Libmonster ID: U.S.-1350
Author(s) of the publication: N. P. Starchenko

The article examines the everyday practices of the early modern gentry society of Volhynia, where the concept of honor as the main value of a nobleman most often came to light. Sensitivity to the slightest signs of disrespect that could raise honor in the eyes of the community, and the need to increase it, led to daily competition, and often conflict between formally equal members of the gentry class. At the same time, honor and its derivative (and sometimes synonymous) good fame were at the heart of the deterrent mechanisms by which the armed community managed to maintain a relative balance, because honor set the boundaries of the behavior characteristic of the gentry. Therefore, we analyze the strategies used by the gentry to demonstrate their own and play along with other people's honor.

The gentry society of Volhynia was a community of settled people, that is, who owned real estate, the unity of which was formally supported by administrative, judicial and political institutions. The inclusion of its representative in a wide network of connections - kinship, neighborly, friendly, client-created a system of interdependencies, allowed the community to control its members and keep their behavior within certain manufactured patterns. The idea of an ideal member of the community was cultivated as always acting openly and not concealing intentions, focusing without unnecessary reflection on law, custom and collective experience, and not on personal desires ("svovolnost").1. the basis of restraining mechanisms was honor and its derivative (and sometimes synonymous) good fame-leaders among the ethical concepts of the Rechpospolitan gentry society. At the same time, it was honor that pushed formally equal members of the gentry community to fierce competition

Natalia Starchenko-Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher at the Hrushevsky Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and Source Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Department of Monuments of the Princely and Cossack Eras), Researcher at the Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Department of Social History of the Department of History of Ukraine of the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times). E-mail:

1 For more information about the normative ethical system of the Ukrainian gentry and the specifics of its daily practices, see: Yakovenko N. on two mental stereotypes of the Ukrainian gentry: "the good husband" and "the evil husband". parallel world: a study on the history of representations and ideas in Ukraine of the XVI-XVII centuries. - K., 2002. - pp. 106-147. on the publicity of actions as an obligatory condition for a good nobleman, see: Starchenko N. publicity as a dominant cultural tradition (Volhynia in the second half of the XVI century) / / Mediaevalia ucrainica: mentality and history of ideas. - K., 1998. - Vol. 5. - pp. 68-81.

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in the struggle for external signs of prestige, because an increase in the honor of one, as according to the law of the United States, meant a decrease in it in the other. The struggle for status at the expense of others gives researchers a reason to speak of honor as a "public property" 2, where the place of the individual and his self-esteem were closely related to the opinion of the public. Carriers of this public identity, which is under constant threat, were extremely sensitive to the slightest insults or gestures that members of the community could perceive as such. The need to protect their reputation forced them to react immediately to them, thereby creating a conflict. That is, honor, on the one hand, created tension in society, and on the other-set the boundaries of the ethos, beyond which a respectable nobleman could not go. Therefore, I will try to demonstrate those everyday practices of the early modern gentry society of Volhynia, where honor most often came to life.

Associated with the sacred sphere (etymologically identical to grace in the Romance languages), honor seemed to the nobleman more important than life. Receiving by birthright a certain quota of it, which provided the bearer with a set of virtues, while at the same time obliging him to a certain, normative, way of behaving 4, the nobleman had to protect it at the slightest signs of Uraza for honor, as well as increase it - adding good fame to himself and his family.

Nikolai Rey, author of the life of a man of respect(1568), a model of the behavior of a perfect nobleman, noted: "and so, if you are a nobleman, live respectfully, as a nobleman should", which meant to behave in such a way that no one could accuse you of any uncharacteristic actions for a representative of the state.5 Therefore, it is not for nothing that the Volyn nobleman Mikhail Zagorovsky confirmed his venerable place in the community by referring not only to a good origin , but also to following the example of his ancestors-a pious life in harmony with "respectful" people:

"Prodkov their tsnotlivykh naslyaduyuchi, [...] with every good and plodding person in the world who is a teacher and a bozhne (meshkayuchi-N. S.), to every one who is a teacher and a co-worker in such matters " 6.

And Andrey Montovt, accused of a crime that tinged his honor, emphasized his good origin and appropriate upbringing, that

Stuart C. 2 Blood and Violence in Early Modern France. - Oxford; New York, 2006. - P. 73.

Peristiany J.G., Pitt-Rivers J. 3 Introduction // Honor and Grace in Anthropology / Ed. by J.G.Peristiany and J.Pitt-Rivers. - Cambridge, 1992. - P. 2.

4 let us draw attention, in particular, to the case of the Lutsk townspeople with the nobleman Lukash Lapa, a servant of Stanislav Graevsky, who was accused of robbery ("robber's fault"); the commissioner of the appealed person stated that he was a respectful nobleman, and "because the nobleman is not guilty of that" (see: Central State Historical Archive Ukraine, Kiev (hereinafter-CDIAC of Ukraine). - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 13. - Ark. 259 zv. - 261 zv.); "having become proud of all of you, what belongs to a chaste nobleman to hide" (see: Ibid. - Spr. 55. - Ark. 666 zv.). For the chivalrous ethos as the foundation of a noble identity, see: Baczewski S. Szlachectwo: Studium z dziejów idei w piśmiennictwie polskim: Druga połowa XVI wieku-XVII wiek. - Lublin, 2009.

Rej M. 5 Żywot człowieka poczciwego: W 2 t. / Oprac. J.Krzyżanowski. - Wrocław, 2003. - S. 198 ("A tak, jesliżeś ślachcic, żywże poczciwie, jako na ślachcica przysłusze").

6 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 26. - Arc. 108. this emphasis on good behavior, meanwhile, did not prevent the conflict between Mikhail and his own brother, who paid with his life in this dispute, and later-a fierce legal dispute with his mother for the estate.

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they served as the foundation of his "polite" life and increased attention to good fame:

"And Pan Montolt, being a respectable cholovek, in a courteous house with the blood of the gentry from the zatsny relatives, whom the pans used to be happy with the pans, harvests and courteous vyhovanyi from them, and to all the tsnot vytsvichony, because se so sprosny uchinkov from his prodkovs did not visit, so tezh and he himself did not brydit them, ale tenacious courteous in all bachna, he preserves the good things of his glory. " 7

The charge of misbehavior marked the nobleman as a person "killed in deference" or "killed in deference to zgvaltson8", and thus obliged him to clear himself of reproaches before the community. In this battle for the maintenance of honor, its participants were extremely vulnerable to the slightest signs of disrespect. An insult could be either an accusation of non-compliance with certain ethical norms inherent in a "good" nobleman, or any action or word perceived as offensive. Andrzej Fritsch-Modrzewski, the author of a treatise aimed at improving the structure of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and noble customs, gave a brilliant satirical sketch of such a noble instruction:

"There are many people of this kind who are grievously offended for the slightest reason: with one word that they consider themselves seriously offended( although the one who said it meant something completely different), with the fact that someone whistled, snored, gnashed his teeth, chewed his nails, opened his mouth, grimaced,he frowned, stared intently, squinted, or carelessly took off his cap, did not respond in this way, but gave his hand, in a word - with every movement or gesture that, as they believe,is being done over them. " 9

The most offensive thing for a nobleman was the elevation of his status ("joke about nobility", "nagana of nobility") - belonging to the gentry class by right of blood 10, that is, birth from noble fathers, which usually surfaced in a conflict situation: "I don't know what kind of wickedness and wickedness I had, for every reason, I made me feel polite, I wasn't a courteous nobleman." 11

7 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 19. - Arc. 191.

8 ibid. - F. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 9. - Ark. 223 zv.

Frycz Modrzewski A. 9 O poprawie Rzeczypospolitej księgi czwore / Oprac. M.Korolko. - Piotrków Trybunalski, 2003. - S. 221-222 ("Iest ich wiele takiego przyrodzenia, którzy z maluczkiej rzeczy łacno biorą wielkie obrażenia. Z leda słówieczka, którym mnimają się być dotknionymi (chocia by on kto je mówił chciałby daleko inaczej rozumieć) z świstania, z chrapania, zębów ściskania, paznokcia gryzienia, z otworzenia ust, zakrzywienia, marszczenia, z pilnego zapatrzania, oczu zamrużania, z niedbałości abo w zdejmowaniu czapki, abo w rozmowie, abo w dawaniu ręki; na ostatek każdego kiwania, mrugania, abo inszej postawy, o której tak rozumieją, żeby ich wzgardę znaczyła").

10 for the genesis of the idea of "chivalrous blood" as the foundation of nobility, see: Baczewski S. Szlachectwo: Studium z dziejów idei w piśmiennictwie polskim ... See, for example, the complaint of Anton Zabolotsky against Princes Janusz and Stanislav Voronetsky: "here before the court of your Grace and before the great people of zatsny aloud, without taking into account the court of your Grace, I, a courteous nobleman, they did not win anything, words were discourteous and full of cabinet bargaining, not a lot and simple cotton, a digger and a plowman, they called me " (see: CDIAK of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 44. - Ark. 659).

11 ibid. - Spr. 26. - Ark. 706 sv.

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The restoration of the good name of the accused of non-Shliakheti provided for a legal procedure of "deduction of nobility", where two blood relatives on the part of the father and mother had to testify under oath in court the "correctness" of the origin of the appealed person (II Lithuanian Statute, sec. 3, art. 16) 12. Sometimes a nobleman who did not settle in Volhynia filed an extract with the court from the office of the district where his family had real estate, and thus confirmed his nobility. However, there are cases of "clearing" of charges under a simplified scenario, where representatives of the Volyn gentry confirmed their acquaintance with the appealed person and members of his family. For example, prominent generals Krysztof Schuka, Philipp Verleta, and the nobleman Stanislav Yankovsky (both of very dubious origin for Volhynia) made a confession about Nikolai Budorozsky as a truthful nobleman, in which they focused on such details: they "know well and know the village of his father, the celestial Pan Pashka Budorozsky in Budorozha"; they have known him for more than seven years, when he began his service with Nikolai Korchovsky, from whom during this time he did not "lag behind" (the fact of constant service should have been a positive characteristic); his two brothers-Samoyl and Demyan - "under the prince, the voivode of Kiev, they are well known, and the lords of Budoroz were recommended to be replaced by the gentry of utstivy" 13.

On another occasion, Kondrat Pruschinsky, a servant of Prince Konstantin Ostrogsky, whose nobility was questioned by some Toporovskys, was guaranteed the true gentry origin by other princely servants who testified that he "eats courteous and well-known in Poland [...] under our sumnen and bodily oath" 14. Moreover, Konstantin Ostrogsky himself, arriving at the office, he said that about Pruschinsky " a slave, izh from oyts and from the uterus izh is suave." It is likely that the servant's "nagana of nobility" was also directed against his master. Let us pay attention to an insulting remark addressed to Lev Vasilyevich Lesota, a servant of Prince Bogush Koretsky, which, however, fell into the prince himself:

"I was filled with my own will, and my words were uncivil to the mercy of Prince Koretsky, my master, Movil: "So, dey, the prince of Koretsky lotr himself, and the servants of the Lotr and the villains are in him." On that crooked hand of his grace, he repairs our pan and us, the servants of his grace. " 15

In response to the" joke about nobility", the offended person could start a case against the offender for disgracing a good name. So, the servant of Prince Yefim Koretsky Stanislav Kandyba called to the royal court Kirdeeva-Mylskaya Magdalena Skuminovna Tyshkevichevna, who allegedly incited her son-in-law to hurt him. They tried to fix the case out of court with the mediation of friends who gathered in the house of the Zemstvo judge Fyodor Chaplych-Shpanovsky.

12 Further down the text-references to sections and articles II of the Lithuanian Charter.

13 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 56. - Arc. 423.

14 Ibid. - Ark. 540.

15 ibid. - Spr. 11. - Ark. 66 sv.

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Therefore, "out of the bargain and pomerkovany prifridsky" in the presence of three nobles, the lady declared her innocence of publicly insulting Kandyba, and also that she recognized him as a respectful nobleman.:

"Your Grace, Pan Stanislaw Kandybo, pozval me zvvom his royal graces on the court at the sejm now blizko prishlyi, ostensibly-x I mel my son-in-law Pan Bogdan Podzbipete roskazyvat words uncivil and obrazlivymi dobroy glory of your on you torgatis and neshlyakhet people byt povedayet, then, dey, I to my son-in-law that chiniti didn't show up and about that I do not see and I myself am Nikoli such good glory of your grace nor before Kim not movila, alle yak before you your grace mela, so now the same about your mercy rozumiyu, izh your grace is a respectable nobleman " 16.

And in response to the protest of Anton Vizgerd-Zabolotsky, introduced in the Lutsk Grod, against Princes Janusz and Stanislav Voronetsky, who publicly, in front of the court and many people, called him "a netsnota and a simple clap, a digger and a plowman", the court ordered him to call the offenders to insult 17.

An appeal against the birth of a person out of wedlock is closely related to the accusation of non-shlyakhet origin. "Scurvy son", "son of an unclean bed", "son of a filthy womb" - these curses often subsided between the "shameful" words exchanged by the parties to conflicts. The ban on the use of offensive words in court, and therefore the substitution of euphemisms for swearing in court records, did not apply to this type of denigration of the enemy, possibly because it bordered on the "nagana" (substitution) of nobility.

According to legal regulations, a child born out of a relationship not sanctified by the church was considered illegitimate (bencart); even if later cohabitants married, children born before and after were treated as bankarts. The husband, having recognized the newborn child as his own, could not later give it up "with a yell and with anger" against her or his wife, " for having once recognized him for his child, having him with him in his house, he recognized his tolerance for his child; so then he should not act evil." mayet and may not, kgdy d obromu nothing evil and disrespectful in his house tolerate not godittsa "(sec. 3, art. 25). However, the discipline of the flock by the Orthodox Church lagged behind legislative initiatives - the church model of marriage as a sacrament coexisted with the secular one, which considered it as a contract of the parties. It is not known how widespread the practice of unmarried marriages was in Volhynia, but it is obvious that for the gentry community, the legitimation act that turned brides into spouses was a wedding, without which even pre-married couples could not begin to live together 18. divorces, which are often mentioned, often occur

16 ibid. - Spr. 26. - Ark. 1074 sv. - 1076 sv.

17 ibid. - Spr. 44. - Ark. 658 zv. - 659.

Levitsky O. 18 Cherty semeynogo byta v Yugo-Zapadnoy Rusi v XVI-XVII vv. [Features of family life in South-Western Russia in the XVI-XVII centuries] / / Archive of South-Western Russia, published by the Temporary Commission for the analysis of ancient acts. - K., 1909. - Part 8. - Vol. III: Acts on marriage law and family life in South-Western Russia in the XVI-XVII centuries-pp. 1-120. this is evidenced, in particular, by the fact that the wedding did not have a well-established place among the rituals that traditionally legitimized the appearance of a married couple.

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in the court books, they were perceived as a termination of the agreement, and were held with the participation of friends, through whom property problems were resolved and before whom each of the spouses declared the other free from obligations and allowed to remarry in the future. Permission for divorce from ecclesiastics was often formal, as evidenced by two high-profile cases involving the failure to recognize the legality of the dissolution of the marital relationship of Prince Andrey Kurbsky with Maria Golshanskaya and Vasily Zagorovsky with Princess Marusha Zbarazhskaya. 19 Therefore, the secular model of marriage, if not dominant among the Volhynian gentry,at least it was a respectful competition with the church. Accordingly, the statutory designation of the benchart was supported by everyday practices.

A nobleman who publicly questioned the" purity "of the birth of another, but could not prove this fact, had to admit his guilt before the court with words that stained his own honor:" If I changed you, if you were not the son of a clean bed, I lied to you like a dog "(Sec. 3, art. 23). The culprit, who refused to act in accordance with the statutory norm, was to be held in custody until he publicly admits his lie. According to another legal norm, at the beginning of the trial, the offender could withdraw his accusations of non-shlyakhetstvo or other insults inflicted on his opponent, after which everything said should not harm the good reputation of the offended person and did not require him to prove the falsity of the charges (sec. 3, art. 22).

Various modifications of the "unclean bed son" expletive often surfaced in conflicts between other offensive words or violent acts. For example, Bogush Liplensky complained about Fyodor Gulevich, who, after accidentally shooting Liplensky, rushed to him with a cord and "began to shame me with words like tiny ones, call me an evil mother's son and reprimand me, threatening and reprimanding me on my throat, I don't know what, to take revenge20. Usually such insults were not interpreted so respectfully as to become the subject of legal disputes to restore a good name, as opposed to charges of non-shlyakhetstvo. As a rule, the nobleman responded to them differently-through acts of revenge on the offender.

However, I received a rather unusual response to such insults-a letter from relatives on the mother's side of the appealed person, who certified her good behavior, and therefore the true nobility of her son. It was, however, about Nikolai Gannibelovich, the son of the merchant Gannibel Vloch, whose belonging to the gentry class was still questionable,which led to such an atypically respectful reaction to the widespread abuse. 21

Otherwise, Vladimir podstarosta Fyodor Zagorovsky, having committed a "nagana of nobility" to Bogush Hare, simultaneously pointed out his illegitimate birth:

"That Hare is not equal to me in the gentry, [ ... ] ale being simple I will become, neshlyakhtichom, about that zo me can not fix, for there is a neshlyakhtichom. And besides, the son of an unclean bed, for he has given birth to a Tureisk " 22.

19 see: Erusalimsky K. Istoriya odnogo razveda: Kurbsky i Golshanskaya [The history of one Intelligence Agency: Kurbsky and Golshanskaya]. - K., 2003. - Vip. 3. - pp. 170-171.

20 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 19. - Arc. 384 zv. - 385.

21 ibid. - Spr. 56. - Ark. 221-222.

22 ibid. - Spr. 53. - Ark. 127. Bogush was the son of a nobleman who, having lost his ancestral home

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Zagorovsky's statement was a response to the accusations of his servants in the secret murder of the hare's son, Nikolai. An appeal for such a crime was perceived as an insult to the honor of the nobleman. Therefore, protecting his servants from responsibility, whose actions were most likely the final act of a long conflict with the murdered person, 23 podstarosta sorted out the responsibility for their act on himself, then was immediately subjected for honor (it is quite possible that the servants committed the crime on his own orders). However, when Zayats brought the case to the zemstvo court, Zagorovsky retracted his words:

"O uschiplivye words, ostensibly Pan Zaetsovi zadanyi, pan podstarostiy, spravuyuchisya, povedil, but sya to such zadanya words does not know and ovshem Pan Zaets for the good and tsnotlivogo, good mother son rozumiet24.

However, it is unlikely that the very fact of refusal before the court, outside the wider circle of the gentry (those present at this act were not mentioned), could quite reanimate uraza for the honor of the hare. In this story, the positions of counterparties in the gentry community were too inappropriate-Zagorovsky as a member of the lord's family, related to the Sangushki, Ostrog, Zbarazh, Chetvertinsky princes, and Hare, who in his youth in separate documents was called the boyar / zemyanin of the Sangushkovs. 25 therefore, having offended the hare, and therefore renouncing his words, even to shame and acting within the legal framework, Vladimirsky Podstarosta emphasized the difference in status between himself and the opponent 26. Zagorovsky's position was similar to the situation with the refusal to fight, played out in a way that was perceived as a sign of contempt. This was also understood by Zayats, who did not agree with the court decree that released Zagorovsky from responsibility, and demanded an appeal: "I myself, with all my courteous descendants, Mr. podstarosty, even at Sedech's trial, forgot the word kommersant"27.

the estate that held the land from Prince Fyodor Sangushka. The indication of the birth in the Sangushkov estate of Turiysk indirectly confirmed the illegitimate (from the prince) birth of a hare. At the time of the charge of non - Shlyakhetism, he had already managed, through the service of the Sangushkas, and later-Konstantin Ostrozhsky, to return both the family estate and buy other real estate, thereby confidently entering the Volhynia Shlyakheti corporation. He also demonstrated his independent position in a court case with the Sangushkovna princesses and their husbands, who tried to take away the estate that he held by appointment in a certain amount of money. Such records were made to the servants of Panama, who provided land as payment for service, most often maintaining it until the master or his descendants gave a fixed amount of money in the event that the owner of the land did not need official services. Therefore, attempts by the princesses to take away the estate from the hare under the pretext that they no longer need him as a servant, came across his categorical refusal until the condition is fulfilled. For more information about this man, who was actively engaged in the practice of law, whose footsteps were followed by his children, asserting their position through work in the judicial chancery, see: Starchenko N. Umotsirovannye-procurators-buddies: who are they? (Formation of the Institute of Advocacy in Volhynia at the end of the XVI century) / / Society: Almanac of Social History. - K., 2002. - Vip. 1. - p. 111-144.

23 usually, it didn't often come to murder in conflicts, because the purpose of aggression in the gentry environment was not to physically destroy the enemy, but to disgrace him, and thereby force him to make certain concessions. The extreme forms of violence indicated that the situation had reached a dead end. And that it was about revenge indicate the circumstances of the death of Nicholas-the body was found naked in the river. Getting rid of clothes was an element of disgrace, and drowning the body was associated with an unkind death.

24 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 27. - Op. 1. - Spr. 11. - Arc. 178.

25 this meant that a person was not a full member of the noble community, because he had property not from the king, but from a private person - pan - as payment under certain conditions for service.

26 see Analysis of such refusals as an insult to honor: Bourdieu P. Practical meaning, Moscow; Saint Petersburg, 2001, pp. 196-197, 207-208.

27 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 27. - Op. 1. - Spr. 11. - Arc. 178.

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Let's pay attention to a similar case, where, however, the positions of the conflicting parties were relatively equal, and the intentions were most likely aimed at understanding. Therefore, Dmitry Yalovitsky, who was challenged in the assignment of verbal insult to Mikhail Myshka-Varkovsky, publicly retracted his words, saying that he did not want to offend:

"Pan Yalovitsky, standing before us, when all the people were there, on the rochki of the present zgromazhonykh, [ ... ] zoznal, izh on his mercy of Pan Volynsky words pinched her did not trade and against the good fame of his mercy did not move anyone and ovshem about his mercy as about choloviku courteous rozumim, and as in the native zatsny, and the actions of the polite ones do not get carried away by anyone."

Mishka-Varkovsky, whose good reputation was restored through the public intoxication of the enemy, as a sign of reconciliation released his abuser from the oath prescribed by the tribunal decree, which he had to confirm the absence of evil intentions. An oath, as the most common method of judicial proof, was considered undesirable for a Christian, especially since in this case Yalovitsky had to swear to a very dubious statement. In conclusion, the court stated that all these actions should not damage the honor of both parties: "it does not harm anything that is polite to both parties28.

Maintaining "deference" in such public actions-apologies by both sides-both the previously offended, whose good reputation was being restored, and the one who resorted to public recognition of her unfair actions, which could have damaged her honor-was an extremely important condition for stopping the escalation of hostility 29: "I'm sorry, I'm polite, without This was facilitated by certain concessions, which were usually resorted to by an apologetic nobleman, thereby restoring the balance between "courtesy" (for example, the dismissal of Yalovitsky from the oath).

Using the example of these two seemingly similar cases, we can see what complex games with honor took place outside of the generally standardized information that falls into the hands of the researcher. The course of events in both cases is the same, however, in one of them the positions of the parties were equalized, and in the second-the counterparty felt additionally offended. The recordings could not, in particular, record intonations and gestures, which were extremely important in disputes where honor was at stake.

Therefore, perhaps the most common way to restore "respect"in the community, whose members considered it an extremely important asset ("shlyakhtichevy ny mashogo dorozhshiy, yak utsivost" 31), which required constant protection / return/

28 ibid. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 49. - Ark. 843.

29 see: dolgaya L. The idea of "honor" in Innokenty Gizel's treatise "Peace with God to a Man" / / Socium: Almanac of Social History. - K., 2005. - Vip. 5. - p. 249-259.

30 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 49. - Arc. 412 zv.

31 ibid. - Spr. 54. - Ark. 469.

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multiplying by 32, was revenge. It has taken many different forms, but the goal is always the same-to bring shame / harm in return and thereby restore the disturbed balance. Symbolic acts of revenge primarily included verbal actions (swearing, threats to cause harm of various kinds, etc.). Let's pay attention to the tirade of Vasily Gulevich, addressed to the already well-known Bogush hare: "on inshom revenge toby will be skura zodran, and that rain, izh tobe will be cut off, and will you fall, dey, we are in the hands, I, dey, you [ ... ] on the rib pull " 33.

Swearing was usually accompanied by a number of well-established gestures-pulling out a beard or hair 34, tearing off a headdress, beating with the help of "neritsar" objects 35. A knight's weapon was considered a saber, a sword, a cord 36, and a cue belonged to an uncharacteristic one ("an unlucky knight's armor, a cue knocked down and smashed" 37;" a courteous nobleman, so like one bezetsnika bezvednoe batons to beat roskazal " 38), mace, pugi ("boasted of me to beat with buttons" 39), stromki ("I will give your master a postoronok dartovany, toads strangled him" 40), etc. Thus, Bogdan Knyagininsky complained about Jan Montovt, who" filled his oxen with indecent, innocent quarrels, shouted discourteous words, which we shkodyat because of my politeness, and wanted to beat me, dey, with clubs " 41.

Andrei Nemirich's complaint against judge Demyan Pavlovich of Grodno, who was going to beat him with a mace, contains a colorful sketch of the gentry's communication.:

"Пан Павлович, дей, не ведати для чого, маючи булаву в руках, крыкнул на мене: "Don't nod, same, dey, head, Nemirichu, bo, dey, I'll give you that mace in the head, same, dey, don't get up." I-m povedil, same me volno head ruhati, bo cholovek, poki is alive, head and vsim themselves rushayet, and if you die, teda themselves rushat can not " 42.

32 A contemporary of our heroes, the Gascon Chevalier Blaise de Montluc (1501-1577), represented honor as a ladder, a position on which it was necessary to acquire and maintain at the cost of constant hard effort: "if you strive to climb to the top of the ladder of honor, do not stop in the middle, but try to climb up step by step, without hoping that your reputation lasts as long as you deserve it; you will make a mistake and get a new challenger ahead of you if you can't protect it, trying to do it better and better every time "(cit. for: Novoselov V. The last argument of honor: The Duel in France in the XVI-early XVII century. Saint Petersburg, 2006, p. 77). Div. takozhe: Gendrikov V. Ponyatie chesti u Montluk i Montaigne (K voprosu o samosoznanii frantsuzskogo dvoryanstva v XVI v.) [The concept of honor in Montluk and Montaigne (On the question of the self - consciousness of the French nobility in the XVI century)]. - 1989. - Issue 52. - pp. 235-236.

33 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 13. - Arc. 439 zv.

34 So, Stanislav Vorysky, having run into the Tulich estate, the constable Stanislav Yasinsky "became the first to tear my beard and beat me by sight" (CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 19. - Ark. 405).

35 For a wide list of items that were marked as offensive to honor if they beat a nobleman, see In the third Lithuanian Charter, section 11, art. 27.

36 other weapons (firearms and a bow) were marked as treacherous, Neritsar:"the KGB sent archers, boyars and servants of its own to the next inquisition of Mr. Kirdeev [...] with an insha traitorous armor." "Sekerka" is called "undeveloped armor" (CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 46. - Ark. 133).

37 ibid. - Spr. 43. - Ark. 37.

38 ibid. - Spr. 49. - Arc. 305 sv.

39 ibid. - F. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 8. - Ark. 137 zv.; "polichkoval, saber and pugoyu beat" (div.: Ibid. - Spr. 10. - Ark. 39 zv.).

40 ibid. - Spr. 12. - Ark. 451.

41 ibid. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 10. - Ark. 186 zv.

42 ibid. - F. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 22. - Ark. 462 zv. - 464.

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Among the offensive gestures, you can also notice the exposure of the buttocks, which was quite common in the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.:

"So the servants and subjects, and the lords of their lords, spoke such dreadful words, which they met before your grace and told such dreadful stories, for near the windows of the hut, her servants, lifting their skirts on their heads, pointed out the backs, which there were about thirty persons in them." 44

There were also occasional situational demonstrations,such as the hanging of "heroes" as a threat to burn down the estate, 45 or bringing a dead pig into the enemy's yard on a stretcher:

"I ordered kgvaltovna to go to my yard and brought the boar bitch with me on her noses, which the bitch took out to kgvaltovna in my yard and put on the table under the cold water" 46.

There were also "professionally" colored offensive gestures. Thus, one of the main duties of the wozniks was to serve claims appealed to the court. Those who perceived the trial as an insult to their honor directed their own aggression at the situational intermediary between them and the enemy-vozny and the witnesses in front of him 47. In addition to frequent cases of beating judicial commissioners, a common way of ignoring Vozny, recorded throughout the entire Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, was to force him to swallow the claim 48. we have several vivid episodes. So, Hatsko Chuvat complained about Demyan Gulevich's wife, who threw a lawsuit under the bench, and when Vozniy and the nobles went to the gate, called the servants and subjects to "kgvalt":

"Itself with a great voice zavolala, kazala voznomu that call zesti, and in that, dey, hour, kladuchi voznomu that call kgvaltom at the mouth, a tooth was knocked out and a beard was torn out, which sign-call zhvanyy, krovyu and hair from the beard of the voznogo torn out, to whom [ ... ] we send"49.

On another occasion, Wozny complained about being called in

"I mentioned sheets and copies of mni, voznomu, in guba pkhal and kazal

Wislicz T. 43 Gest obrażliwy na wsi polskiej w XVII i XVIII wieku // Przegląd Historyczny. - 1997. - T.LXXXVIII. - Z. 3/4. - S. 417-425. the use of such a gesture was typical for representatives of the lower classes.

44 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 17. - Arc. 130-131.

45 "He has hung a broom, a firebrand, and a cue over the gates of my courtyard, in which case, dey, I have a crookedness, a Skoda, and a considerable diet for my health" (div.: Tam. samo. - Spr. 7. - Ark. 201 zv.).

46 ibid. - Spr. 17. - Ark. 130-131.

47 " I, the vozny, the messenger of the rite, and the sides of the first-named soromotil, traded words with uncivil words against us, and I did not take the rite sheets and kopecks up to my hands, and I struck with a cue on my hands, on the leaves and on the kopecks, and then I beat the sides with the same cue, and for the rest not one tym, ale and other kiimi z servants their us z dvora knocked out", - ish svidchennyakh voznogo Bogdan Knyagininsky (div.: There samo. - f. 25. - Spr. 11. - Ark. 538 zv. - 540).

Mrukówna J. 48 O zmuszaniu woŻnego do połykania pozwu // Czasopismo Prawno-Historyczne. - 1970. - T.XXII. - Z. 2. - S. 159-168.

49 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 17. - Arc. 37 zv.

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them eat, chogo, dey, I not zvyk chiniti, and nor sya on that vrod, aby-x chalk sheets eat, bo will bread abo inshee yakie pokarmy, anizh sheets, eat " 50.

A common method of revenge was causing damage to the enemy's farm due to trampling crops, violating inter-network boundaries, shaking off fruit trees or seizing a wide variety of property objects. Thus, Mathis Komnatsky complained to Ivan Volynets and his sons about the tasks of Skoda, in particular, "two geese from the house took and robbed, not from need, Anas with a fit, just think about the bitterness" 51. such actions could be practiced as a crime against property, but they were usually perceived by the gentry community in categories insults for the honor of the owner: "Sobe from me the offense is changed, I'm on maetnost kgvaltovne naezhchali, kgvalty, fights and shkody repaired"52. This is also evidenced by the threats, where it was noted that revenge would cover not only the enemy's person, but also her property: "They were heard so on our throats, as well as on the maetnost, obetsuya zomstiti53. Therefore, the restoration of justice through the payment of compensation for the damage caused was often accompanied by a symbolic act-an apology for the offense. So, Nikolai Murinovich, Dorogostaisky viceroy of Nikolai Monvid Dorogostaisky, recognized that Prince Janusz Chertoryisky, who was called by his master to the court about the losses committed by the subject, compensated them without resorting to judicial proceedings, and finally had to excuse Dorogostaisky for the insult: "my lord, from his grace Prince Janusz obizhon is, teds His grace, Prince Janusz, may his grace, my Lord, may God grant it, may his grace make me wise and excuse me. " 54

Often the cause of conflict could be an insignificant gesture, such as, for example, directed to the Volhynian nobleman Martin Kunat "niyakoesh slovo, mezhi lyudma u movenyu nezvykly", "shvank", from the nobleman from the Kiev voivodeship Andrey Streletsky 55. this teasing of details indicated not so much the emotional vulnerability of the nobility, 56 but a particularly vigilant attention to matters of honor. After all, not only the offended person, but above all the community, could evaluate an insignificant action as a disgrace for" deference", so by ignoring it, the nobleman risked getting infected with the perception of his refusal to answer as a manifestation of weakness.

It was the szlachta corporation that acted as the main arbiter in matters of honor, which was appealed to in teasing situations. So, at the amicable trial of Adam Nesvitsky with Janusz Ugrinovsky, when the judges moved on to reflect on the decree, one of the witnesses on Nesvitsky's side, Benedikt

50 ibid. - F. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 6. - Ark. 269.

51 ibid. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 48 . - 116 sv.

52 ibid. - Spr. 43. - Ark. 284.

53 ibid. - Spr. 53. - Ark. 50. thus, Lazar Ivanitsky complained about Lavrin Ivanitsky about the harm he caused, the imprisonment and beating of a servant, and also that when Lazar sent a letter to him with a reminder that" that servant of mine, Grigory, let go of his luck", Lavrin " from- he threatened me for the wozniak, and gave me good counsel for my health and health " (see: Ibid. - f. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 19. - Ark. 827 zv.).

54 ibid. - Spr. 23. - Arc. 4-4 sv.

55 ibid. - Spr. 15. - Arc. 191 sv.

White S. D. 56 Anger and Politics: History and Anthropology. Interdisciplinary research at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries-St. Petersburg, 2006, pp. 33-69.

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Solonevsky complained bitterly about Ugrinovsky, who insulted him with words that hurt his honor. Also, yak zauvazhuvav skrivdzheniy: "Chogo, would xia, dey, mi him patience not suited, and then vkladam on your mercy." In his defense, the offender noted that he did not intend to offend Solonevsky and does not know what it is about.:

"To Pan Benadyktu (Solonevskomu - N. S.) nichogo shkodlivogo and pinching his good fame did not move and did not see, dey, about what would be sia on me chalk skarzhit, estli about that, shto esmi him moved in tyi words, izh in the speech of Pan Nesvetsky obscenely against me moved, [ ... ] about that's not what my brother cares about. And inshogo nichogo shkodlivogo I-m esmi not movil so and not movlyu him, shto would it obrazhat melo".

The judges, having reacted negatively to Ugrinovsky's act ("not having him for a good deed"), recognized that those words should not harm Solonevsky: "they have seen Mr. Benadykt, and the word that Mr. Ugrinovsky recognized before them does not harm him and will not harm him." Therefore, the offended person testified to the course of this case and the verdict of the amicable judges before Vozny and the gentry, and also stated that since Ugrinovsky recognized his unwillingness to offend him (which in fact meant refusing to previously express it), he also stopped it. Finally, however, Solonevsky once again stated that all his testimony at the amicable trial was "courteous":

"Then I listened, learned, and decently moved, and the princes of their mercy recognized him, and I did not want enough of all the roses before them, but I did not move anything obscene." 57

Members of the gentry community were not only outside spectators and arbitrators, before whom the performance of maintaining honor was played out, but also its participants, who transmitted insults or threats, thereby provoking the party to respond to them. When the situation turned into a threatening phase for counterparties and the community's peace of mind, they acted as intermediaries who actively sought ways to understand.

In the complex of ideas about noble behavior, based on the presence of honor in its bearers, special weight was attached to the word of a nobleman, the observance of which since the Middle Ages has been considered one of the fundamental chivalrous virtues: "noble words can never be canceled, and as the wind has no power over a rock, so a respectful person's mouth is neither hop nor anger." 58. the gift of the word was devoid of a religious aspect, unlike, say, the oath, where the guarantor of obligations was God himself, and the violator, accordingly, was threatened with heavenly punishment. The only guarantee of the gentry's word could be a good name. according to the researchers, with the appearance of the "word" as a manifestation of a separate ethos, we can talk about the appearance of a state of consciousness.

57 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 11. - Arc. 346 zv. - 347.

Górnicki Ł. 58 Dworzanin polski // Pisma: W 2 t. / Wyd. R.Pollak. - Warszawa, 1961. - T.II. - S. 209- 211 ("Ślacheckie słowa nigdy odmienne być nie mają, a jako skałą wiatr nie władza, tak poczciwego człowieka usty ani chmiel, ani gniew, ani żal chybać nie ma").

Flori J. 59 Rycerze i rycerstwo w średniowieczu / Przekł. E.Trojańska. - Poznan, 2003. - S. 153-155.

page 36

A noble word was enough in a number of extremely important life situations. Here is how representatives of the gentry community were characterized in one of the cases:"those who, feeling that they were guilty of being gentry, tried to tell the truth in every place"60 ("I, having and hiding my courteous word of gentry" 61).

This did not mean that the nobleman always followed through on his promise. In court complaints, quite often a violation of obligations given under the"respectful word of the gentry"is recorded. It happened, though extremely rarely, that such incidents became the basis for court cases, for example, between Dmitry Yalovitsky and Pavel Koritensky, where it was said "about this hand and about the spoken word of a certain person" 62. We also pay attention to the claim to the Royal Court in the complaint of Grigory Volodkovich against Roman Goysky" about the insincere word of a pochtivy , prisegi and rukodanya and neuchinenya full of records from the foretold Mr. Gosky " 63. let me remind you that we were talking about arrangements for the marriage of Roman's daughter with Volodkovich, which were arranged on the initiative of Gosky by the hands of his friends and even patron - Prince Konstantin Ostrozhsky. However, Volodkovich's future father-in-law is generous with promises ("obetsuya [obetsuya]... I am most gracious and grateful"), who seems to have been driven in the subsequent stages by the desire to minimize the payment of dowry, delayed the case for two years.64

Eloquent about the importance of the gentry word is the complaint of Mrs. Marina Yakovitskaya against Vasily Yakovlevich Yakovitsky for violating the obligations given under the friendly agreement. He promised to voluntarily go to prison for 8 weeks ("locked up"), and if he did not fulfill the promise, "the chalk will execute the noble word" 65. it is likely that in this case the concept of losing the noble word was directly related to the noble honor.

However, such trials, if they started, usually ended outside the walls of the court, in the circle of friends, which became a kind of guarantee of compliance with agreements. In the end, the law did not provide for liability for non-compliance of the behavior of a nobleman with the ideal instructions of the ethos. But the nobleman himself still dealt with the problem of maintaining his good fame among the public. After all, it was a significant part of the symbolic capital accumulated by the ancestors, the family and the person itself.

The importance of good fame in the gentry community is illustrated by proverbs that were found among the materials of a public nature in 1570-1580: "the ancient proverb:" do not be near the eye and good fame ""66;" we have such a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth proverb that demonstrates: "Do not play with glory, faith and eye, because

60 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 27. - Op. 1. - Spr. 12. - Arc. 75-78 zv.

61 ibid. - F. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 14. - Ark. 46.

62 ibid. - Spr. 16. - Arc. 196 zv. - 197 zv.

63 ibid. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 31. - Ark. 154 zv. - 155 zv.

64 Archive of South-Western Russia, published by the Provisional Commission for the Analysis of Ancient Acts. - Part 8. - Vol. III. - pp. 356-359.

65 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 28. - Op. 1. - Spr. 11. - Arc. 101.

66 Diariusze sejmowe r. 1585 / Wyd. A.Czuczyński // Scriptores rerum Polonicarum. - Kraków, 1901. - T.XVIII. - S. 199 ("Dawna przypowieść: "Około oka a sławy dobrej nie dłub"").

page 37

it is impossible to touch those three things without breaking them "" 67. This is also an analog: "on other people's goods - hands, on letters-eyes, on glory-do not raise your tongue" 68.

It should also be noted that all social games with honor were based on the recognition of at least the apparent equality of members of the noble community among themselves, where refusal to answer the challenge threatened the person with a lower status.: "I won't take you for an equal." Let us pay attention to the statement of an ordinary nobleman Andrey Vilgorsky, a servant of the Kiev castellan Ivan Chaplych-Shpanovsky, in response to the insult of the Kremenets subdistrict by Adam Bogovitin, that is, a person who occupied the zemstvo government and thus got out of the way of the nobles as a whole, and whose property status was not comparable to that of the complainer:

"Podkomory kremyanetsky mene, choloveka suave, nikgdy on the good glory is not smeared, slovo on the good glory uschyplivemi skalyaty pochav, movyachi, same you estes zdraitsa and netsnota. I, having felt myself in my propriety, and having called in front of such a great orshak the people of zatsny were fed modestly to such fanciful and obscene words of Pan podkomoroy, I told them: "My dear pan podkomoryj, okrom vryadu, who is your Grace as a cholovek zatsny maesh, ale in the native land as a poor nobleman is your Grace's equal "" 69.

This statement surprisingly echoes the remark of Szymon Starowolski, author of the treatise "reforming Polish customs" (1650), who pointed out the equality of opportunities in achieving the honor and perfection of each of the gentry community:

"We, who have the governments of the Rech-Pospolitik on us, who live constantly on the lord's side, who bathe in the royal caress, are not proud of the poorer gentry who sit in their homes, do not consider ourselves better or more important than it, because the gates are equally open to us all to virtue and honors."70

Similarly, the District General Ivan Pokoshchovsky, who was accused of making a false confession at Groda, also spoke out in this way:

"I, cholovek uchstyv, feel good in that, izh, live in the world pobozhne, and my stomach ach thin, lech uchstyv, gentry, in fear of God provazhu" 71.

67 Pisma polityczne z czasów pierwszego bezkrólewia / Wyd. J.Czubek. - Kraków, 1906. - S. 568 ("U nas w Polszcze ona pospolita przypowieść to pokazuje: "Sławą, wiarą a okiem nie graj, bo te trzy rzeczy bez naruszenia dotykane być nie mogą"").

68 Starożytne przypowieści z XV, XVI i XVII wieku / Zebr. i wyd. K. W.Wojcicki. - Warszawa, 1836. - S. 83 ("Na cudze dobra ręki, na kartę oka, na sławe języka nie ruszaj").

69 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 44. - Arc. 460.

Starowolski Sz. 70 Reformacya obyczajów polskich. - Kraków, 1859. - S. 23 ("Który urzędy na sobie rzeczypospolitey mamy, którzy przy boku pańskim ustawnie mieszkamy, i którzy w łasce królewskiej opływamy, nie pogardzajmy szlachtą uboższą w domach swoich siędzącą, nie powiadajmy się być lepszymi nad nich, albo zacniejszymi, bo jako do cnoty, tak i o honorów równie nam wszystkim wrota są otworzone").

71 CDIAC of Ukraine. - F. 26. - Op. 1. - Spr. 8. - Arc. 479.

page 38

Grigory Kolmovsky's complaint about the Vladimir sub-mayor Fyodor Zagorovsky, who at the groda in front of respected people used the words "good to my glory and naughty and pinched"in his address, is also eloquent:

"I, a nobleman, in my courteous actions and my native nepoyzranogo and ovshem to every courteous person in everything equal, skaleval" 72.

Thus, honor acted as the symbolic capital of a nobleman, the capital of honor or respect that the corporation bestowed on its members. 73 However, it also caused a constant, almost daily struggle to maintain and increase good fame, made players vulnerable to the slightest signs of disrespect, and forced them to develop a variety of strategies to demonstrate and protect their honor and dignity. suspending the competitor's honor.

In this article, I have analyzed the quotidian practices of early modern Volynian gentry society which attest that honour was the core value for the members of this group. The need to accrue honour and sensitivity to slights that could undermine it fostered ceaseless competition and widespread conflicts among the nominally equal representatives of gentry. At the same time, honour and the concomitant (and sometimes synonymous to it) glory engendered restraining mechanisms which maintained a certain equilibrium within the armed community, since honour marked the boundaries of demeanour that was perceived as being proper for gentry. I have analyzed the strategies gentry resorted to in order to demonstrate their honour and undermine the honour of their opponents.

72 ibid. - F. 25. - Op. 1. - Spr. 45. - Ark. 127.

Bourdieu P. 73 Prakticheskiy smysl [Practical meaning], pp. 219-236.


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