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Author(s) of the publication: A. DROZDOV

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The 75th anniversary of academic science has been celebrated in the Far East this year. The first research institution in the region was a meteorological station founded in 1912. Today the Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences has six scientific centers, 31 institutes, 2,543 employees (including 34 academicians, 344 Doctors of Sciences and 1,172 Candidates of Sciences). The Branch also has three reserves, forty stations and nine research vessels with an unlimited navigation area.

For the last years scientists of the RAS Far-Eastern Branch have achieved results of universal importance, primarily in the field of mechanics, theory of management processes, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, volcanology, oceanology, geography, etc. At the present time 64 promising projects are being implemented there. Scientists of the Far East have arranged close cooperation with the RAS SB and RAS UB, work with partners from Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain, France, Belgium, USA, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, Canada, Mongolia, India and other countries.

Geosciences are of utmost importance in the region. Thus, for the last 70 years, a lot of interesting discoveries have been made by scientists of the Kamchatka Volcanological Station. RAS FEB Pacific Oceanological Institute named after V. Ilyichev has been effectively operating there: specialists of this institute compiled a geological map of the Pacific Ocean bed; explored synoptical vortexes, their role in the interchange of heat and mass; scientists have designed and use a laser lidar to carry out remote probing of sea areas of water based on the effect of forced and combination dispersion; to perform atmospheric-optical and hydrooptical measurements; for years a laser default-mometer created by local specialists in acoustics has been in operation there.

A vast territory from the south of Primorye to the north-eastern part of Chukotka is occupied by biological stations, permanent establishments, bases, botanical gardens, reserves and wildlife preserves, where scientists study the malvellous and varied world of flora and fauna. First of all, we are speaking about the RAS FEB Biological and Soil Institute: specialists of this scientific center study the world of plants and insects inhabiting the region under consideration. RAS FEB Institute of Marine Biology named after A. Zhirmunsky pay special attention to biological resources of water areas, in particular to algae, invertebrates, fish and mammals. As it turned out, many of them, for example, sea urchins, can be used to implement experimental biological processes. Inspecting sea urchins, scientists managed to decode a series of cytological and molecular-biological mechanisms of differentiation of cells in the course of morphogenesis and regeneration of certain animals.

Activities of experts of the Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry are closely associated with the problems of biology. Marine organisms distinct from terrestrial ones both by chemical composition and peculiarities of biological action - serve as a source for them to develop new natural compounds. By the present time they have produced about 10,000 low-molecular-weight natural compounds.

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A team of scientists from the RAS FEB Institute of Chemistry are studying specifics of mineral resources of the Far East and Pacific Ocean. The actual absence of chemical industry and excellent prospects of developing the region have predetermined main fields of activity of the institute: study of the structure of materials with specified functional properties, including materials attractive for marine technologies and equipment.

As for physico-technical and mathematical issues, they are, first of all, solved at the RAS FEB Institute of Automatics and Control Processes. Research works are focused on modeling complex technical systems, computer science, satellite monitoring of natural processes, mechanics of solid bodies, liquids, and gases, optoelectronic methods of research of gaseous and condensed media, physics of semiconductor nanostructures, etc.

Scientists from the RAS FEB Institute of Problems of Marine Technologies are also working on very interesting projects. Along with fundamental theoretical studies, they carry out different experiments to design and manufacture underwater robototechnology and use it in the interests of the national economy. Not so long ago employees of this institute have designed and tested more than ten autonomous unmanned devices capable of studying sea bottom, making photos of its relief, finding and examining shipwrecks, measuring media parameters, etc.

Scientific centers and institutions of the RAS FEB have a good potential in the field of innovations, including nanotechnologies. Future success of Far-Eastern scientists is associated with the creation of biominerals with properties of photon crystals and quartz optical fibers, at the same time solid, elastic and flexible.

A. Drozdov, Achievements and Prospects, "Far-Eastern Scientist", No. 13, 2007

Prepared by Yaroslav MARONOV

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A. DROZDOV, ACHIEVEMENTS OF FAR-EASTERN SCIENTISTS // London: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 25.09.2018. URL: http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/ACHIEVEMENTS-OF-FAR-EASTERN-SCIENTISTS (date of access: 21.11.2019).

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