Libmonster ID: U.S.-1452
Author(s) of the publication: E. D. OSTROVENKO

Keywords: Ghana, Accra, Interim National Defense Council, Jerry Rawlings, chiefs, asantehene

Tribal leaders have always been and continue to be influential figures, especially in the local government system of Ghana.

Under the Provisional Council of National Defense (VSNO), local leaders were united into their own bodies that had existed since ancient times, which elected members of the regional chambers of chiefs, and those, in turn, - members of the National Chamber of Chiefs. It was an advisory body that dealt only with chiefs ' affairs and customary law matters. He did not have any administrative powers, but without the prior approval of this chamber, however, no bill could be introduced if it affected the rights and privileges of the chiefs.

CHIEFTAINS - TRADITIONAL AFRICAN POWER

Among the Akan peoples, in particular the Ashanti, the leaders are, according to established tradition, the undisputed authority in the field. And not religious, but across the broadest spectrum of people's daily lives. Without a leader, the central government can do nothing, even communicate to the people its decision or intention to implement anything. If a government initiative is not agreed upon with the relevant tribal chief, and he does not strike a gong in agreement, the intentions of the central government will remain on paper.

The power of chieftains is not inherited, although there are noble families in the country, from which many of them come. The leader is chosen by a special procedure by his own people, and they can also remove him if it is considered that he did not live up to their trust in something.

The right hand of the leader is the so-called linguist, who is often called the "mouth of the leader". This is a responsible and significant position. Its origin is primarily due to the fact that leaders, by their status, cannot say anything wrong or incorrect, they are infallible. They are spoken for by special assistants, who are responsible for what is voiced on behalf of the leader. These intermediaries were called "linguists"by the British.

The linguist should thoroughly know the local history, myths and traditions, proverbs and sayings, traditions and customs, in short, everything that is somehow connected with the leader's people and his high position. He should be a respected person, enjoy a good reputation and not allow deviations from established moral and ethical norms.

It is believed that there can be no bad leader. You can only be a bad linguist. Therefore, he has the right to alter the speech of the leader and even interpret it in his own way, is obliged to speak only the correct, impeccable words for him. Moreover, in the end, the responsibility for what the linguist says will always lie not with the leader, but only with him, the linguist, although everyone knows very well who is the true author of a particular thought or idea.

The chief tells the linguist only the most important things, without any details or comments. For example: "Tell the people to build schools." The linguist develops these words of the leader in detail, puts them in the necessary forms and expressions, taking into account local specifics, and accompanies them with proverbs and sayings.

Each leader chooses a linguist for himself, and he can remove him if he is not satisfied with the way he performs his duties.

The real influence of leaders is significantly affected by the factor of cities, especially the capital. In rural areas, away from major population centers, the leader is a more natural and influential figure. In Accra, in an unusual environment for tribal leaders, they look and are perceived differently, sometimes as folklore and even not quite serious characters. The city with its attributes of modern life undermines the age-old foundations of their unquestionable authority, and some of them clearly have a negative, corrupting effect.

Some of our fellow ambassadors complained that they did not know how to get rid of the importunities of leaders from the embassy and residence areas, their overwhelming desire to be among the guests at receptions and receive gifts. Once a group of leaders showed up at our reception on the occasion of November 7. They left later than anyone else, of course, and not empty-handed either.

Along with the quite solid events held under the auspices of the leaders, which met the established standards for centuries.-


Ending. For the beginning, see: Asia and Africa today. 2015, N 5.

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According to my native traditions, I sometimes saw some that left far from the best impressions.

I remember that in a small town, during a trip to the western regions of Ghana, I was invited to the inauguration ceremony of a local chief. I didn't want to offend the local authorities by refusing, and I had to accept the invitation, although, to be honest, I didn't really want to "steam" in the sun. I thought that, at least, I would see something interesting for understanding the country. Instead of the expected colorful performance, however, I witnessed the banal fun of well-tipsy people. There was a lot of loud gunfire and not at all folk dances.

Speaking at the Ashanti Grand Council of Chiefs in Kumasi on February 17, 1991, Chairman Rawlings quoted an Akan proverb that aptly illustrates the role of a tribal chief: "A child who cannot recognize the umbrella of his chief is lost in the crowd of people." Having a keen political sense, he immediately added:: "But a leader who is unable to display his umbrella in such a crowd and thus act in strict accordance with the cultural heritage of his people also risks losing his followers."

In other words, in the understanding of the head of Ghana, not only the authority of the leaders as such was important for the country, but also their actions to ensure the interests of the people in the spirit of the policy pursued by the VSNO.

NORTH OF GHANA - VIA TOGO

Business trips around the country, in which I was almost always accompanied by the second secretary of the Embassy, V. E. Tarabrin*, helped me a lot in getting to know Ghana. I visited many Ghanaian cities and localities, where I met and talked with the regional Secretaries of the Supreme Council of People's Deputies and other local leaders.

The cities of Cape Coast, Sekondi and Takoradi located on the Atlantic coast, Koforidua, the main city of Ashanti-Kumasi, the "sea gate" of Ghana - Tema, Akosombo - in the lower reaches of the Volta River, where the hydroelectric power station built under K. Nkrumah worked, and Sunyani are well remembered.

An interesting trip in November 1989 to the north of the country to participate in the folk festival "Faw" held there - at the invitation of Adda Navropio, an activist of the Ghana-USSR Friendship Society, who became the leader of a large local tribe. To get there and get back to Accra, I had to cross twice - first from south to north, and then in the opposite direction - the neighboring country of Ghana-Togo, to reduce the travel time.

This is, so to speak, the far north of the country, bordering on Burkina Faso. According to A. Navropio, the visit of the Soviet ambassador to the remote northern regions of Ghana and participation as an honorary guest in the folk festival would expand the idea of the Ghanaians about the Soviet Union and, undoubtedly, would contribute to strengthening ties between our two friendly countries.

Adda Navropio knew what he was saying. He graduated from the K. A. Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy, defended his PhD thesis there, and was married to a Korean Soviet citizen from the Uzbek SSR, a graduate of the same Academy, candidate of biological Sciences. Moreover, he was the leader of a large tribe in the Navrongo region, as the second component of his name, Navropio, eloquently indicated: in the local language, pio means chief. So, Navropio is the leader of the people of Navrongo district. It was impossible to disagree with the argumentation of such an authoritative person. And I began to prepare for an interesting and responsible trip.

First of all, it was necessary to decide: what to go to Navrongo with, what thoughts to carry out in the speech of the Soviet ambassador at the national festival?

Of course, we should congratulate the participants of the festival-representatives of the tribes and nationalities of this part of the north of Ghana, with the event they celebrated, because "Faw", as A. Navropio explained, is, in a broad sense, a harvest festival. Then, in a form that is accessible and understandable to ordinary people, tell them about the Soviet Union and our support for the struggle of African peoples for liberation from colonial oppression, about the principled course of the USSR towards Ghana, and that we are in favor of developing mutually beneficial bilateral ties and cooperation with it.

Another question was how to get to Navrongo. I wanted, of course, to drive north across Ghana. There were good roads there, however, not along the entire very long route, so the trip could turn into a multi-day and difficult journey.

Ghanaian friends suggested another option: to get to the destination through the neighboring Togo, where just in the right direction for us was a good paved road. If you follow it, you can get to Navrongo on the second day. We decided on this option.

As a result, during one trip it was possible to get acquainted with the most remote areas of Ghana from Accra and get a good idea of Togo. This was important because Ghana had many points of contact with this country, including difficult ones: a long joint border, along most of which the divided Ewe people lived, the entry of Western Togo** into independent Ghana and the emergence of tensions between the two states for this reason.

We entered Ghanaian territory through a border checkpoint near the town of Boku. The crossing of the Togolese-Ghanaian border took place without any difficulties. Here they knew about the impending arrival of the Soviet po-


* Prior to Ghana, Vladimir Tarabrin worked at the USSR Embassy in Sierra Leone, and is well-versed in African specifics. After that, he worked in the central office of the Russian Foreign Ministry, in the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the UN in New York, and was Deputy Director of the Ministry's Legal Department. 2008-2013-Russian Ambassador to Gabon. Currently, he is an Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Foreign Ministry.

** Before World War I, Western Togo was part of the German protectorate of Togo, after 1919 it passed under the mandate system to Great Britain, in 1923 it was annexed to the British colony of the Gold Coast, and since 1957 it has become the Volta region of independent Ghana.

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sla, and we were duly received. Border guards officers respectfully take a visor, and our black Mercedes quickly rolls along a fairly decent, mostly grader, road to the administrative center of the Upper Eastern region - the city of Bolgatangi.

Without stopping there, we immediately head towards Navrongo, where Adda Navropio and several representatives of the regional authorities are waiting for us in a cozy town and put us up for the night.

Although these were some of the most backward parts of Ghana, they didn't look like that. It was felt that the local authorities knew their business and did not sit idly by.

The influence of Catholicism is strong here. Along the road, there were many signs and notices indicating the activities of various Catholic missions and churches. However, we did not see the holy Fathers themselves. When I asked A. Navropio what religions prevail in the Navrongo area, he answered briefly: "We all believe in God." In other words, the followers of traditional African beliefs living there, Catholics, and Muslims are all believers, they all have a God, and it is this, and not belonging to a particular denomination, that determines their objective perception.

The Fav Festival was held the day after our arrival. It was held in a large open area, on one side of which a makeshift podium and several microphones were installed, and on the other, at a fairly decent distance, a tent was erected. There are a lot of people around the entire site, only the road is free, along which the festival participants will march.

We arrive at the festival venue in due time. On the podium - solid people in European clothes, one of them-the regional secretary of the Supreme Council of People's Deputies. Under the tent is also a representative audience, but already in national clothing, which, by the way, differs from that worn in the Accra region. These are the local chiefs.

Among them is Adda Navropio, who clearly plays a major role in the event. He wears a colorful robe, over which he wears a wide cape, on his chest - a medallion that resembles a symbol of his power, on his head - a red fez-type cap. He looked impressive in these clothes, despite his small stature.

We will be shown to the podium. The regional secretary invites me to join him in welcoming the local leaders. We cross the playground and head towards them. There are many leaders, several dozen people. We shake their hands, congratulate them on the festival, return to the podium, and almost immediately the speeches begin. The first speaker is the regional secretary of the Supreme Council of People's Deputies, followed by several other people, including and A. Navropio. They speak in English, which is not understood by everyone present. Therefore, the speakers ' words are translated into the two main local languages.

In addition to the phrases and wishes that are quite natural for such events, there are also unexpected words from a purely political vocabulary: the need to ensure peace and reconciliation in the Upper Eastern region. This means that not everything is going well in the domestic political sphere, and there are probably some tensions on a national and tribal basis. And the Fav festival, which, as it turned out, was held for the first time, is one of the concrete steps to overcome them.

Soon it's my turn to speak. In my speech, I deliberately emphasized the importance and significance of the Fav festival itself. The audience responds to my words in the most benevolent way: they listen carefully, and in some moments, just when you might expect an emotional reaction, they applaud.

Then the festival itself begins - a very long walk in front of the podium and tent of the leaders of numerous groups of "demonstrators", men and women representing different peoples and tribes living in the region. Each "column" has its own unique color, different clothes and decorations from others.

The similarity is shown only in one thing - in the love of all" demonstrators", as well as Ghanaians in general, for dancing. Almost everyone dances to the drums and other simple musical instruments, while many sing rhythmic songs. And some imitated hunting wild animals.

Upon completion of all the "columns", gifts are presented to senior officials and prizes are awarded to the most distinguished participants of the festival, as is customary in Ghana.

The day ends with dinner at Adda Navropio's house. This is a solid and spacious two-story building, called the palace in the leader's entourage. There are no other such substantial structures nearby.

The leader lives with his Soviet wife and children in affluence, enjoys well-deserved respect not only from his fellow tribesmen, but also from the local leadership of the VSNO. Tea and the much-loved beer of Ghanaians are served, along with appropriate treats, on the large outdoor terrace, under the starry African sky.

In the morning of the next day, we went to one of the villages, widely known for the fact that its inhabitants associate their origin with the crocodiles that live in the nearby lake. It is believed that the villagers have their own" related " crocodiles in the lake, with which they maintain constant contact in the most accessible way for these bloodthirsty creatures - feeding.

A. Navropio asks the village chief for permission to visit the local attraction, who does not object and assigns us several strong guys as "guides". They cheerfully lead us to the lake, along the banks of which there are several wooden bridges. Standing on the catwalk, the guys call the crocodiles in some way only they know, and when their toothy faces appear out of the water, they pull live chickens out of their bags and start waving them. Chickens, sensing something amiss, cackle shrilly, and crocodiles, like fast mini-submarines, immediately rush to the shore at this sound.

A few seconds later, they clumsily climb out onto the bank and, swaying on their short legs, approach the guys. The ghastly mouths open, and the hens ' cackling stops abruptly.-

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xia: they disappear without a trace in the bottomless throats of reptiles. Crocodiles behave calmly, do not attack people. You can take photos with them and even take some of them by the tail.

ASANTEHENE-KING OF THE ASHANTI PEOPLE

Despite the fact that Ghana is a republic, there is a person in it who is perceived as the king, however, not of the whole country, but of its central regions. This is the supreme leader of the Ashanti people-Asantehene. From the end of the 17th to the end of the 19th centuries, the Ashanti had their own state education, and at the disposal of the rulers was the highest shrine of the people - the Golden Throne, which represents the soul of the Ashanti people and is a sacred symbol of their unity.

During my time in Ghana, the King of Ashanti was Opoku Vare II, the 15th Asantehene, who became King in 1970 and was the nephew of his predecessor. Asantehene was a lawyer by profession. It was certainly important to talk to such an influential person in Ghana. April 19, 1990 I left Accra and arrived the same day in Kumasi, the second most important and populous city in Ghana.

The meeting with Opoku Vare II took place at noon on April 20. He received me at his permanent residence, which was officially called the palace. It was a rather imposing and modern-looking building, with regal peacocks walking in front of it. The meeting was held in a spacious reception hall, furnished with rich furniture with gold ornaments. There are expensive carpets on the floor and good - looking paintings and old photographs from Ashanti history on the walls.

Asantehene turned out to be a well-fed elderly man, dressed in national clothes made of colorful fabric of soft colors with a noticeable gold component. Above the head of his throne-like chair was a star, again golden in color. There was a lot of gold on the chair, but of course it was not a legendary throne: it can only be seen on special, very rare occasions.

The chairs assigned to me and my companions were starless and more modest in appearance. The star, apparently, relied only on asantehena. According to the established tradition, the conversation with the king did not go directly, but through a "linguist". Apparently, as a sign of respect for the guest, I was also asked to identify my "linguist". He became Ukula Soboti, a respected and influential person in Kumasi, who graduated from the Kharkiv Medical Institute.

I told Opok Vara II in detail about the state of Soviet-Ghanaian relations, noting their relatively high level of development, and Moscow's desire to strengthen ties between our countries. Taking my words with interest, asantehene spoke out, through the mouth of his linguist, in favor of establishing twinning relations between Kumasi and one of the cities of the Soviet Union.

This issue was already being worked out at that time, and Kharkiv was considered as the most possible candidate for twinning with Kumasi, where many Ghanaian students studied at universities.

At the end of the meeting, asantehene accompanied us to the entrance of the palace and took a photo with us as a souvenir. Asantehene's place in Ghanaian power structures has become more clear. It has no real impact on the political course of the country, but it plays a very significant role in the mechanism of exercising power in the areas of settlement of the Ashanti people.

MEMORY OF KWAM NKRUMAH

Older people know the name of Ghana's first President, Kwame Nkrumah, who was overthrown in a military coup in 1966. In the 60s of the last century, under N. S. Khrushchev, it was widely known in our country.

In the summer of 1961, President K. Nkrumah paid a state visit to the USSR. Earlier, at the beginning of the same year, L. I. Brezhnev, then Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, visited Ghana. In 1962, K. Nkrumah was awarded the International Lenin Prize "For Strengthening Peace among Peoples". Three books by K. Nkrumah - "Autobiography", " I'm talking about freedom. An Exposition of the African Ideology " and "Africa must Unite" were published in Russian in Moscow in substantial circulations.

After the removal of K. Nkrumah from the post of president for life of Ghana, his name began to be forgotten, and now, perhaps, there are not so many associations among Russians. He was, however, a really big and extraordinary figure, especially for Ghana. And it is not by chance that during the period of the Supreme People's Council, Ghanaians respected K. Nkrumah and his memory. The Kwame Nkrumah Revolutionary Guard functioned, and the conference center built in Accra bore his name.-

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functions. The rich heritage of the first Ghanaian president was studied, and it was tried to use it in the interests of developing the country in a new environment.

All this was done unobtrusively, without much exaltation of K. Nkrumah, the cult of his personality was not created. Portraits of K. Nkrumahs met infrequently, and no monuments were erected in his honor. Even the grave of the first Ghanaian President in his native village in the north-west of the country, near the border with Ivory Coast, was modest and inconspicuous when I saw it in April 1990.

In 1989, a series of events dedicated to the 90th anniversary of K. Nkrumah was held in Ghana. The Soviet ambassador was also invited to participate in one of them, a symposium on "Dr. Nkrumah's role in the liberation of Africa," which was held in Kumasi in September by local regime activists. I accepted the invitation, of course. I had a lot to say to the Ghanaians about K. Nkrumah.

The symposium was held in the main representative building of Kumasi - in the local assembly, in a large and spacious conference hall. Upon my arrival, I was escorted along with V. E. Tarabrin not to the room for honorary guests, as was usually practiced here, but directly to the hall. It was almost full, there were young, pretty faces everywhere, and everyone was looking forward to the opening of the symposium with interest.

V. E. Tarabrin and I were among those who were offered seats in the presidium. All the members of the presidium went up to the stage, as we did, from the audience. Including big bosses from Accra and Kumasi. This was a pleasant surprise. After all, we are used to the fact that at our major events, especially party events, the authorities invariably came on stage from somewhere behind the scenes.

The seminar participants were most interested in the part of my speech that spoke about the political processes that were taking place in our country at that time - perestroika and glasnost. I also told them how we had intended to celebrate K.'s birthday. Nkrums. It was planned, in particular, to hold a scientific conference dedicated to the first Ghanaian president at the Institute of Africa, with the invitation of representatives of Ghana, to prepare a film about him and issue a badge with his image.

The topic of K. Nkrumah often came up in conversations with Ghanaians and out of connection with his 90th birthday. They often raised it on their own initiative. Representatives of the Ghanaian leadership at any level were very impressed by the conversation about the country's first leader. They clearly wanted to show their erudition and express themselves in a conversation with the Soviet ambassador about their famous compatriot, whose name is inextricably linked not only with the appearance of an independent Ghana on the political map of the world, but also with the beginning of the liberation of the whole of Africa from colonial rule. After all, then, in the time of K. Nkrumah, many things began in the life of their country - both positive and negative. Ghana's undoubted achievements, unresolved problems, successes and failures were rooted there.

While paying tribute to K. Nkrumah, the Ghanaians also tried to make sense of his mistakes and miscalculations. It was noted, in particular, that although K. Nkrumah liked to talk about the advantages of democracy, his own actions inside the country very often went against it. In fact, there were no consultations when making important decisions, and all government bodies were dominated by members of his own party, the ruling Convention.

After becoming president, K. Nkrumah, as people who knew him intimately told me, generally turned into the sole ruler of Ghana. He dealt harshly with those who expressed dissatisfaction with his policies and actions. At this stage, influencing him in any way, even in favor of something completely indisputable, was unrealistic. Once he made a decision, it was impossible to change his mind.

I was told by one of the secretaries of the AFNO that he did not advise the first President of Ghana to go on a visit to China and Vietnam, during which he lost power. Something dangerous was already felt in the country, literally hanging in the air, and K. Nkrumah had to stay at home. He was, however, adamant and still went on a foreign tour.

KUMASI CELEBRATION

In early February 1991. I was invited on behalf of Asantehene to attend the "Adae Kese" celebration to be held in Kumasi in the middle of the month. During this festival, which is held once every five years, the shrine of the Ashanti people - the Golden Throne-is taken out.

J. R. R. Tolkien was expected to arrive in Kumasi.Rawlings and his wife and other Ghanaian leaders.

The crowd was endless. People were everywhere: on the stands, on the approaches to them, and along the entire route of the upcoming festive procession. It was hot and noisy, but the Ghanaians were having fun and rejoicing. The atmosphere of a real holiday reigned.

The sound of music marked the approach of the asantehene procession. Made from elephant tusks, the wind instruments produced low drawling sounds, and the simple percussion device produced a pleasant and melodious chime. There were, of course, the characteristic tom - tom drums of the whole of Africa. First, the legendary Golden Throne was carried, and then, in a palanquin, asantehene.

Around the Golden Throne and Opoku Vare II, dressed in colorful traditional clothes and richly decorated with gold ornaments, moved a large retinue, various courtiers, linguists with their official wands, advisers, musicians and other absolutely irreplaceable people at court. The court poets loudly recited poems and excerpts from the Ashanti epic.

Behind the procession of asantehene, slightly parted, was its sender-asantehema, who also plays an important role in the life of Ashanti, but already in the female line. At the same time, she is not asantehene's wife. Asantekhema was then Nana Afua Servaa Korbi Ampem II. And behind her came other Ashanti chieftains, lesser in rank, but also important and solemn, with their courtiers and linguists. The main figure among them was Mumponghene, the second most important Ashanti chieftain, who held the Silver Throne.

Colorfully dressed women of various ages passed by, dancing energetically or gracefully.-

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chilling dancing. Their movements were smooth, measured, and rhythmic.

A serious-looking courtier, who was apparently responsible for the proper passage of the procession, was urging all the participants on, ostentatiously drawing an impressive-looking sword from its scabbard and then sliding it back in. People passed by, armed with old rifles. Others carried a rich collection of battle shields. Someone was carrying utensils and household items that seemed to play a particularly important role in Ashanti traditions.

Asantehene was taken to a specially prepared platform under an awning, where he was to stay for the entire ceremony. Rawlings arrived later.

Upon arrival, Chairman Rawlings, dressed in the uniform of an Air Force officer, went up to asantehena and greeted him to cheers from everyone present. Then he returned to his own rostrum, where he was with his wife. Now, with a return greeting from Asantehene, messengers came to Rawlings from the Ashanti High Chief.

There was a traditional exchange of gifts: the Chairman presented asantehena with boxes of schnapps (it is used by the chiefs for ceremonial purposes), and in return received a carved wooden chair for him and a traditional Ashanti bench for his wife. Thus, the merits of the Chairman to the country were noted, and his wife - in the development of the women's movement.

It was time for speeches, and the first to be read was an address to Asantehene, in the local language, Ashanti tvi. The message, in particular, said that the meaning of the celebration of "Adae Kese" is that the current generation should pay tribute to their ancestors, who constantly created various associations and unions over the centuries. According to asantehene, such actions contributed to the development of the state.

The Chairman then made a statement. He began to speak tvi glibly, but, as often happened, it did not work out for him, people began to smile, and some-to laugh good-naturedly. The Chairman was a good speaker, and he knew exactly where, how, and what to talk about with his people, but he did it best in English.

The Ghanaian leader made a brief digression into the country's history, focused on the main tasks of the current moment and sharply condemned the actions of imperialism in the field of culture, aimed, in his words, at making the colonized peoples forget their history and their own system of values.

The speech was translated into Ashanti for a long time, and the Chairman himself joined in this process if it seemed to him that the translation was inaccurate. Sometimes his wife was also involved in the translation. It was she who thanked the Ashanti tvi asantehene and the Kumasi people for their attention and hospitality. This meant that the main part of the holiday was over and you could get ready for a long way back.

The Kumasi celebration clearly showed that there is a kind of separation of spheres of influence between the secular and traditional authorities in Ghana, which is strictly observed. Representatives of these authorities prefer not to interfere in each other's activities, know their place in the life of the country well and act according to the established rules of the game. One of my influential Ghanaian friends famously remarked, " Heads of state in Ghana come and go, but asantehene stay."

FAREWELL TO AFRICA

In the spring of 1991, the leadership of the USSR Foreign Ministry suggested that I complete my business trip to Ghana and return to Moscow as head of the Middle East Department. I liked the offer, even though I liked it in Ghana. The country is interesting, the people are kind and friendly, the work of an ambassador is responsible and interesting. But the area of my original professional specialization was still not Africa, but the Middle East, and many years had already been devoted to working in this area.

He informed the Ghanaian Foreign Ministry about the completion of his mission and asked to arrange visits to J. R. R. Tolkien.Rolings, V. Obeng, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and a number of other leading figures of the country.

Meeting with J. R. R. TolkienRawlings was held on June 6. The Ghanaian leader received me at his main residence, the Castle. In addition to all the official words used in such cases, I told the Chairman that Ghana had made the kindest impression on me and would always remain in my heart. I am glad that my diplomatic career gave me the chance to become an ambassador to Ghana, which was friendly to the Soviet Union. He wished the Ghanaian people happiness and prosperity, and the Chairman himself success in his responsible mission for the benefit of his country.


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Progress Sums: 1,2,3,4,5..., -1,-2,-3,-4,-5... It can be found using the formula: Sn=(n²a₁+n)/2. Progress Sum: 1,3,6,10,15..., -1,-3,-6,-10,-15... It can be found using the formula: Sn= ((n+a₁)³-(n+a₁))/6. Progress Sum: 1,4,9,16,25..., -1,-4,-9,-16,-25... It can be found using the formula: Sn= a₁(n+a₁)(n²a₁+0.5n)/3. (Where n - is the number of summable terms, a₁ - is the first term of the progression).
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