Libmonster ID: U.S.-1536

Modern reforms in China have affected all spheres of life in Chinese society, including education. However, the great Chinese civilization actively uses its spiritual heritage in the context of global culture. This article shows how the problem of personnel training was solved in different periods based on Confucian anthropology and the doctrine of the state.

Since 1978, China's political leaders have been implementing a program of large-scale socio-economic transformation, known as the"Course of Reform and Openness." The need to take into account global trends, such as the transition of developed countries to a post-industrial society and the recognition of the leading role of the knowledge economy, has prompted modernization ideologists to focus their reforms on turning China into a competitive state with strong economic, scientific and technological potential.

China's transition to a post-industrial society in the period of globalization is understood as an important stage in the process of state modernization. In these circumstances, the role of the education system has undergone a radical reassessment. Improving the national education system was considered strategically important for the future development of the country in the post-industrial era. Already at the 15th CPC Congress in 1997, the course "Education and Science will lead to the prosperity of the state" (Kejiao xingguo) was approved [Borevskaya, 2003, p.54]. The strategic role of education for the successful implementation of the reform program was also recognized in the program documents "Plan for the Development of education facing the XXI century" and "Plan for the Development of Education in 2003 - 2007". "Education is the root of the hundred-year reforms. In order to achieve the great goal of fully building the small welfare society (Xiaokang) and revitalizing the Chinese nation, it is necessary to firmly adhere to the strategy "education and science will lead to the prosperity of the state" and the strategy "talents will make the state strong". Education should receive priority development in the construction of modernization" [Mianxiang and shiji..., 2001].

The most important function of the Institute of education is to train the necessary personnel to continue "building socialism with Chinese characteristics." The characteristic of an exemplary graduate of educational institutions of all levels is noteworthy. Jiang Zemin, President of the People's Republic of China in 1993-2003, repeatedly emphasized in his speeches on education that the Chinese youth should combine both the development of scientific and cultural knowledge and the improvement of ideological and moral qualities, strive for both "self - realization" and "service to the people". Ideological and moral education is aimed at strengthening students ' sense of patriotism, collectivism, and the desire to serve the motherland and the people. According to Jiang Zemin, the neglect of ideological and moral education

page 76

For young people, focusing only on the development of scientific knowledge will lead to a certain one-sidedness, which can later turn into negative consequences. Only a combination of both components in the education process can ensure the training of the necessary personnel [Jiang Zemin, 2002, pp. 451-479].

China's current political leaders give education a high priority. The author emphasizes the key role of the education sector for the further socio-political development of the country and the transformation of China into one of the leading countries in the world. One of the characteristic features of the Chinese state policy in the field of education can be called the mandatory implementation of ideological and educational work in educational institutions at all levels, aimed at strengthening the state ideology, increasing loyalty to it on the part of the younger generation of citizens of the country.

In policy documents devoted to state policy in the field of education, Chinese political leaders use vocabulary that has already been formed in the socio-political context of modern China (for example," builders of socialism with Chinese characteristics"," patriotism","collectivism"). However, analyzing the content of these documents in a cultural and historical context, we can identify significant similarities between the main provisions of the current policy of the Chinese government in the field of education, on the one hand, and the Confucian doctrine of public administration, on the other. This similarity is reflected in the following points: first, Chinese leaders emphasize the priority importance of training the necessary personnel for the success of socio-economic transformation. Secondly, the nature of the requirements imposed on graduates of an educational institution - those personnel who are called upon to implement the planned socio-economic transformations - indicates the influence of Confucian ideology. This influence is manifested primarily in the emphasis on the necessary combination of a high level of both professional and ideological training. Let's take a closer look at how both provisions were justified in the traditional doctrine of public administration.

One of the central themes of the Confucian doctrine of public administration was the problem of training officials. According to Confucian theorists, successful administrative activities directly depended on the training of people employed in management. The text "Lunyu" cites the statement of Confucius that in management, first of all, it is necessary to rely on officials: it is necessary to nominate "wise and capable", forgiving them for minor offenses [Classical Confucianism, 2000, p. 160]. There is a famous saying of the Qing Emperor Yongzheng (1723-1735), according to which "the root of state administration is the use of talents, everything else is just branches" (Zheng Jianshun, 1999, p.2). The nature of training of officials of the state apparatus was determined by a specific understanding of the nature and tasks of administration.

The political theory of Confucianism considered the process of public administration primarily as the establishment of normative relations between members of society in accordance with the socio-political status of each. Indoctrination of subjects ("teaching [the people] and improving [morals]" - jiaohua) was considered by Confucian theorists as a key element of the entire process of state administration and the most important function of the central government [Zhongguo ruxue, 1997, p. 158]. Because of this, managers were primarily required to have a deep knowledge of traditional anthropology and social teaching. Successful implementation of public administration became possible only if the persons employed in the administration had the necessary ideological training, high moral and ethical characteristics. Get the necessary training future

page 77

the official could only in the process of training, comprehend the doctrinal foundations of Confucianism. It was through training and self-improvement that the bearer of the doctrine was given the opportunity to realize the traditional ideal of a person - the" perfect husband " (junzi) [Gao Mingshi, 1999, p.17-18].

This type of training, which resulted in the improvement of personal qualities, had an indispensable practical focus, namely, the implementation of political activities. The entire process of training a Confucian scholar was subordinated to the main goal-to realize his potential in the political field. Thus, according to the political doctrine of Confucianism, an exemplary official should have high moral qualities and have the necessary knowledge of the doctrinal foundations of management. However, for the high-quality performance of their duties, an official must also possess a number of special information and practical skills related to the specifics of their official functions. Nevertheless, specialized professional training of Chinese officials was mostly given secondary importance.

Let us consider the correlation between the importance of ideological training and specialized skills for the successful implementation of political activities in the basic text of Confucianism "Lunyu", which reflects the views of the founder of the doctrine - Confucius. First of all, we note that in this text, specialized skills are referred to as "arts" (s). This name goes back to the so-called six arts, one of the subjects of the ancient Chinese educational program, information about which is found in the text "Zhou Rituals" (Zhou li). The" Six Arts " included rituals, the ability to play musical instruments, archery, the ability to drive a chariot, calligraphy, and numeracy skills [Zhongguo ruxue, 1997, p. 330; Lee, 2000, p. 172].

Let's turn to the text "Lunyu". In one of the sayings, Confucius advises students to " direct the will to [search for] To follow the Path, to build on [one's] virtues, to build on humanity, and to amuse oneself with the [noble] arts" (Lunyu, 7-6) [cit. by: Classical Confucianism, 2000, p. 127]. The above statement can be considered as a concentrated expression of the goal and stages of the learning process. The starting point of training is the concentration of all efforts, the "establishment of the will" aimed at achieving the final goal - comprehension of the doctrine, and the improvement of personal qualities - "search for the Path-Tao". The key to achieving this goal is the development of the good potential of the individual. Mastering specialized skills is assigned only a secondary role as a means of entertainment [Classical Confucianism, 2000, p. 321].

A number of other sayings of Confucius also indicate that, according to the Teacher, specialized skills are by no means significant in the management of the state. Thus, in response to the admiration of the numerous abilities of Confucius, he replied that only because of his low position and the inability to realize himself in the civil service, he was forced to master various skills. Meanwhile, a "noble husband", being in a state post, does not need "many abilities" at all (Lunyu, 9 - 6, 9 - 7) [Classical Confucianism, 2000, p. 140]. From these judgments, we can conclude that Confucius clearly derived specialized skills from the range of knowledge and skills necessary for public administration. The improvement of "abilities", specialized skills, should be carried out by those who are not involved in public service. Only a "noble man" who has a fundamental knowledge of the structure of society, the tasks of public administration and has the appropriate personal potential can take over the reins of government.

page 78

Thus, even at an early stage, the following assessment of the importance of ideological training and specialized skills was established within the Confucian political theory. The bearer of the Confucian teaching had the broadest basic knowledge of the organization and functioning of society, the goals and objectives of public administration. In addition, he had the appropriate personal potential to implement "management with the help of good power-te". Accordingly, only the "noble husband" had the opportunity to build a public administration strategy. On the contrary, the owner of specialized knowledge, not having the whole set of doctrinal knowledge about society and the state, could only solve a local tactical problem. Because of this, "specialists"were assigned only a secondary, auxiliary role in public administration.

Such an assessment of the correlation between the importance of ideological training and special knowledge for successful management had a direct impact on the formulation of the ideal of an official-manager - "talent" (cai). Let's take this as an example of the analysis of Liu Shao's essay (?-245 AD) " On the Human Being "(Ren wu zhi) [Liu Shao, 2001] 1. Liu Shao was one of the most prominent political figures of the Three Kingdoms period that followed the fall of the Eastern Han Empire. The collapse of the existing system of administration, selection and appointment of officials, the widespread practice of forcible seizure of power and the promotion of rulers, primarily from among the military elite - these changes in the political practice of ancient China gave rise to a discussion among thinkers of the Three Kingdoms period about the relationship between "human nature" (Ren Xing) and his professional skills ("abilities" - cai nan). The main themes of Liu Shao's essay were the author's natural philosophy arguments about the relationship between physical data, human character traits and the action of cosmological forces - the principles of yin, yang and the "five elements". Liu Shao gives his own classification of character types and abilities. Liu Shao attaches particular importance to the problem of recognizing and evaluating "talents", as well as their further use in public service (Liu Shao, 2001).

We will look in more detail at the classification of talents proposed by Liu Shao, which is directly related to the problem of the ratio of ideological training and special knowledge to achieve the greatest management efficiency. First of all, we note that the author adheres to the view that a person's abilities are preconditioned by his original nature. According to Liu Shao, each person "perceives [the beginnings of] yin and yang in order to establish the nature-character, embodies the five elements-water, fire, wood, metal, earth-in order to acquire [bodily] form-appearance" [Liu Shao, 2001, p. 179]. According to the anthropometric data of a person, it is possible to judge the dominant influence of one of the elements and, consequently, to form an opinion about the specifics of his internal makeup. Character traits, in turn, determine the social behavior of a person, the priority area of his activities. Liu Shao identifies twelve types of characters. For example, "the harsh and strong-minded have a talent for restoring the right"," [...] it is easy for them to make laws; [... the greatness of those who are accessible and help their loved ones is in generosity, [ ... ] it is easy for them to enlist the support of people" [for more information, see: Liu Shao, 2001, pp. 188-191]. Further, Liu Shao identifies 12 talents that can be used in public service: "clean and decent", "lawyers", "skilled", "those who serve as the support of the state", "capable performers", "picky", "intricate", "calculating", "writers", " scientists- Confucians", "debaters", "heroes". Here we come to the main topic of our

1 In the Russian literature, a brief analysis of Liu Shao's treatise is presented in the articles of G. V. Zinoviev [see: Zinoviev, 1999; Zinoviev, 2001].

page 79

review-classification of talents according to the degree of effectiveness of their use in public service.

Already in the first part of the treatise "Nine Attributes [of the Essence of man]", Liu Shao formulates the basic principle underlying his classification scheme. According to the author, " the most valuable thing in human nature is the middle (zhong) and harmony (he)2 [Liu Shao, 2001, p. 180]. Accordingly, the value of character and talent is determined by the degree of its proximity to the ideal of "middle ground" and "harmony". Liu Shao calls these character types and core talents "one-sided" and places them at the lowest level of his scheme. The author states the disadvantages of "one-sided talents" very precisely. The owners of one pronounced talent are inconsistent in their actions, "unstable in their views", do not know the measure in the manifestation of their virtues, and their positive traits often turn into their opposite. Thus, the "hard and strong" mentioned above "have a talent for restoring the correct, although sometimes they are hasty in disclosing. They do not restrain the onslaught of their power, consider agreement a hindrance, and thus make the struggle harder. It's easy for them to make laws, but it's hard for them to grasp the subtleties." "The omission of those who are available and help their loved ones is due to scrupulousness, they are promiscuous in communication [ ... ], they are mired in dubious connections. It is easy for them to enlist the support of people, but it is difficult to improve their views" [for more information, see: Liu Shao, 2001, pp. 189-191]. Liu Shao calls such people "imitators" and "muddlers" and refers to those who undermine virtue " [Liu Shao, 2001, p. 187].

Another disadvantage of "one-sided talents" is their one-dimensional assessment of other people. "The gullible person believes that all people are gullible." Owners of one talent are not able to recognize another talent and cooperate with its owner, they can only evaluate their own kind. Such people are not born with a sense of condescension (shu) that helps them "understand other talents." Nature-the nature of one-sided talent cannot be changed by training, since it cannot develop a sense of condescension [Liu Shao, 2001, p.191]. Nevertheless, Liu Shao recognizes the importance of applying the talents he lists - "clean, ""decent, ""legalistic, ""skilled," and others-to public service. However, the author states that all of them are suitable only for performing narrow duties within the framework of their official functions, but cannot hold important public posts related to the development of management strategies.

Liu Shao placed the holders of multiple talents at the next level of his classification scheme. It is important to note that of all the twelve talents, the author notes the following three. First of all, they are "clean and decent", with high moral qualities, whose behavior serves as an example to follow. They are also "legalists" who " establish order, strengthen the state and enrich the people." Finally, they are the "skilful," whose "thoughts are sharp" and who are "sophisticated in their designs." It is possible to find that three main characteristics of a political figure are presented here: possession of high moral qualities, i.e. ideological training of the bearer of Confucian teachings; knowledge of public administration mechanisms and development of management strategies consistent with Confucian political theory; and political skills.-

2 "midpoint" ("middle") and "harmony" - the central concepts of the Confucian theory of personal self-improvement and state management. According to the canonical text "Zhong Yun", "middle ground" is a state in which the four emotions - fun, anger, sadness and joy - are not manifested and are contained in potency. Harmony is a state in which emotions are expressed, but equally. Mediocrity and harmony are essential for establishing a harmonious world order. "The great root of the Celestial Empire is the middle. Harmony is the all-pervading Tao of the Celestial Empire " [Confucian Treatise..., 2003, p. 48].

page 80

technical maneuvering. Those who fully embody these three talents are called "pillars of the state" (goti) by Liu Shao. They are "able to make morals stricter, their laws can be corrected [for the better]." In the Middle Kingdom, [with the help of] their art, you can achieve victory without resorting to weapons "[cit. by: ibid., p. 193]. The owners of three talents fully occupy key positions in the administration system, and their activities cover the entire state. "Capable performers", i.e. those who combine these three talents, but to a lesser extent, carry out managerial activities only within one administrative unit.

The highest level in this classification is assigned by Liu Shao to the one who has equally combined all the talents, in whose appearance all the signs of the human essence are equally manifested. It has a "midpoint" and "harmony", is even and dispassionate [Liu Shao, 2001, p. 187, 196]. Liu Shao gives these characteristics to a "perfect ruler" who rules the Celestial Empire with the help of te-virtue. However, Liu Shao emphasizes that the ruler "combines talents" but "does not bother with business."3. It manages the State without being directly involved in the administration. Liu Shao makes a clear distinction between a dignitary who holds an official position and a ruler who acts as the main organizer and administrator of the entire management process.

The main task of the ruler, who has all the talents, is to correctly recognize the talents of officials and, according to these talents, distribute responsibilities among them to ensure the normal functioning of the administrative apparatus. "The service of an official is the help of one taste to five tastes. State management-harmonization (he) with the fresh taste of the five tastes "[cit. by: ibid., p. 203].

Based on the material discussed above, we can conclude the following. The classification of Liu Shao's "talents" is nothing more than a gradation of cadres engaged in political management, according to their organizational abilities. The lowest level is the performers who implement the management tasks formulated above. The highest level is the ruler himself, who embodies all the qualities necessary for the organizer. Only the ruler fully masters the art of "recognizing the talents" of his subordinates, showing himself to be a deep "connoisseur of people". He has impartiality and large-scale strategic thinking: the ruler equally values the talents of subordinates and flexibly distributes official duties among officials, achieving maximum effect as a result of the complementarity of "talents". Thus, the ruler appears to be a deep psychologist and a high-level organizer, able to coordinate the activities of subordinates without taking direct part in the management process.

Using the example of Liu Shao's work, we have demonstrated one of the characteristic features of the Confucian doctrine of governance. A peculiar understanding of the essence of political management - the establishment of normative social relations-predetermined the high importance of knowledge of Confucian anthropology and the doctrine of society for people directly involved in administration. Confucian political theory strongly emphasized the priority of knowledge of the doctrinal foundations of governance over highly specialized skills. It is this circumstance that has determined the specifics of the internal organization and functioning of the Chinese bureaucratic apparatus, which we will briefly discuss below.

According to researchers of the Chinese bureaucratic system, one of the characteristic features of the latter was the unclear distribution of official duties.-

3 Researchers note the influence of the Taoist concept of "non-doing" on the formation of Liu Shao's ideal of governance (Zhongguo zhexue, 1997, p. 511).

page 81

stey. The official acted primarily as an administrator, and not as a performer of narrowly defined functions defined by the position [Yang, 1966, p. 137]. The main task of an official of both the central and local administration was to coordinate the work of subordinates in order to achieve the main goal of management - the establishment of normative social relations. Only those who had full knowledge of the doctrine of governance could successfully complete this task. It is because of this that you get the official status of an official (guan) only the holder of an academic degree confirming knowledge of the theoretical foundations of administration could use the state apparatus.

Let's look further at how the problem of professional training of officials was solved, their development of practical skills. Yang Qingkun notes that most officials acquired the necessary knowledge directly in the process of performing their official duties [Yang, 1966, p. 143-144]. Another solution to this problem was the use of assistant clerks (li) or individuals who did not have official positions, which the official invited to his personal staff. As shown by Ju Tongzu, who devoted a separate study to the structure of local government bodies in late imperial China, the head of the local administration largely relied on the help of clerks, local government employees, messengers, personal servants and personal secretaries when performing official duties [for more information, see Ch'u T'ung tsu, 1970]. These categories of assistants were people who had actual practical skills and knowledge in the field of office management, taxation, and legal proceedings. As the researcher emphasizes, it was these "specialists" who performed the functions of actual management [Yang, 1966, p. 161-162; C'hu T'ung tsu, 1970, p.37-195].

However, it is necessary to note the discrepancy between the significant role of these assistants in the implementation of local government and their formal status in the bureaucratic hierarchy. Assistants to the head of the local administration either had lower official ranks, like clerks, or were completely outside the official bureaucratic structure, like personal servants and secretaries [Yang, 1966, p.138].

In China's traditional management structure, individuals who possessed only specialized skills occupied only a peripheral position, without the opportunity for status growth within the official bureaucratic system. This position of" specialists " is a consequence of the assessment of specialized knowledge as secondary to successful management. It can be concluded that the traditional management structure assumed a clear status distinction between officials of the state apparatus who received ideological training and held administrative positions, on the one hand, and clerks and small employees who possessed specialized skills, but occupied a peripheral position in the bureaucracy system, on the other.

It is worth emphasizing that a strict distinction between the nature of training of officials and clerks and, accordingly, their status in the structure of the state apparatus could hinder the effective implementation of managerial functions. Education and training of future officials were not significantly related to management issues, which made it difficult for them to perform their duties efficiently immediately after taking office. At the same time, the concentration of real managerial functions in the hands of clerks who did not receive proper ideological training was fraught with a discrepancy between the actual practice of administration and the basic provisions of the public administration doctrine. The negative consequences of separating theoretical knowledge management doctrine and specialized practical skills were most clearly recognized by the leaders of reform movements in the second half of the 19th century. "for mastering foreign affairs" and "for

page 82

update", which put forward their own solution to the problem of training officials of the state apparatus.

The increase in the volume and complexity of managerial functions directly actualized the problem of professional training of government officials. As early as the middle of the 19th century, Jingshi scholars Wei Yuan and He Changling called for the education of" practical talents", i.e. qualified cadres of officials who are competent in solving specific tasks of civil administration [Zhongguo jiaoyushi, 1994, pp. 20-22]. The leaders of the movement "for the assimilation of foreign affairs" of the 1860s - 1890s, who launched large-scale transformations in the military-industrial sphere and needed personnel to work at newly created enterprises, most clearly realized the lack of specialized personnel. It was the ideologists of the reform movement of the 1860s and 1890s-Zeng Guofan (1811-1872), Li Hongzhang (1823-1901), and Zhang Zhidong (1837-1909) - who made a significant contribution to rethinking the idea of an exemplary official of the state apparatus, which we are now analyzing.

In the writings of representatives of the reform movement, the theoretical basis for solving the problem of the correlation between ideological and professional training was the concept of public administration, recorded in the text "Daxue", one of the chapters of the Confucian canon" Liji "("Notes on Ritual"). According to the concept of "Daxue", the moral and ethical self-improvement of the ruler, and ideally of every true follower of the teaching, is the main condition for successful socio-political management [Shushu duben, 2001]. Thus, the concept of "Daxue" organically connects two central themes of the Confucian doctrine: the improvement of human nature and the harmonization of socio-political life of society. In a curtailed form, the concept of "Daxue" can be expressed in a stable formula of ti (basis-principle) and yong (function-application), in which the ideological component of public administration appears as the "basis", and the applied aspect of socio-political activity acts as the "application". One can find that, according to Daxue, ideological training is the basis of practical activity.

In the second half of the 19th century, the formula "ti-yun" was used by ideologists of reform movements as a slogan that they followed in their transformative activities. The detailed formulation of the reformist slogan was "Chinese teaching as a basis, Western teaching as an application" (zhongxue wei ti, xixue Wei yong). It was based on the basic principles of governance (Confucian values and norms), which are not subject to change in the course of social development. The military-technological experience of European countries, which the reformers called for borrowing in the context of the military-economic expansion of European countries, was designated as application-yun. Reformers emphasized the equal importance of the full implementation of both the ideological and practical aspects of management: it is necessary to "grasp the basis and achieve application" (min ti, da yun). In accordance with this interpretation of the content of the ti-yun formula, reformers defined the relationship between ideological and professional training, understood as the relationship between "virtue"-te and "talent"-tsai.

First of all, let us consider the views of the theorists of this movement on the correlation between the importance of ideological training of state officials and their professional skills. The leaders of the movement, Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, and Zuo Zongtang, have repeatedly addressed this issue in their writings in the form of arguments about the relationship between" virtue "and" talent " of an exemplary official. Thus, Zeng Guofan's most famous statement was: "[Speaking of] virtue and talent, one should not give preference to one. [Consider] on the example of-

page 83

re of water. Virtue consists in [the property of] moistening. The talent consists of [the ability] to carry things and irrigate the fields. [Consider] the example of a tree. Virtue consists in the curvature or straightness of [the trunk], talent consists in [the ability] to serve as a ship's mast and rafters... [If there is] virtue, but there is no talent to help it, then [such a person] is like a fool. [If there is] talent, but there is no virtue guiding it, then [such a person] is like a small person (xiaoren)." by Zeng Guofan, 1992, p. 135]. Thus, Zeng Guofan considers "virtue" (te) and "talent" (cai)to be the same thing as two necessary characteristics of an exemplary official. Ideological training of an official that is not supported by professional skills loses its value, as it does not ensure successful practical activities. At the same time, the possession of only "talent" is dangerous due to the loss of the moral orientation of the activity, which is fraught with abnormal behavior in the performance of official duties.

Similar statements are found in the writings of Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang. Thus, Li Hongzhang also emphasized the equal importance of both "virtue" and" talent " (Zheng Jianshun, 1999, p.100). Zuo Zongtang noted that it is impossible to consider ideological training and practical skills separately ("one cannot talk about technique (s) when one is far from the Path-Tao") [Yangwu yundong, 1961, vol.2, p. 206]. It can be concluded that the leaders of the movement "for the assimilation of foreign affairs" shared the principle of the equivalence of both ideological training of officials and their professional skills.

Let us consider the actual content that the ideologists of the reform movement of the 1860s and 1890s put into the definitions of "virtue"and " talent". Thus, Li Hongzhang, describing his assistants, used the following expressions:" unselfish and direct"," loyal and truthful"," pays attention to foreign affairs (yangwu) " (Zheng Jianshun, 1999, pp. 74-75). Such personal characteristics include two components: moral qualities approved by the Confucian doctrine and practical awareness of modern management problems and new methods of solving them. Accordingly, an exemplary official, called upon to implement the reformers 'plan, appears as a carrier of Confucian teachings, who had the necessary stock of knowledge in the field of" foreign affairs", i.e. foreign languages, as well as exact and natural disciplines or military affairs. The efforts of Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, and Zuo Zongtang were aimed at training new personnel in the following areas: translators for the diplomatic sphere, military and technical specialists to work in newly created military and industrial enterprises [Zheng Jianshun, 1999, p.62; Zhang Jing, 1991, p. 85-86].

Let us consider how the leaders of the reform movement of the 1860s and 1890s justified this characteristic of an exemplary official. We noted above that for the ideologists of the movement "for the assimilation of foreign affairs", "talent", not supported by "virtue", was considered dangerous due to the unpredictability of the official's behavior in the performance of duties. Such attention to the issue of ideological training of officials was, in my opinion, primarily due to the specifics of the domestic political situation in China in the second half of the XIX century, namely, the presence of Europeans and the growing cultural and economic impact of the countries they represent on the life of Chinese society. The training of specialists in these three areas was somehow connected with the need to establish and develop contacts with European powers. Thus, the staff of translators to serve the foreign policy sphere of the state's life was designed to ensure parity between China and European countries in the negotiation process. Grand Duke Gong, who initiated the creation of the "School of Foreign Languages" in Beijing in 1861, noted: "... to understand the situation of different countries, it is necessary to study them

page 84

languages, then you will not be deceived" [Zhongguo jindai xuezhi..., 1983, p. 6]. The ultimate goal of training military and technical personnel to work at the relevant enterprises was to increase the country's defense capability.

High-ranking officials who led the reforms could not help but worry about the moral qualities of those who, by their occupation, had frequent contacts with foreigners. For example, Feng Guifen, who proposed the establishment of a translation School in Shanghai, pointed out that in this city, as well as in Ningbo (prov. Zhejiang), i.e. in the areas where Europeans are most present, foreigners were most often contacted either by merchants or students of educational institutions opened by Christian missionaries. According to Feng Guifeng, "both of them sought only profit and profit, taking advantage of the influence of Europeans, deceived the common people and did not obey the officials" [Zhongguo jingdai jiaoyushi..., 1997, p. 28]. In other words, Feng Guifen feared that Europeans could have a devastating cultural impact on Chinese society, gaining an ally in the face of marginal groups of society. The opening of educational institutions for the training of new translation and technical personnel was also caused, among other things, by the desire to establish control over the contacts of Europeans in China, locking them mainly to government officials. According to the ideologists of the reform movement, it was ideological training, i.e. following Confucian teachings, that could neutralize the negative impact of Western culture in the process of learning European languages or technological achievements of European countries by Chinese people.

Thus, in the context of countering the cultural influence of European countries, the ideological training ("virtue"-te) of officials, i.e. their observance of the "three pillars" (san gang) of Confucianism, became particularly important. One of the "three pillars" regulated relations between subjects and the sovereign, based on the loyalty of the former to the latter. Hence, the"virtue" -de, which an official should possess, meant primarily political loyalty to the Qing dynasty.

An analysis of the above material allows us to conclude that, despite the emphasis on the importance of ideological training of bureaucracy personnel, the theorists of the reforms of the 1860s-1890s subjected the content of such training to a significant rethink. As noted above, the ideological training of officials traditionally involved not only their acceptance of the norms and values of Confucianism, but also, more importantly, the acquisition of a deep theoretical knowledge of the Confucian doctrine of public administration. On the contrary, according to the reformers "for the assimilation of foreign affairs", ideological training was limited only to the assimilation of the value-normative system of Confucianism, following the"three pillars" in everyday practice. This content restriction is explained, in my opinion, by their priority attention to the professional training of civil servants, which is confirmed by the reform of the state exam program proposed by them.

In 1874, Li Hongzhang submitted a petition to the throne, in which he justified the need to change the program of state examinations for obtaining academic degrees. Li Hongzhang proposed to introduce the section "foreign affairs" in the exam program, covering the following subjects: natural sciences, mathematics, geography, chemistry, military affairs, mechanics. Those who passed the exam were assigned to the relevant enterprises. It is especially significant that, as Li Hongzhang noted, holders of a degree in "foreign affairs" should be equated with those who received a degree in the traditional sections of examinations for knowledge of canonical texts ("do not differ from those who received a degree in a direct way") [Zhongguo jindai xuezhi..., 1983, p. 17 - 18].

page 85

Thus, for the first time, the theorists of the movement "for the assimilation of foreign affairs" allowed the possibility of obtaining an academic degree not due to theoretical knowledge of the Confucian doctrine, but due to the possession of specialized skills. Thus, the ideologists of the reforms justified the new principle of forming an educated and political elite by the criterion of the degree of not only knowledge of the doctrine of governance, but also possession of special skills, "Western sciences". The leaders of the movement "for the assimilation of foreign affairs" proposed a new justification for the professional hierarchy, within which the highest positions could be occupied by both humanitarians, experts in the doctrine of management, and specialized technical specialists. It should be noted that this proposal was not accepted by the Qing court, which subsequently significantly complicated the further employment of graduates of educational institutions opened by the reformers.

In conclusion, we will turn to the analysis of the views of Zhang Zhidong, a statesman of the late XIX century, one of the ideologists and active participants in the educational reform of the late XIX-early XX centuries. Zhang Zhidong is considered by researchers to be one of the younger participants of the movement "for the assimilation of foreign affairs", whose efforts were mainly focused on the transformation of the military-industrial sphere [Tikhvinsky, 1980, p. 43; Zhongguo lishi, 1997, p. 953]. At the same time, Zhang Zhidong is known as one of the main ideologists of reforms under the slogan "Chinese as the basis, Western as the application" at the end of the XIX century. He gave some support to the "pro-renewal" movement, and also took an active part in the reforms initiated by the Qing government in 1901-1906 [Zhongguo Lishi, 1997, p.954; Su Yunfeng, 1983; Chen Xiuxia, 1999]. The main theses of Zhang Zhidong's reform program are set out in his main work "The Call to Study" (1898).

Zhang Zhidong's characterization of an exemplary "talent" can be reconstructed by analyzing those chapters of his essay "Call to Study", which set out the project of reforming the education system and the state exam program. Turning directly to the consideration of Zhang Zhidong's new proposals, it should be noted first of all that in the chapter "Establishment of schools" the author clearly formulates the general principles of educational policy: first, "equal study of old and new", and secondly, "equal study of politics and technology". Zhang Zhidong referred to "Chinese science" as "old knowledge", and "Western science" as "new knowledge", which were related to each other as "basis" - ti and "application"-yong (Zhang Zhidong, 1961, p.96).

Among the subjects of "Chinese science" required for study, Zhang Zhidong referred to the canonical Confucian texts "Five Canons" and "Four Books", which set out the main provisions of Confucian doctrine, the geography and history of China, as well as Chinese political theory, the traditional doctrine of governance. "New knowledge" included two broad blocks: "Western technology" - mathematics, mining, medicine, optics, chemistry, electrical engineering, acoustics, as well as "Western politics" - geography, history of European countries, the system of educational institutions, the financial system, taxation, legislation, military affairs, industry, trade [Zhang Zhidong, 1961, p. 96].

It is fundamentally important to emphasize that, despite emphasizing the equal importance of studying Chinese and Western disciplines, Zhang Zhidong clearly outlined the necessary sequence of mastering these disciplines.

Thus, according to Zhang Zhidong, the study of Chinese disciplines - the doctrinal foundations of Confucianism, the history and geography of China-must necessarily precede acquaintance with European subjects [Zhang Zhidong, 1961, p. 57; Tze-ki Hong, 2002, p.89]. The content of the "Chinese subjects" in the early stages of training indicates that Zhang Zhidong understood ideological training primarily as

page 86

moral and patriotic education of students. In his opinion, it was Confucian teaching that formed the specifics of Chinese culture and statehood and could become the basis for the formation of the cultural and political identity of the Chinese nation. Zhang Zhidong considered it possible to teach "Western technology" - natural and exact disciplines - already at the initial stage of training, considering" Western technology " ideologically neutral. "Those who have extensive knowledge and are older in age should study Western politics, those who are receptive and younger in age should study Western technology" [Zhang Zhidong, 1961, p.97]. After studying a course of basic " Chinese disciplines "and getting acquainted with" Western technology", the student was considered a" multi-faceted talent "with both" old "and" new " knowledge. It is easy to see that the graduate who received this kind of education corresponded to the characteristic of an exemplary official, proposed by the leaders of the first stage of the movement "for mastering foreign affairs".

However, Zhang Zhidong did not limit himself to just suggestions for training specialized specialists. In his reform program, he also called for the creation of higher education institutions aimed at educating professional politicians. Training in such institutions presupposed a deep understanding of the Confucian doctrine of public administration and "Western politics" - the experience of public administration in Western countries [Zhang Zhidong, 1961, pp. 101-103]. This proposal shows that Zhang Zhidong recognized the traditional justification of professional hierarchy, considering knowledge of the doctrinal foundations of management to be the main condition for successful administration. However, it should be noted that the reformer considered this kind of ideological training necessary only for the highest echelon of bureaucratic personnel directly involved in the development and adoption of political decisions. According to Zhang Zhidong, the main part of the bureaucratic staff was made up of specialists with specialized knowledge.

As a result, we can conclude that the traditional justification of professional hierarchy underwent a significant rethinking during the reform movements of the second half of the XIX century. The leaders of the reforms "for the assimilation of foreign affairs" in the 1860s and 1890s considered the training of relevant personnel as the main condition for the successful implementation of their initiatives. The training requirements they put forward were determined by the nature of the transformations being carried out. The specific content of training new cadres fully reflected the basic provisions of the ideological program of the reform movement.

Views of the reformers of the second half of the XIX century. The relationship between ideological and professional training is largely consistent with the statements of modern Chinese leaders. In today's conditions, at the stage of joining the world community, the Chinese Government seeks to flexibly take into account the trends of internationalization and nationalization in its policy, in order to turn China into a leading power in the world, but without losing its cultural identity. The leaders of the People's Republic of China turn to the historical and cultural past of the country, use the centuries-old experience of public administration in solving modern problems.

list of literature

Borevskaya N. E. Gosudarstvo i shkola [State and School]. China's Experience on the threshold of the 3rd Millennium, Moscow, 2003.

Gao Mingshi. Zhongguo jiaoyu zhidu shilun (History of the education system in China). Taipei, 1999.

Zinov'ev G. V. Issledovanie talentosti v Drevnem Kitae (na materialam traktata Lu Shao "Ren wu zhi") [Research of talent in Ancient China (based on the materials of Liu Shao's treatise "Ren wu zhi")]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta Ser. 13.Vostokovedenie. 1999. N 2.

Zinov'ev G. V. O kategorii "talant" v kitayskoy traditsii [On the category of "talent" in the Chinese tradition]. 2001. N 2.

page 87

Classical Confucianism / Transl., art., commentary by A. Martynov and I. Zograf. Vol. 1., St. Petersburg, 2000.

Confucian treatise "Zhong Yun": translations and research / Comp. by A. E. Lukyanov, Moscow, 2003.

Liu Shao. O chelovecheskom sushche [About the human being] / Translated by G. V. Zinoviev / / Iskusstvo vlastvovat, Moscow, 2001.

Mianxiang 21 shiji jiaoyu zhenxing sindong jihua (Plan for the development of education facing the 21st century) //

Su Yunfeng. Zhang Zhidong yu Hubei jiaoyuigaige (Zhang Zhidong and education reform in Hubei). Taipei, 1983.

Shushu duben (Quatrains). Taipei, 2001.

Tikhvinskiy S. L. Dvizhenie za reformy v Kitae v kontsey XIX v. [The Movement for Reforms in China at the end of the 19th century].

Zeng Guofan. Tsengwenzheng quanyiu zhetsui (Selected works of Tseng Wenzheng) / Ed. Zhu Rensheng. Taipei, 1992.

Jiang Zemin. Reform. Development. Stability. Articles and speeches, Moscow, 2002.

Zhang Jing. Yangwu jiaoyu yanjiu (Learning [concepts] education [movement] "for foreign affairs") / / Nankai shixue. 1991. N 2.

Zhang Zhidong. Quanxuepian (Call to Study). Taipei, 1961.

Zhongguo ruxue (Encyclopedia of Confucianism in China). Beijing, 1997.

Zhongguo lishi (Encyclopedia of Chinese History). Beijing, 1997.

Zhongguo jingdai jiaoyushi zilaohuibian (Collection of sources on the history of education in modern Times in China) / Ed. Jiu Xinghui, Tong Funan. Shanghai, 1997.

Zhongguo jiaoyushi (History of Education in Modern China) / Ed. Wang Bingzhao. Taipei, 1994.

Zhongguo zhexue (Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy). Shanghai, 1994.

Zhongguo jindai xuezhi shiliao (Materials on the education system in modern times in China)/. Ed. Zhu Yuhuan, Vol. 1, Part 1, Shanghai, 1983.

Zheng Jianshun. Zhongguo jindai rencai syxiang yanjiu (A study of the concept of "talent" in Modern China). Xiamen, 1999.

Chen Xiuxia. Shilun Zhang Zhidong de rencaiguan (Initial review of Zhang Zhidong's idea of "talent") / / Zhang Zhidong yu Zhongguojindaihua (Zhang Zhidong and China's Modernization) / Ed. Yuan Shui, Qin Jincai. Beijing, 1999.

Yangwu Yundong (Movement for Foreign Affairs), vol. 1-8. Shanghai, 1961.

Ch'u Tung-tsu. Local Government in China Under the Ch'ing. Harvard, 1970.

Lee Thomas H. C. Education in Traditional China. A History. Leiden, 2000.

Tze-ki Hon. Zhang Zhidong's Proposal for Reform: A New Reading of the Quanxue pian //Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period. Political and Cultural Change in Late Qing China / Ed. by R. E. Karl and P. Zarrow. Harvard, 2002.

Yang C. K. Some Characteristics of Chinese Bureaucratic Behavior // Confucianism in Action / Ed. by D. S. Nivison and A. F. Wright. Stanford, 1966.


Permanent link to this publication:

Similar publications: LUnited States LWorld Y G


Ann JacksonContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster:

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

P. I. RYSAKOVA, CONFUCIAN ORIGINS OF CHINESE EDUCATIONAL DOCTRINE: PAST AND PRESENT // New-York: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 05.07.2024. URL: (date of access: 25.07.2024).

Found source (search robot):

Publication author(s) - P. I. RYSAKOVA:

P. I. RYSAKOVA → other publications, search: Libmonster USALibmonster WorldGoogleYandex


Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
  • There are no comments yet
Related topics
Ann Jackson
Chicago, United States
75 views rating
05.07.2024 (20 days ago)
0 subscribers
0 votes
Related Articles
45 minutes ago · From Ann Jackson
51 minutes ago · From Ann Jackson
3 hours ago · From Ann Jackson
Catalog: Science Economics 
5 days ago · From Ann Jackson
5 days ago · From Ann Jackson
5 days ago · From Ann Jackson
Progress Sums: 1,2,3,4,5..., -1,-2,-3,-4,-5... It can be found using the formula: Sn=(n²a₁+n)/2. Progress Sum: 1,3,6,10,15..., -1,-3,-6,-10,-15... It can be found using the formula: Sn= ((n+a₁)³-(n+a₁))/6. Progress Sum: 1,4,9,16,25..., -1,-4,-9,-16,-25... It can be found using the formula: Sn= a₁(n+a₁)(n²a₁+0.5n)/3. (Where n - is the number of summable terms, a₁ - is the first term of the progression).
Catalog: Mathematics 
6 days ago · From Andrei Verner
To the 80th anniversary of YEVGENY MAKSIMOVICH PRIMAKOV
Catalog: Science History Philosophy 
6 days ago · From Ann Jackson
6 days ago · From Ann Jackson
6 days ago · From Ann Jackson

New publications:

Popular with readers:

News from other countries:

LIBMONSTER.COM - U.S. Digital Library

Create your author's collection of articles, books, author's works, biographies, photographic documents, files. Save forever your author's legacy in digital form. Click here to register as an author.
Library Partners


Editorial Contacts
Chat for Authors: U.S. LIVE: We are in social networks:

About · News · For Advertisers

U.S. Digital Library ® All rights reserved.
2014-2024, LIBMONSTER.COM is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)
Keeping the heritage of the United States of America


US-Great Britain Sweden Serbia
Russia Belarus Ukraine Kazakhstan Moldova Tajikistan Estonia Russia-2 Belarus-2

Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of affiliates, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. Once you register, you have more than 100 tools at your disposal to build your own author collection. It's free: it was, it is, and it always will be.

Download app for Android