contrast to Canada, the USA (film, music, and mass media) leads to the expansion of mass culture with its inherent genres (thriller, blockbuster, parody in movie comedies, etc.) rather than artistic culture in the United States.

In the United States, the perception of time and space through the "intermediate consciousness of the borderlands" gives rise to the alien hero, homeless wanderer, and genre hybrids in life, culture, and literature. If we talk about the type of hero and the development of modern Asian-American literature in the United States, we can definitely say that this is a "cultural wanderer" [Tlostanova, 2000, p. 228]. So the word "home" (!) as a reflection of the concept of a specific hearth and at the same time territory, it is almost not mentioned in American ethnoliterary texts.

Unlike the American chronotope of intermediateness, the specific question "Where are we?" is important for Canadians, not "Who are we?". That is why all Canadian poetry, including ethno-poetry, is divided according to the perception of space into poetry of the North, West/At the same time, the main thing remains the concept of "home", i.e. the feeling of a strong connection with the earth, which is confirmed by the comments of famous American prose writers of the XX century. (Mark Twain, George Washington Cable, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway) [The Wild..., 1994.]

The names of entire collections of poetry ("A House Made of Rain", "A House Made of Sun") and the texts themselves, and sometimes also the semantic and cultural context of the entire modern Canada, indicate the firm feeling of ethnic writers-immigrants of the ground under their feet, a hearth in Canada.

Typology of cultural enrichment is an important issue in the context of globalization processes:

* mass penetration of other cultural traditions or stereotypes;

* selective amateur and / or professional interest in other cultures;

* proactive, controlling and regulatory government policies or official measures regarding the "spread" or integration of other cultures;

* when different cultures co-exist and develop in parallel within the same state;

* with active cooperation of different countries or joint international research, educational, publishing, stage, film, TV, radio projects and programs;

* with heavy audio and visual advertising.

Orientalists have written extensively about the mutual enrichment of Eastern and Western cultures (Konrad, 1972; Grigorieva, 1992). But in the modern conditions of globalization and multiculturalism, it occurs much more widely; for example, the Eastern cultures of the countries of the entire region (APR) are an enriching resource for European-type cultures (Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand [Zhukova, 2003, p. 88; 89; 99; 77 - 78]) and rya-

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yes of European countries (England, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia). This also applies to modern literatures and cultures of Arab-Canadians [Zhukova, 2005(1), p. 74], as well as Afro-Canadians [Zhukova, 2005(2), p. 47-48.]

list of literature

Grigorieva T. P. Tao and logos. Meeting of Cultures, Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura Publ., 1992.

Zhukova I. V., Zhukova A.V. Pin-epo, pin-epo. On the musical culture of Japan in the XX century. Moscow: MosSU Publ., 2003.

Zhukova I. V., Zhukova A.V. Filosofiya i estetika Kitay, Yaponii, Skandinavii (kontsa XIX - nachalo XXI V.) [Philosophy and Aesthetics of China, Japan, and Scandinavia (late XIX-early XXI centuries)].

Zhukova IV. Carillon of multinational English-language contemporary poetry of Canada, Moscow: MosSU Publ., 2003.

Zhukova I. V. On the modern context of multiculturalism in Canada. Moscow: MosSU Publ., 2004.

Zhukova I. V. Sovremennaya Arabo-kanadskaya literatura [Modern Arab-Canadian literature]. 2005. N7.

Zhukova I. V. Days of Africa in Calgary / / Asia and Africa today. 2005. N 8.

History of literature in the USA. Vol. 1. Moscow: IMLI RAS "Nasledie" Publ., 1997.

Konrad N. I. Vostok i Zapad [East and West], Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, 1972.

Problems of formation of American literature, Moscow, 1981.

Tlostanova M. V. Problema mnogokulturalizma i literatura SSHA kontsa XX V. [The problem of multiculturalism and literature of the USA in the late XX century].

Howes John F. Japanese Studies in Canada // Canada and Japan in the Twentieth Century. Toronto-Oxford-New York, 1991.

Pasific. Foreign Policy for Canadians. Ottawa, 1970.

The Wild is Always There (Canada Through the Eyes of Foreign Writers) / Ed. by Greg Gatenby. Toronto, 1994.


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