Libmonster ID: U.S.-1423
Author(s) of the publication: A. MAZIN

India is one of the most likely candidates to join the top three world leaders of the XXI century, along with the United States and China. Already, the country's GDP, according to World Bank experts, is about 1/3 of the US GDP. GDP growth in 2005 was 7.6% compared to an average of 4% for the period 1990-2002, i.e. India ranked second in the world after China.1 At the same time, industrial production grew by 8.2%. At the same time, with a population comparable to the PRC (more than 1 billion people). person) India is almost twice as far behind China in terms of per capita GDP distribution2.

The country's economy and population are clearly divided into two segments: patriarchal - agrarian, which includes almost 60% of the population of India, and modern, including post-industrial. The latter, in particular, is evidenced by the rapidly growing export of software produced here from the country, as well as the number of Internet users (more than 50 million people). About 250,000 highly qualified specialists work in the field of computer technology development, computer science and telecommunications. At the same time, 25% of the population remains below the poverty line, and the income gap between the 10% of the most affluent and the 10% of the poorest is more than 32 times 3. The solution of the two-pronged problem-giving the country the status of a great world power and improving the standard of living of the population-is possible only through the introduction of high technologies as a domestic development, and imported ones. This is also associated with a high level of domestic and foreign investment activity, despite the difficulties experienced by the country in servicing domestic and foreign debt.


The military-industrial sector is considered as one of the driving forces for the development of high technologies. This is evidenced, in particular, by the growth of defense spending, which recently ranged from 7 to 15% per year. In 2005, compared to 2004, it grew by 14% and reached $ 22 billion, 4 of which reached $ 4 billion. It was directed to the purchase of imported weapons and the development of licensed production.5

Currently, India has a developed military-industrial complex (MIC), consisting of 39 state-owned enterprises and 8 private concerns, which annually produce defense products worth about $ 3 billion. At the same time, the share of civilian products in defense enterprises averages about 30-40%, and in some industries-60-80%, which significantly increases their profitability. The skilful partial privatization of military-industrial complex companies has led to an influx of private national and foreign investment in this sector.

However, despite the impressive scientific, technical and production potential, the country's defense complex is not yet able to fully meet the needs of the national armed forces, primarily in high-tech products. India is best served by developing its own missile weapons, launch vehicles, and satellite systems; however, even here, India is not going to abandon the purchase of foreign samples and technologies.

Plans to increase India's defense capability are crucial both for the country's military-industrial complex and for the development of related high-tech industries and developments. In the first place here are programs to create their own strategic nuclear and space forces, which pursues not only purely military, but also political goals. In particular, to support India's claims to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council, as well as significantly increase the country's status in various international and regional organizations. When implementing projects in this area, New Delhi, in our opinion, very skillfully plays on Washington's desire to see a strong counterweight to China in the region, which is considered by many politicians and experts as the main potential opponent of the United States. Apparently, this explains the superficiality and short-term nature of the anti-Indian sanctions imposed by the White House after the nuclear tests on the Hindustan peninsula in May 1998, as well as the current readiness of the United States and Israel to transfer a number of new military technologies to India.

The country has already developed tactical and operational-tactical missiles (TR and OTR), as well as intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs). The development of intercontinental missiles (ICBMs) and missiles is actively underway

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sea-based-ship missiles (KR). The production of several types of nuclear weapons has been established. According to official reports, thermonuclear warheads have also been developed, although a number of experts express doubts about this.6 Created in-house, albeit with foreign assistance, the dual-use satellite constellation is capable of conducting military intelligence on a limited scale, as well as providing communications and command and control of troops both in peacetime and in emergency conditions.

In a relatively short time, India can create its own strategic aircraft capable of carrying nuclear weapons. Currently, the country's Air Force uses 8 Tu-142s (based on the Tu-95 long-range bombers, with a range of 18 thousand km) and 4 Tu-22-3M supersonic bombers recently received from Russia as long-range sea scouts, 7 which can also be used as long-range reconnaissance aircraft. means of delivering nuclear weapons. The Indian Air Force also has a large number of tactical aircraft. Among the latter, experts from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute include the French Mirage-2000N and Jaguar-IS fighters with ranges of 1,850 and 1,400 km, respectively. It is assumed that the Russian MiG-27 and Su-30MKI can also be used as nuclear weapons carriers.8

The issue of creating surface carrier ships of BR and KR is being discussed, but at the same time aircraft carriers will be created and used in the fleet. They will include the Viraat and Admiral Gorshkov (Indian name Vikramadita), which are already undergoing modernization, as well as the new Vikrant, which was laid down at the national shipyards in April 2005 with the participation of Italian specialists, with a displacement of 38 thousand tons. 9 The main wings of both old and new ships will be MiG-29K and British Sea Harrier fighters, as well as Ka-31 and Sea King helicopters, which indicates the desire of the Indian leadership to diversify arms suppliers.

Both nuclear and high-precision conventional weapons can also be used in nuclear submarines designed in India. In general, the creation of its own nuclear submarines is a priority task for the Indian Fleet, and their design, together with Soviet (Russian) specialists, has been carried out since 1985.

In 1988. India was leased a Russian nuclear-powered missile submarine, which was supposed to be primarily a training base in anticipation of equipping the Indian Navy with its own nuclear submarines.

Thus, the Indian military doctrine provides for the creation of a full-fledged nuclear triad in the future, first on a regional and then on a global scale. It will include ground-based missile systems, including mobile-based ones, strategic aviation and the naval component of the strategic nuclear forces.


Scientific research in the rocket and space field began in India in the mid-1950s. At the same time, if in other countries space programs were based on previously created combat ballistic missiles, then the course of Delhi was exactly the opposite. First, the Indian Space Research Agency (ISRO) was created, and only then, in 1970, the state rocket corporation "BDL"was created.

The first two Indian satellites were launched in 1975-1979 with the help of Soviet launch vehicles, and in 1980 the first launch of its own launch vehicle (LV)was made

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with an artificial Earth satellite weighing 35 kg. According to its technical and operational characteristics, including payload, this carrier could not be used as a combat vehicle. However, later, in 1983, ISRO announced the possibility of using already developed missile technologies for military needs. In 1988. India has created the first tactical missile "Prithvi-1".

Now in service with the Indian army are OTR "Prithvi-1/2" with a range of 150 and 250 km, respectively. In 2004, the Dhanush sea version (250 km) was successfully tested. The Agni-1 IRBM was also tested with a flight range of 1.5 thousand km. All of them are capable of carrying both conventional and nuclear warheads weighing up to 800 - 1000 kg. The Agni-2 IRBM (3,500 km) and the three-stage Agni-3 (up to 5,000 km) are currently being tested, but their mass production may be postponed indefinitely for political reasons. It is expected that by 2008 - 2010 the development of the Surya intercontinental three - stage missile (ICBM) with a range of 9-12 thousand km and a hit accuracy of up to 3 km will also be completed. If the tests are successful, it may enter service around 2015. 11

The development of space launch vehicles developed at a much faster pace. However, in some cases, ISRO was forced to resort to the help of other space powers. Thus, up to 80% of the technologies required for the production of cryogenic engines were imported from Russia. In the early 1990s, until the beginning of this century, India continued to use the services of the Russian Federation, the European Space Agency and the United States12. But since 1999, India itself has entered the space services market, launching not only its own survey satellite, but also South Korean and German satellites on a commercial basis using a 294-ton carrier.13

India's experience in creating its own space launch vehicles is widely used in the development of combat missiles and new military technologies. In particular, the first stage of a space rocket is used in the Agni-2 combat rocket. Launches have shown that India is capable of creating separable ballistic missile warheads 14. The total mass of the payload was about 1200 kg.

India has also made great strides in developing satellite technologies. If earlier it had to resort to the help of foreign specialists, in particular German ones, when creating optoelectronic systems, now they are almost entirely made from national components. Indian scientists have managed to master almost the entire range of techniques used in studying the Earth's surface, and to increase the resolution of receiving equipment from 32 to 2 - 5 m, which is basically enough for its use in military purposes.15 The budget of the Indian Space Agency is now about $ 500 million a year, which is almost equal to Russian space expenditures.16

A 152-square-kilometer spaceport has been built on the island of Shraharikata, from which both military and meteorological and research rockets are launched. The spaceport is equipped with three complexes with 4 launch tables, which provides a launch of up to 6 - 10 RN per year. Recently, Russian-made cryogenic engines have been actively used in India. However, due to the long preparation time for launch, they are almost impossible to use for military purposes. In the future, it is planned to use them for the implementation of the national program for creating a reusable spacecraft.

Less successful, in our opinion, is the development of missile technology for the ground forces and air defense forces. Since 1983, BDL and Tata Electronics have been creating the Akash medium-range air defense system in India. The missile of the complex and its launcher in their characteristics and even appearance are very similar to the Soviet ones

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SAM "Cube", at one time in large quantities purchased by the Indian government in export execution under the name "Square". And the radars of tracking, control and target designation (RADARS) "Rajendra" in its architecture is similar to the early version of the American anti-aircraft missile system (SAM) "Patriot"17. Such an unusual hybrid, apparently, was the reason that the complex, which has been developed for more than 20 years, has not yet been put into service. Its role is still performed by the Kvadrat air defense system, and in New Delhi, the issue of purchasing Russian Buk-M1-2 medium-range air defense systems is being considered. The Russian S-125 Pechora and S-75 Dvina air defense systems, the first modifications of which were used during the Vietnam and Arab-Israeli wars, also remain in service with the country's air defense forces (in total, about 280 complexes of these types were delivered or produced under license). Therefore, the question is raised about the purchase in Russia of modern long-range complexes "S-300PMU" or "S-300V".

Despite the successful development by Indian specialists of the short-range Trishul anti-aircraft missile system (including sea-based ones), Russian Osa-AKM air defense systems still remain in service with the army air defense system. In addition, about 70 Tunguska anti-aircraft missile systems were recently purchased at a cost of about $ 8 million each.18

Since the 1970s, work has also been underway on the creation of the medium-range Nag anti-tank missile system (ATGM). However, conceived as a third-generation ATGM, not inferior to foreign models, with a firing range of up to 4 km and an automatic guidance system, it still has not left the stage of development development 19. The situation is better with licensed production of tactical missiles. So, almost immediately after the adoption of the Franco-West German Milan anti-tank complex in NATO countries, its production was also established in India. The same applies to the Soviet-designed 9M113M ATGM for arming the BMP-2, as well as to the BM-21 Grad multiple launch rocket systems.


Aircraft manufacturing in India is currently concentrated in the state-owned corporation Hindustan Aeronautics Limited ("HAL"). The largest foreign partners of HAL include the Russian aircraft building corporations MiG and Sukhoi, the Israeli IAI, the British BAE Systems, the German Dornier Flugzeugwerke,and the European association EADS. 20

Among the most high-priority and ambitious projects implemented by HAL is the creation of a light multi-role fighter " LCA ""Tejas", designed to replace outdated fighters" Jaguar "and" MiG-21", which have not been upgraded.

The main problem in implementing the " LCA " program is the choice of engine. Initially, it was assumed that it would be an engine of the American company General Electric, but after the introduction of a moratorium on the supply of weapons to India, this issue hung in the air for some time. By the time the sanctions were lifted, the French SNECMA, whose engines are already used on the Mirage aircraft of the Indian Air Force, and the American Pratt & Whitney had already joined the competition. In addition, Indian specialists are trying to create their own Kaveri power plant. However, Western experts express serious doubts about the technological capabilities of India to develop such an engine in the near future.

The total production of new fighters, based on the needs of the Indian Air Force and Navy, is set at 250-300 aircraft. The next step in the development of the production of modern fighters of national design should be the creation of its own medium multi-role fighter, R & D on which is already underway. It is possible that Russia and other foreign partners will join them21.

The most ambitious and significant project for the Indian Air Force in recent years has been the raz project-

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development of the licensed production of Su-30 MKI aircraft, based on the agreement reached in 2000 by AVPK im. Cooperation with HAL Corporation. In accordance with it, 180 Su-30MKI fighters are planned to be produced by 2015, then they will be gradually upgraded; it also provides for the production of engines worth $ 3.3 billion. It is expected that after 2006, national enterprises will produce at least 10 such aircraft annually. In addition, the Irkutsk Aviation Production Association additionally delivered 40 Su-30 MKI fighters worth $ 1.6 billion.22 and upgraded previously delivered Su-30 K aircraft. This work can also be carried out at one of the factories of the Indian company HAL, which has been producing these aircraft under license since 2004. 23

Recently, a tender was announced for the supply of 126 light front-line fighters to India; among the applicants are the Russian MiG-29M/M2, the American F-16, the Swedish JAS-39 Grippen and the French Mirage - 2000-5. The contract amount promises to be slightly less than for the delivery of the Su-30MKI .

In addition, the range of products produced by HAL includes a significant number of aircraft and helicopters, as well as aircraft engines. To name just a few. So, in Bangalore, Kiran and Ajit training aircraft of our own design are produced. The Cawnpore plant has been producing Do-228 light multirole aircraft since the mid-1980s under license from the German company Dornier in transport and patrol (for the Coast Guard) versions. In the city of Koraput, R-29B aircraft engines are manufactured for MiG-27 fighters. With the participation of Western partners, an ALH multi-purpose helicopter is currently being developed in Bangalore, combining a number of design features of well-proven domestic and foreign models. However, its mass production will probably not begin soon, and over the next decade, the basis of the Indian helicopter fleet will remain the national and Russian vehicles already included in it.

After 1985, HAL tried to create its own AWACS-type long-range radar detection system, but these developments have not yet been crowned with success, and the leadership of the Indian Air Force is facing the problem of choosing the most suitable foreign system. The Russian A-50 aircraft with the Israeli Falcon radar station, the Brazilian ERJ-145 AEW with the equipment of the Swedish company Ericsson and others are considered as applicants.

In total, during the existence of HAL, it has produced more than 3 thousand military and civilian aircraft and helicopters, and about 1 thousand of them are of its own design.


The armored industry in India is one of the key sectors of the military-industrial complex. It was created during the Second World War. The first mass-produced model was the modernized and still not withdrawn from service Vijayanta tank-an export version of the British tank company Vickers Mk.2". About 1,150 of these tanks are currently stored in warehouses, and they are quite combat-ready.

By the early 1990s, more than 2,000 Russian T-55 and T-72M1 tanks had been delivered or produced directly in India under license. After 1994, the production of the latter was temporarily discontinued for financial reasons, but continued after 1996. In February 2001, a contract was signed for the supply of 310 advanced Russian-made T-90S tanks to the Indian Army in response to the supply of 300 T-80U tanks from Ukraine to Pakistan. Indian specialists also developed their own tank - "Arjuna" with a German power unit and Western electronics 24, but the resulting "hybrid" turned out to be too expensive and unreliable in comparison with foreign models. By 2006, only 14 vehicles of this type were put into service instead of the planned 1.5 thousand. In the early 2000s, Delhi signed a contract with Russia for the supply of 124 ready-made (in the period 2001 -2003) and 186 licensed T-90S tanks. In addition, India will receive a license for the production of tank diesels for them. It is assumed that this tank will be relatively cheap to produce, since it is, in fact, an improved T-72, already manufactured under license in India. The plant in Medak has established licensed production of BMP-2 and its local modification - Sarath, as well as a number of other light armored vehicles, mainly foreign models. Their landing gear is widely used to install samples of rocket and artillery weapons.


India's shipbuilding industry is a significant part of its industrial potential. It employs up to 26,000 workers and specialists in fulfilling military orders. The largest enterprise in the industry is Mazagaon Dock Ltd (MDL) in Mumbai (Bombay), whose shipyards are capable of building submarines with a displacement of up to 6 thousand tons. However, in the near future, its docks will be expanded to allow the production of vessels with a displacement of more than 40 thousand tons, which is associated with the laying of the first, actually Indian, aircraft carrier 25.

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As the most promising project for the construction of submarines, MDL management is now considering the licensed construction of 6 Franco-Spanish diesel-electric Scorpion submarines, which won the tender from the Russian Amur-1650 . The contract value is $ 1.8 billion. Date of commissioning of boats-2010-2015 26

The construction of new submarines with a conventional power plant did not reduce the interest of the Indian Navy leadership in creating its own nuclear submarine fleet. The laying of the lead national nuclear submarine was scheduled for 2007, although this date may be postponed. As a temporary measure, the Indian Navy was supposed to lease two modern Russian submarines, Project 971 Akula, for a period of 5 years, but it is not yet clear whether this project will be implemented.27

Of the 16 Indian diesel-electric submarines, 12 were built according to Russian designs, 2-according to the license project of the German company Thyssen Krupp in the early 1990s.

Russian know-how was used in the creation of 3 destroyers of the "Delhi" type; for them, radio-electronic equipment and radars were supplied from the Russian Federation. The MDL shipyards also built 3 Godavari frigates, developed on the basis of the English Linder ships. They are also equipped with Russian weapons.

The total cost of the high-tech package delivered from Russia to India, used in the construction of Indian ships, is estimated at more than $ 100 million. A joint Russian-Indian enterprise, Brahmos, has also been created, focused on the development and production of anti-ship missiles that have no analogues in the world (in India they are called Sukri) with a range of up to 300 km. This missile is based on the Russian Yakhont anti-ship missile system, an improved and upgraded Moskit missile.

In Russia, the latest frigates equipped with new-generation anti-ship missiles and anti-aircraft systems were built and commissioned into the Indian Navy. The announced contract amount is about $ 1 billion. Over time, the number of such ships may reach 6. By the way, such ships have not yet entered service with the Russian fleet.


In the early 1980s, the Indian military-industrial complex, which is based on state-owned enterprises, was tasked by the Government to achieve maximum self-sufficiency of the armed forces with national models of weapons and military equipment.

However, by the early 1990s, it became clear that the country did not have enough funds to solve this problem. The real cost of military R & D projects, as a rule, was significantly higher than planned. Thus, the cost of the Arjuna tank development program turned out to be almost 13 times higher than expected, new missile systems-twice, and the LCA fighter-almost 4 times. 28 The problem is supposed to be solved by increasing the share of the defense budget spent on R & D. This program is already being implemented: if in 2000 this share did not exceed 5%, then after 2005. it does not fall below 15-20%.

Nevertheless, the share of foreign models of weapons and military equipment still comes from-

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the vast majority of combat aircraft of the Indian Air Force, up to 50% of tanks, IFVs and SAMs, 60% of artillery systems, up to 90% of warships. Most likely, this situation will continue for quite a long time.


India has built up its nuclear and missile capabilities almost entirely on its own. The decision to conduct research in the nuclear field was made in the country immediately after the declaration of its independence. In 1948, the Atomic Energy Commission was established, which was transformed in 1954 into the Department of Atomic Energy directly subordinate to the Prime Minister. In 1955, the country's first Bhabha Nuclear Research Center ("BARC") was established in Trombey, where the 1 MW Ansara research nuclear reactor was launched a year later. The second such center, later named after I. Gandhi, was built in the city of Kalpakkam.

Even earlier, in 1954, an agreement was signed with Canada on the supply of a 40 MW research reactor, heavy water for which was to be supplied by the United States. However, it was not launched until 1960 in Trombey. It is assumed that this reactor, which is capable of producing from 6.6 to 10 kg of plutonium per year, was used to produce fissionable materials for the manufacture of the first explosive device, tests of which in 1974 were named "Pokhran-I"29.

However, at the first stage, the nuclear program was purely peaceful and focused on the construction of nuclear power plants, in which India was extremely interested because of the poverty of its own natural energy resources. However, Canada's CANDU heavy-water reactors, which run on low-enriched uranium, served as an incentive to develop a military aspect of the use of atomic energy, since during the operation of reactors of this type, raw materials are produced from which weapons-grade plutonium can be obtained. At the same time, in order to reduce the import of heavy water, especially after the introduction of an embargo on its supply from the United States after 1974, large-scale construction of plants for its production was launched. As a result, by 1991, 8 enterprises with a total capacity of 315 tons of heavy water per year were built, which made it possible not only to achieve self-sufficiency in this type of raw material, but also to export heavy water.

Initially, electricity at the first two nuclear power plants in the cities of Tarapur and Ranapratapsagar was generated from two light-water power units purchased from the United States in 1969, and one heavy-water "CANDU" (purchased in 1973). However, after the first nuclear test in May 1974, the country's nuclear industry developed entirely at the expense of domestic resources.

At present, despite a certain shortage of uranium, India has created a full cycle for the production of nuclear fuel, 6 nuclear power plants with 14 power units are operating (and 10 more are under construction or are in the design stage), mainly based on Canadian heavy-water "CANDU" with a total capacity of 10 thousand MW. By 2020, their capacity is expected to reach 20 thousand tons. MW, which will make up about 10% of the country's electricity production. A new trend in the development of India's nuclear power industry is the purchase of light-water (i.e. not applicable for military purposes) VVER-1000 reactors in Russia. Two such power units will be placed under the supervision of the IAEA at the Kudankulam NPP under construction.

Due to the fact that only a part of the country's nuclear power plants is under the control of the IAEA, the Organization of the Nuclear Material Suppliers Countries refused to sell natural uranium to India. In response, Delhi stepped up the development of reactors based on completely new principles - fast neutrons and using thorium as fuel, whose reserves in the country in the form of oxide are estimated at 500 thousand tons (only 80 thousand tons of uranium ore). A prototype of a new type of reactor with a capacity of 500 MW has already been developed at the I. Gandhi Center, its launch is scheduled for 2007, and industrial samples will be produced

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after 2015 A special feature of this type of reactor is the parallel production of materials suitable for use in both civil and military purposes. In the Center of them. Bhabha is also creating a reactor for the planned nuclear submarines, but the timing of completion of these works is unknown.

Recently, US attempts to enter the Indian nuclear energy market have become very active. In particular, in March 2006, US President George W. Bush and Indian Prime Minister M. Singh signed a framework agreement on cooperation in this area, despite Washington's sanctions against New Delhi imposed in 1998. However, this agreement was sharply criticized in the US Congress, where it was quite reasonable to assume that such relations with a new member of the nuclear club would only untie the hands of similar developments in the DPRK and Iran. 30

The military part of India's nuclear program was developed after the armed conflict with China in 1962 and the first nuclear test in China in 1964. The first nuclear device detonated in India in 1974 was most likely untransportable and had no combat value, but work in this direction at the Bhabha Center continued continuously. The two reactors there produce about 35 kg of plutonium per year. There is also a facility for extracting tritium used in thermonuclear munitions from irradiated heavy water. In addition, the Tarapur and Kalakkam nuclear power plants have radiochemical plants for the production of plutonium from spent fuel, and beryllium structural materials for nuclear weapons are produced in Mumbai. The final assembly of finished products takes place at the Bhabha Center.

The country's nuclear complex has allowed for the production of 65 to 100 nuclear and thermonuclear munitions to date, according to experts, although the presence of about 30 to 40 units is officially recognized, which is enough, as the country believes, to implement the "deterrence strategy" 31. So far, 6 nuclear weapons of various designs have been detonated at the test site in the Tar desert. The first was on May 18, 1974, with a capacity of 12 kilotons, and on May 11 and 13, 1998, another 5 with a capacity of up to 50 kilotons .

* * *

In conclusion, it should be noted that the sphere of defense technologies suffers from insufficient balance. For example, the highest level of software development has been achieved, and at the same time, there is a sharp lag behind its own radio electronics, where it could be applied. Programs for developing their own weapons and military equipment are still failing in their infancy. As a result, it is estimated that up to $ 2.5- $ 3 billion per year is still spent on defense imports (of which up to $ 1 billion is spent in Russia). In general, ensuring a reliable level of defense capability based on India's own military-industrial complex will be achieved no earlier than 2020, and most likely even later.


2 По: 3

4 Foreign Military Review, 2005, No. 1, p. 57; ibid., 2006, No. 2, p. 57.

5 Ibid., 2005, N 4, p. 75.

7 6 Zarubezhnoe voennoe obozrenie, 1997, No. 9, pp. 13-14.

8 SIPRI Yearbook 2004, Moscow, 2005, p. 699.

9 Zarubezhnoe voennoe obozrenie [Foreign Military Review], 2005, No. 1, p. 57.

10 SIPRI Yearbook 2004, pp. 699-700.

11 Zarubezhnoe voennoe obozrenie [Foreign Military Review], 2005, No. 5, p. 74.


13 Ibid. 141999/may/21isro.htm

16 15 SYPRY Yearbook 2002, Oxford, 2002, p. 560-561; Foreign Military Review, 2003, N 5, pp. 26-28.


18 Zarubezhnoe voennoe obozrenie [Foreign Military Review], 1999, No. 7, p. 58.

Shunkov V. N. 19 Rocket weapons. Minsk, 2003, p. (in Russian). 364 - 365, 406, 410 - 415; Zarubezhnoe voennoe obozrenie [Foreign Military Review], 2001, No. 9, pp. 38-40.

20 SIPRI Yearbook 2004.., p. 535.

21 Ibid., pp. 534-535.

22 Zarubezhnoe voennoe obozrenie, 2001, No. 10, p. 27; ibid., 2005, No. 4, p. 72.



25 www.tst/

26 www.tst/



29 Tanks and self-propelled installations, St. Petersburg, 2000, p. 80.




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