Candidate of Economic Sciences
M. A. BRATYAKOV
Far East Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: China, Asia-Pacific region, international processes, development, economy, politics, history, philosophy
The XX International Scientific Conference " China, Chinese Civilization and Peace. History, Modernity, Prospects", held on October 16-18, 2013 in the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as well as in the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The theme of the conference was "China at the epicenter of global problems". The event was organized by the IDV RAS, the Scientific Council for the Integrated Study of Modern China, the Russian-Chinese Center for Cross-Border Cooperation of the IDV RAS and the Research Institute of Northeast Asia of Jilin University (China). The number of participants exceeded 150 people representing Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, Poland, Portugal, and China. More than 120 scientific reports were presented.
The conference was opened by the Director of IDV RAS, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Jr. Titarenko and Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences S. L. Tikhvinsky, who noted the growing role and influence of China in the world. Yang Weibin, Adviser to the Chinese Embassy in Russia, emphasized the growing role of Russia and China in the Asia-Pacific region. Director of the Research Institute of Northeast Asia at Jilin University, Professor Zhu Xiangping, emphasized the great potential for the development of Northeast Asia. Bart Dessein, a professor at the University of Ghent (Belgium), spoke about Chinese nationalism and the creation of the Chinese "nation-state"model. The speaker raised the question of how modern Chinese nationalism can be considered as a continuation of the early nationalist movement in China in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
A.V. Ostrovsky, Doctor of Economics, Professor, delivered a report entitled "BRICS Countries: Experience in Comparative analysis of economic development", highlighting the growing role of the PRC in the global economy, the increase in Chinese investment in other countries of the world, and the increase in per capita income. The speaker gave a forecast for the deepening development of cooperation between China and the Central Asian countries, strengthening environmental protection measures, increasing the role of the PRC in scientific development and increasing R & D expenditures.
Dr. Tian Chunsheng (Research Center of the State Council of the People's Republic of China) spoke about the opportunities and prospects for turning the Chinese yuan into a pan-Asian currency, noting the growing share of payments in yuan between the People's Republic of China and Russia, as well as the emergence of the yuan as the main regional currency in the Asian region.
Sergey Luzyanin, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, in his report examined the systemic and complex phenomenon of China's "peaceful rise"*, covering the main areas of global and regional world politics, affecting global finance, trade, military security, various international structures and institutions, including the UN system, WTO, G-20, G-20, etc. S. G. Luzyanin highlighted 6 new accents and dimensions that the "Chinese rise" brings to the modern system of international relations, emphasizing that the defining goals in the implementation of the Chinese agenda of "rise" and the creation of a great Chinese state are likely to be the "two-century" milestones proclaimed in the PRC - the CPC centenary (2021) and the centenary of the People's Republic of China (2049).
Professor of the University of Lodz-
* The term "peaceful rise" in Chinese political vocabulary means the rapid development of Chinese society and the state, the transformation of this state into a leading world power (note rev).
M. Petrasiak presented a report on China's foreign policy and the development of its relations with the ASEAN countries. China uses a wide range of diplomatic means to strengthen cooperation and eliminate negative emotions and fears of threats allegedly coming from the Chinese side. These include the ASEAN+3, EAC, ARF, APEC, China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, as well as meetings with the heads of state of the region. Beijing initiates many joint events and consistently creates an image of a friendly and responsible state. Cultural diplomacy of the People's Republic of China is carried out through Chinese language programs, Confucius Institutes, meetings of culture ministers, and the creation of professional training centers.
Doctor of Historical Sciences Li Fengyan (Political and Legal Institute of North-Eastern Pedagogical University, China) made a presentation "On the symbiosis of harmony and cooperation - a new model of interaction between China and the world". This is a model based on the world's generally accepted value orientations, equality, respect, the principles of mutual benefit, trust and shared responsibility.
Doctor of Historical Sciences A.V. Lomanov spoke about the"Chinese dream" (Zhongguo meng) and the policy of the new leadership of the People's Republic of China, touching upon the slogans used in the work of the party and its propaganda. Appearing in 2012, the slogan "dreams of a great national revival" immediately gained popularity. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, constantly refers to the slogan of the" Chinese dream", whose three components are a strong and rich state, national uplift and people's happiness; and the three conditions for its implementation are moving along the" Chinese path " of socialism with Chinese characteristics, developing the Chinese spirit and rallying the forces of China.
Doctor of Economic Sciences E. P. Pivovarova explained why the slogan "China stands proudly in the East of the world!" is so popular today, emphasizing that China, unlike a number of other socialist countries, managed to preserve all the positive social gains of the past. Following the path of gradual introduction of market principles and market actors into the economy under the close control of the state, Beijing has managed to achieve high rates of development.
The first day of the conference ended with a round table, which was opened by Academician M. L. Titarenko. Noting the importance of further developing mutually beneficial cooperation between Russia and China, the speaker recalled that even in the difficult period after the collapse of the USSR, China still stated that it considers Russia a great power experiencing temporary difficulties.
Zhang Huizhi (NEA Research Institute of Jilin University) analyzed various aspects of China and the United States ' policy towards the DPRK, focusing on the problem of denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. The Chinese leadership considers it impossible to leave the DPRK without support in the context of the US policy of deterring China. For the United States, the Korean issue is an excuse to "return to Asia", one of the means to contain China and preserve global hegemony.
Candidate of Historical Sciences A. S. Davydov made a report on "Relations between China, the United States and Russia in the context of power changes: assessments, trends, new challenges and new prospects". The speaker expressed the opinion that although China retains its position as the second largest economy in the world, it has almost exhausted the resources of the extensive economic development model. As for the United States, in the context of the failure of monopolarity, without renouncing global messianism, Washington is forced to adjust the forms and methods of implementing its imperial ambitions. The main problems of Russia and its economy are still raw materials orientation, insufficient investment attractiveness and relatively high inflation rate.
In these circumstances, the strategic goal of the United States is to preserve its global dominance, China-to acquire and strengthen the status of a global power, and Russia-to strengthen the role of a kind of "bridge" connecting Europe and Asia. In the context of China and the United States competing in the Asia-Pacific region, it is very important for Russia not to be drawn into this confrontation. We need an open and equal dialogue with both sides.
M. V. Alexandrova, Ph. D. in Economics, spoke about trade, economic and investment cooperation between Russia and China. The main areas of investment activity of the People's Republic of China in the Russian Federation remain: mining, forestry, energy, trade. This situation is unlikely to change, since the "Program of Cooperation between the regions of the Far East and Eastern Siberia of the Russian Federation and the North-East of China (2009-2018)" agreed by the two states sets out the raw materials orientation of the economy of the Russian eastern regions. Currently, more than 30 facilities included by the Russian side in this program are being implemented. Russia is undoubtedly interested in attracting funds for production projects on its territory. Chinese partners, in turn, seek to expand trade and transport infrastructure to expand purchases of Russian raw materials and exports of finished products. The author believes that the Program-2108 in the form in which it is agreed, should be preserved, so as not to cause significant damage to the Russian eastern territories and their population.
Dr. J. M. Berger believes that China is at the beginning of a new stage of its post-reform existence. This stage will differ in many ways from the previous one. Previously, the main efforts were directed at creating a market economy. This task is mostly solved. Now it is necessary to improve and develop market institutions for example-
in addition to the proclaimed goals of national revival, China's ascent to the position of a leading world power. The most important role in this process is to build optimal relations between the state and the market, between economic expediency and social justice, and ultimately between socialist and capitalist factors of development.
HOW SECTIONS WORK
1 At the section - "China in world politics and economy at the present stage" (head-Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors). V. Ya. Portyakov, Director of the Institute of Internal Medicine of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics, Professor) - 17 reports were heard.
The section was opened by Candidate of Historical Sciences A. O. Vinogradov with the message "New moments in China's relations with the European Union". As the speaker pointed out, the EU's trade war with China breaks out every year. The events of 2013 are interesting because of the tightening of Beijing's response to the European Union, which is growing weaker and experiencing constant difficulties, not so much economic as structural, caused by the complexity of the governance mechanism.
In his report "China's Identity in World Politics", PhD Evgeny N. Grachikov described three challenges that China faced: legal (1949-1971), economic (1971-2001), and civilizational (since 2001), which directly relate to identity. In China itself, there is a struggle between two identities - liberal (new middle class) and traditional (internal migrants), which complicates the internal situation and affects the country's international identity. According to the speaker, the process of self-identification of China is incomplete, although the basis of the new identity of the country as a strong, prosperous, successful superpower has already been formed.
Ph. D. B. V. Safronov devoted his report to the interaction of China and the United States in the framework of APEC. The speaker stressed that this interaction helped to break the political deadlock between the United States and China, while maintaining different approaches to the problems that arise in the Asia-Pacific region. Assessing the confrontation between the United States and China on the APEC platform, the speaker expressed the opinion that Washington is not able to really implement a policy of deterrence. The reasons for this, in his opinion, are: the budget deficit, America's national debt (debt to China - $1.2 trillion) and the presence of acute problems in the Arab East.
S. M. Trush, Ph. D. in History, continued the topic of Sino-American relations in the Asia-Pacific region with the report "The American Trans-Pacific Partnership Initiative and China: Forecast Scenarios". The speaker emphasized that the American concept of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a key element of the American "return" to the Asia - Pacific region. Achieving "competitive liberalization" in the region and greater compatibility of the economies of the TPP member countries with the "Washington consensus" creates systemic competitive advantages for the United States, which makes China's participation in the TPP problematic. In China, there are 2 opposing points of view on this problem: 1) negative - no need to participate in the TPP, because the bar of commitment is too high; 2) positive - moderate, selfish participation in the TPP, which is consistent with the goals of Chinese reforms.
The report of Candidate of Political Science N. Ya. V. Leksyutina "Growing rivalry between China and the United States in the Asia - Pacific region as a factor of regional instability" completed the thematic block-China and the United States in the Asia-Pacific region. According to the speaker, the growing influence of the PRC and the return of the United States to the Asia-Pacific region cause intense Sino-American rivalry in the region, which manifests itself in two areas: 1) integration processes are the priority of the TPP or ASEAN+6 model; 2) the military-political sphere - attempts to "pull" the key states of the region to their side, which leads to the militarization of the region and an arms race. Economically, it is difficult for the United States to compete with China in the Asia-Pacific region, so it is likely that they will increase their military and political presence, which may lead to a complication of relations with China and the security situation in the region as a whole.
S. V. Krivokhizh in her report "From propaganda to public diplomacy: the experience of the People's Republic of China" noted that Chinese authors often consider public diplomacy as a logical continuation of external propaganda (Weixuan) in new conditions. During the period of reforms and openness, the old methods of foreign policy propaganda ceased to meet the requirements of the time, and propaganda evolved into public diplomacy. The old methods of interacting with foreign audiences have been improved, and the tools used have been significantly expanded.
A. Kireeva made a presentation on "The Great Asian Powers China-Japan-India and the configuration of forces in the Asia-Pacific region", emphasizing that, in addition to the United States - a separate center of power, China, Japan and India play a key role in regional processes in the Asia-Pacific region. According to AA. The relations between these states will determine the development of the Asia-Pacific region. The economic and political rise of the three Asian countries, as well as the strengthening of military cooperation between Japan and the United States, will largely determine the process of formatting the Asia-Pacific region and the role of Russia in this process.
Candidate of Political Science P. B. Kamennov highlighted the military policy of China in his report. According to the speaker, China's strategy in the field of military security is to implement a wide range of preventive measures of a political, diplomatic, economic and military nature, aimed at creating favorable conditions in and around China and reducing factors of instability. In the past-
The task of the Chinese armed forces is not only to protect the country's sovereignty and territorial integrity along the perimeter of its borders, but also to ensure security on the seas, in the world's oceans, in the air, space and electronic information spaces.
The concept of integrated security is being implemented, which assumes the ability of the army to effectively perform both military and non-military (rescue) operations. The principle of "the party commands the rifle" remains unshakable. China's desire to develop a constructive dialogue with the United States on military security issues is met with opposition in the form of a policy of "containment" of China, aimed at preserving the dominant position of the United States in the Asia-Pacific region. P. B. Kamennov notes that the PLA is also used as a tool for ensuring domestic political stability and preventing terrorist threats inside the country. China's military spending is growing from year to year. The PLA is expanding its participation in non-military operations to maintain peace and strengthen international security. Russian-Chinese military and military-technical cooperation has good prospects.
As emphasized in the report of K. V. Antipov "China in the Middle East", recently the position of the PRC in the Middle East and North Africa has significantly strengthened. In particular, the "Arab Spring", the global economic crisis, and the strengthening of the role of political Islam in a number of Arab countries contributed to this. China has managed not only to maintain but also strengthen its two main policy directions: to ensure strategic stability and high dynamics of economic cooperation with the Arab world as a whole, and to consolidate political relations with the regimes that came to power in the wake of the "Arab Spring". According to the author, in a number of Arab countries, China is already perceived as one of the most significant world powers that can "compensate" for the expected decline in the role of the United States here.
Deputy Director of the Institute of Foreign Policy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics, Professor V. Ya. Portyakov presented the report "From Hu Jintao to Xi Jinping: Outlines of the Foreign Policy of the Fifth-generation Leaders of the People's Republic of China". The speaker positively assessed the legacy of fourth-generation leaders: Hu Jintao, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, and Wen Jiabao, Premier of the State Council, emphasizing that in 2002-2012, the PRC went from being a regional power to a global one. However, the author notes that the concept of "harmonious peace "and economic diplomacy could not prevent the emergence of friction with neighboring countries, which cast doubt on the" peaceful path of development " of the PRC. The fifth generation of leaders-Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, and Li Keqiang, Premier of the State Council - were tested on the international stage for several years before coming to power. Xi Jinping's first foreign policy steps were a visit to Russia and some African countries, participation in the BRICS summit, the Boao Forum, and resolution of the crisis situation on the Korean Peninsula that escalated in April-May 2013. Li Keqiang visited India, Pakistan, Switzerland and Germany.
The international course of the fifth generation of Chinese leaders for the entire decade allotted to it can be described to some extent as a "policy of continuity" inherited by Xi Jinping's team from Hu Jintao's team. The situation is more complicated with the " novelty features "that will be associated with the development of the concept of the" Chinese dream " and its implementation in practice.
In her report, Doctor of Historical Sciences L. V. Zabrovskaya considered a new stage of political rivalry in Sino-Japanese relations. The specificity of the current stage of these relations, according to the speaker, is that the aggravation of military-political rivalry and competition is accompanied by an increase in economic interdependence and an increase in the level of interest in each other when solving regional problems. In the near future, close ties between Japan and the United States will not allow Tokyo to radically change its policy towards China. Japan will continue to maneuver between the US and China. China will take an observant position and take a more pragmatic approach to cooperation with Japan on regional policy issues.
Candidate of Economic Sciences A. K. Krivorotov made a report on "Arctic issues in China's relations with the Nordic countries", noting that China's penetration into the Arctic Region is proceeding in several directions: political contacts with the countries of the region, scientific research, trade, investment, and humanitarian ties. China is attracting natural resources and alternative transportation corridors to markets in Europe and the East Coast of the United States.
The Scandinavian countries that have access to the Arctic Ocean are of particular interest to China, which, in turn, is also of interest to them as a trade and economic partner and an important potential investor. China's penetration into the Arctic is still poorly understood by the Scandinavian countries, and their rapprochement with China causes concern for NATO partners, which already affects the internal political situation in the Scandinavian countries. This may affect the further development of relations between Scandinavia and China, and is of practical interest to Russia.
From the report of Doctor of Historical Sciences M. V. Danilovich "Beginning of a new stage of China's Central Asian strategy (2011-2012) "it follows that at the beginning of the XXI century, China is developing a "Central Asian strategy", which, based on security issues, gives preference to the border states of the region. The speaker believes that China's initial bid for the SCO, which did not bring the expected results, was replaced by a growing cent peg.-
relations of the Central Asian neighbors to the PRC at the bilateral level.
The Chinese factor of the SCO was considered in the report of L. I. Kadyrova. According to the speaker, the SCO plays an important role in China's foreign policy. This structure makes it possible to strengthen the country's internal security through security in the region as a whole, combine efforts to counter non-traditional security threats, and expand economic cooperation with neighbors. China's strategic goals within the SCO include:: strengthening its position in Central Asia (CA), deterring other players in Central Asia (including the United States). However, China's primary interest in the SCO is economic ties.
D. V. Gordienko, Doctor of Military Sciences and Professor, devoted his report to ensuring China's economic security in the context of globalization. According to the speaker, the main threats to the economic world order, including the national economy of China, in the coming years will be a decline in economic growth, an increase in sovereign debt crises, a deterioration in the global environment, a reduction in external demand for emerging markets, as well as increased inflation, the manifestation of various forms of protectionism, trade and currency wars. Measures to ensure economic security adopted in a number of countries (including China) are: economic patronage, economic cooperation and economic confrontation.
Graduate student I. G. Chubarov spoke about global cities in modern China. After analyzing a wide range of indicators (population, RVC, FDI, number of headquarters and representative offices of large foreign companies, volume of foreign trade, number of international exhibitions, international transport and socio-cultural integration, state policy), the author identified five global cities in China, as well as their types: "Asian world city" - Hong Kong, "capital" - Beijing, "industrial" - Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen.
A. G. Larin, Ph. D., concluded the section with a report on "Assessing the role of the Chinese Diaspora in the economy of host countries", emphasizing that the Chinese diaspora has had and continues to have a significant impact on the economic development of many countries. In Southeast Asia and other developing countries, along with the positive impact (GDP growth, exports, average incomes, promoting integration into the global market, technology transfer), there is a negative impact of Chinese migration (turning countries into a raw material appendage of China). In the United States and other developed countries, the Chinese diaspora is characterized by a high educational and material level (more than 50% are qualified personnel). It makes a significant contribution to the development and production of innovative products, and young university graduates join the ranks of "white-collar workers". In the United States, investment immigration from China of wealthy Chinese people is growing. In general, the Chinese diaspora is harmoniously integrated into American society. A. G. Larin concluded his speech by considering the possibility of using the potential of the Chinese diaspora in Russia.
At section 2 "Russia and China: Global and regional cooperation" (Head - Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors). S. G. Luzyanin, Director of the Institute of Internal Medicine of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor) - 11 people made reports and presentations, 23 people took part in discussions.
Sergey Luzyanin opened the morning session of the section with the report " SCO and Development Strategy. Russian-Chinese cooperation in the organization". The author conventionally defines 2001-2013 as the period of initial institutionalization of the SCO. He considers 2013 to be the beginning of the second phase of development - "internal institutionalization" (qualitative development of key structures - the Business Council, etc.). Pointing out the tendency to strengthen the role of military-political components in the development strategy and practical activities of all SCO structures, the speaker emphasized the need to deepen dialogue and cooperation between the SCO and the CSTO and cooperation on certain issues with NATO. The development of the SCO in three areas (economic, security, and humanitarian cooperation) objectively meets the interests of both the Russian-Chinese strategic partnership and interaction in general, as well as the national interests of the Russian Federation and the PRC in the Central Asian region and its adjacent zones.
Doctor of Military Sciences A.V. Bolyatko considered issues related to the" return " of the United States to the Asia-Pacific region: deepening and expanding the bilateral and multilateral partnership of the United States with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, promoting and adapting the American military presence in the region. According to the speaker, it will take years and large investments to implement such plans, but most likely Washington will go for it, since the Asia-Pacific region is vital for the United States.
V. E. Petrovsky assessed the prospects for the development of Russian-Chinese relations. According to the speaker, further progress in bilateral relations will require qualitative changes in the economy, trade, energy, cross-border cooperation, development of the regions of Siberia and the Far East, cultural and humanitarian cooperation. Further coordination of the foreign policy efforts of the Russian Federation and the PRC will lead to joint practical steps by the two countries aimed at implementing the Russian-Chinese initiative to create a multilateral negotiation and consultation mechanism on regional security and cooperation based on the OSCE principles in Northeast Asia (with subsequent expansion to the Asia-Pacific region as a whole).
Candidate of Economic Sciences E. I. Safronova presented the report "The importance of economic development in Russia".
China's strategic diplomacy to maintain strategic security in the NEA". The author describes economic diplomacy (ED) as the ability of a country to effectively use its competitive advantages to achieve foreign policy and/or foreign economic goals. After the" return " of the United States to the Asia-Pacific region, China is forced to join the struggle to maintain its position in the NEA. The military-military method of countering the United States is unacceptable for the PRC, so the economic approach remains the only possible and effective way for it to gain a foothold in the NEA, narrowing the space for maneuver for Washington.
The evening session devoted to the problems of bilateral Russian-Chinese cooperation in the economic, energy and humanitarian spheres opened with a report by Ph. D. V. A. Matveev "Global Gas Market: Challenges to Russian-Chinese cooperation". According to the speaker, providing the needs of the Chinese national economy with energy resources is becoming one of the most important factors in its foreign policy strategy. In the medium term, the shortage of natural gas in China will increase. Even now, the issue of the purchase price of imported gas is becoming particularly acute, which explains the long-standing disputes over the volume and price of purchasing network gas from Russia. The delay in determining the contractual sales price for the Yakut gas offered by Russia suits both sides, but both sides are focused on the practical solution of agreements on gas volumes, supply routes and sales prices.
S. L. Sazonov, Ph. D. in Economics, in his report "Cooperation between Russia and China in the development of infrastructure integration", noted the growth in the number of joint investment projects, among which one can distinguish large objects in the field of transport, which accounted for 16% of Chinese foreign direct investment in Russia in 2011. Cooperation in the field of transport will be implemented through the joint Russian-Chinese investment fund (RCIF) in the amount of $4 billion, established in June 2011 with the support of the governments of the Russian Federation and China.
In March 2013, the parties signed a "Memorandum on facilitating investment in the construction of transport infrastructure in the Far Eastern Federal District of the Russian Federation and in the development of the Russian Far East". It notes that " when determining investment vectors, the main focus will be on large-scale projects in the field of transport infrastructure and logistics." In addition, the State Development Bank of China and Sberbank of the Russian Federation intend to allocate up to $2 billion. to finance major infrastructure projects that promote the development of joint trade.
A.V. Rinchinov, who delivered a report on "Analysis of the structure of military-technical cooperation between the Russian Federation and the PRC in 2012," pointed out that the situation in the sphere of Russian-Chinese military-technical cooperation has developed in which the Russian side is exclusively an exporter. This situation will continue as long as Russia holds the bar of leadership inherited from the USSR in the field of aircraft and helicopter construction, production of anti-aircraft missile systems (SAM) and high-tech shipbuilding. In the areas of small arms and tank construction, which are fundamental for the military-industrial complex, China has reached technological parity with the Russian military-industrial complex. It follows that the PRC will continue to cooperate with the Russian Federation in order to modernize the PLA Air Force and, to a lesser extent, the PLA Navy until it begins to meet its own demand independently.
K. G. Muratshina presented the report " Russia - China: the problem of transboundary rivers", noting that the problem of joint rational use of transboundary rivers has recently become one of the most acute. The reasons are the large-scale exploitation of inland water resources, the growing need for them in connection with the economic plans of the PRC, and the excessively passive position of Russia, which relies on mutual compliance with environmental agreements. The speaker stressed that the use of shared water bodies, as well as investment projects that affect the way of life of people and cause irreversible changes in nature, should be subject to joint expertise and get the consent of the population. The contractual framework should be developed on the basis of observing the principles of equal cooperation and respecting the interests of both parties.
In his report "The role of Russian-Chinese relations in shaping the new world order", Professor A. Mokretsky made an attempt to analyze eight potential incentives for the possible "acceleration" of cooperation, as well as to identify those problems that can become factors of "inhibition" or even obstacles to the further development of friendship, partnership and good-neighborliness between the Russian Federation and the PRC.
Practical recommendations and suggestions based on the results of the section were made by Ambassador G. A. Ivashentsev, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor S. G. Luzyanin, Doctor of Political Science V. E. Petrovsky. It is considered appropriate to conduct an expert discussion of the Afghan issue in the Russian-Chinese format; pay more attention to the discussion of the Korean problem in the Russian-Chinese format, taking into account the interests of the Russian Federation and the PRC; formulate a Russian-Chinese vision of the contours of energy security and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, taking into account the interests of the public awareness, including areas of contiguous (cross-border) interaction.
(The ending follows)
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