Libmonster ID: U.S.-1365
Author(s) of the publication: A. S. SHAKHOV

A. S. SHAKHOV

Candidate of Historical Sciences

Scientific Research Institute of Cinematography (VGIK)

Tunis Keywords:cinemaNouri BouzidNasser HemirSarah Abidi, Mouiz Kamoun

Tunis, the pearl of the Mediterranean, holds a special place in the film process of the Arab-African area. The birth of Tunisian cinema is considered to be 1967 - the first full-length film "Dawn" directed by Omar Khlifi, the "patriarch" of the national cinema, was shown in one of the country's cinemas.

An important milestone in the history of Tunisian cinema was the Carthage Film Festival of Africa and the Arab East, which has been held in the country since 1966 and has gained international recognition, and on the basis of which the Pan-African Federation of Cinematographers (FEPASI)was formed in 1970*. Despite the relatively small volume of film production, Tunisian cinema is distinguished by its thematic diversity, commitment to the ideals of humanism, respect for the values of national culture, and truthful and analytical reflection of the problems of national reality.

Released in 2006, director Nouri Bouzid "The Last Film"received a wide response both in Tunisia and abroad. The film was awarded the golden statuette "Tanita" (goddess of the moon) at the International Film Festival in Carthage as "best feature film".1. In 2007, at the Trayoeka Film Festival in New York, she was awarded prizes in the categories "best screenplay" and "best actor" (Lutfi Abdelli-leading actor).2.

For his contribution to the development of screen art, the French Ministry of Culture awarded cinematographer N. Bouzil the Legion of Honor at the Cannes International Film Festival in 2011.3

The film tells about the events taking place in our time. The film is based on the story of the fate of Vakhta - a young unemployed break - dancer, passionate about hip-hop, rap, freestyle, a kind of representative of modern urban and street culture. Vakhta is the eldest child in a poor, large family. The hero has a rebellious and rebellious character by nature. On the basis of "rebellion", he and his friends have constant clashes with the police. The guy does not have a relationship with his beloved Suad, who does not approve of the" dances " of her boyfriend and hopes that soon he will find a more worthy occupation in life.

Vakhta dreams of a good happy future, but the difficult social conditions in which the hero initially resides, problems in the family, failures in his personal life by the end of the film change his stereotypes and attitude to his life.

A turning point in the hero's life is a meeting with an elderly and domineering Shukri, under whose influence the film hero comes into contact with Islamic fundamentalists. Vakhta comes to believe that the West is plundering Muslim lands, instilling an alien ideology, and in general, the modern world is a paradise for"infidels". The lies spread by non-believers should be used in the name of just revenge. The guy is instructed to pray as often as possible.

Shukri brings the Watch to the idea that war and self-sacrifice are the only way to open the gates of paradise. And not only for myself,but also for my poor mother and all my relatives. The young man runs away from the "tutor", but after some time returns. Coming across the death belt-


* Currently, FEPASI, with its headquarters in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, unites most of the national film associations in Africa.

page 63

nick, decides to cut his head off, grow a beard.

The hero's mother and lover learn about their intention to become a "shahid". But all the persuasions of relatives are in vain. Nothing will stop the "fighter for the faith". The film is filled with dramatic scenes. The mother's face speaks of deep sadness, suffering for the fate of her son. She is aware of the hopelessness of the situation.

Wearing a suicide belt, the "hero-martyr" goes "to the feat", but on the way he notices one of the recruiters who brought him together with Shukri. An epiphany comes: The Watch starts beating him up. The siren of a patrol car is heard wailing. Hoping to get lost among the stacks of cargo containers, the hero rushes towards the port. Law enforcement officers, friends of the Watch and beloved Suad also arrive there, trying to save the kamikaze who has lost his vital landmarks. But all in vain: a fatal explosion is heard behind one of the containers.

The ending of the film is very emotional. Friends of the deceased wander to the port, and along with them - saddened, who lost her beloved Suad. Music plays a special role in the last episode. A shrill song embodying the ideological and moral message of the film sounds from the screen: "My country, be what you want. But be for me!"..

The strong side of the work is the depth of the psychological characteristics of the main character, which clearly reflects the main essence of the director's plan. The film's outline seems to be imbued with the personal drama of Vakhta, a representative of the younger generation. His life's quest, which led nowhere, is like a mirror image of unresolved topical problems associated with a new stage of socio-economic and political development of society.

The search character of Tunisian cinematographers 'creative work was proved by Nasser Hemir 's poetic painting"Baba Aziz" (2005), painted with folklore motifs and beautifully shot. This film is the third part of the director's "desert" trilogy. The first two are Desert Wanderers (1986) and The Lost Dove's Necklace (1991). In 2006, at the IV Muscat Film Festival (Oman), the film was awarded the Golden Dagger prize in the Best Film category.4

The main characters are a little girl named Ishtar and her old blind grandfather, Baba Aziz, a dervish, lost in the desert sands. They are sent to a secret meeting of Sufis, which takes place every 30 years. None of the dervishes knows where they are going to meet this time, but each one is looking for the way based on their faith. Only in the endless silence of the desert can you hear a secret, sacred message.

Along the way, Baba Aziz and Ishtar meet other people-heroes of the film, whose stories about the fate of which appear on the screen as parallel but interconnected storylines, like a story within a story, like a dream within another dream.

The combination of dramatic and heartfelt lyrical utterances used by the cinematographer creates a vivid gallery of characters of "Muslim hermits". Among them - the image of the prince, evoking memories of the characters of the fairy tales "Thousand and One Nights". While watching a dancer perform in the tent, he suddenly rushes after a gazelle that has flashed on the edge of a dune and, having lost his way, finds a reflection of his soul at the bottom of a well that gets in the way. Looking for each other in the ocean of bizarre sandy landscapes, the twins Hassan and Hussein also turned out to be colorful. The episode with Osman, who overcame his fear, jumped into a magic well and found himself in a magnificent underground palace, where he fell in love with the charming Guria Zahra, was memorable.

The apotheosis of all the wanderings and adventures was the arrival of the girl Ishtar to a meeting of dervishes hidden from prying eyes, on the eve of which Baba Aziz informs his granddaughter that it is time for him to say goodbye - to merge with the desert and become a part of its many legends and legends...

The inclusion of plot events in the solemn world of epic narration did not prevent the heroization of the film's characters, but allowed us to establish a live audience contact with them, understand and love them. Responding to the Sufi tradition, Nasser Khemir's poem associated human life with the path to the realization of a high truth that is accessible only to Sufis - "poor wanderers" who are free from greed and protect themselves from the temptations of worldly life.

A high professional level is distinguished by Sarah Abidi "The Last Wagon" (2010), 5 in which the issues of loneliness and a person's search for spiritual harmony in life came to the fore.

The main character is an unmarried 40-year-old writer who leads a reclusive lifestyle.

page 64

Only in writing does she see the meaning of her existence. Gray boring days brighten up a cat named Tigger. The rest is boring and routine. In order to somehow overcome emotional fatigue, the main character constantly smokes, sometimes tries to see the merits of unremarkable paintings hanging on the walls of rooms.

A call from a long-time friend who invited the heroine to a meeting that was never meant to take place further worsens the already depressed state of a single woman. Looking forward to the meeting with interest, she sadly takes off her shoes, jewelry, washes off her makeup, and lets down her elegant hairstyle.

Glimmers of hope, a sense of fresh life breeze appear after a call from the publisher who decided to publish one of her works. A perked-up writer, with flowers in her hands, is in a hurry to share the long-awaited joyful news with a well-known married couple. However, spouses who are absorbed in a card game are able to devote time to it only after the completion of the next game, which is constantly interrupted by mutual accusations of cheating.

Faced with outright indifference, the main character, without saying goodbye, quietly leaves. When he gets to his station by rail, he absentmindedly goes out onto the platform. Against the background of the slowly and inexorably receding train, sheets of paper with literary works falling out of her folder are carried by the wind, but she no longer pays attention to it...

Quite justifiably, the heroine's state of urban loss and alienation was conveyed by the dominance of darkened mise en scene scenes, long and slow plans, which contributed to a deeper penetration into her inner lonely world. There is a very important thought hidden in the story, a simple life-affirming truth - " a person needs a person."

Muiz Kamun's humanistic social drama "The End of December" (2009) is also of interest. In 2012, the film won the "silver prize" at the VII International Festival of Oriental Films in Geneva (FIFOG)6.

The plot is based on the fate of three young people. By coincidence, the characters cross paths in a remote Tunisian village. Edam, a young doctor, quit his job at the city hospital and moved to the countryside, hoping to find peace and quiet. Aisha, a young girl who works in a garment factory, has returned to the village to live with her poor single mother and Sufyan, a migrant who came home from Europe, in search of a wife.

The central figure of the picture - Aisha is hard going through the betrayal of a loved one who left her pregnant and went to France for a better life. The state of confusion and despair leads the heroine to unwillingness to build new relationships. Her mother woos her for Sufyan, who has come on leave. But the marriage is upset: the daughter explains the quarrel with her unwillingness to go to a foreign country.

Saving Aisha from impending disgrace, Adam arranges a trip to the city to visit a Planned Parenthood center, where the patient is secretly terminated. Unable to see any prospects for a better future, Aisha is tempted to commit suicide and one night throws herself off a cliff in despair. Fortunately, fate is kind to the heroine. She survives and under the supervision of a young doctor, Edam, soon recovers.

The last episode of the film is beautiful and romantic. While spending his solitude in an old boat, Adam goes fishing. Aisha comes to the shore saved from death. A warm and heartfelt conversation ensues between the characters. The girl advises him to buy a new shuttle. After some thought, Adam replies that it's probably not just the boat that needs to be changed, but their personal life as well... Plastic film reveals a simple life principle: sometimes, happiness goes somewhere nearby, but the person notices it only at the last minute.

Of course, the director is concerned about the role and position of the Arab woman at the present time. The film carries the idea of freedom and equality between men and women.

* * *

Asian and African cinema is a complex phenomenon, because the socio-political, economic and cultural situation in a number of countries is complex and contradictory. Tunisian cinema reflects the individual style of artists, their special view of the surrounding reality, looking intently into the deep course of national life. Modern Tunisian cinema is closely intertwined with the main realities of life in the country.

In recent years, Tunisian filmmakers have carried out many joint film productions with filmmakers from European and other Muslim countries. Production of full-length feature films, documentaries, animated films, and cartoons has been established. In this small country, a considerable number of films are shot that are distinguished by high artistic merit.


1 http://wwvv.turess.com/alwasat/2926

2 http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/dursts-directorial-de-but-means-triumph-13554 0

3 http://www.festival-cannes.com/ar/theDailyArticle/58382.html

4 http://www.aawsat.com/details.asp?issucno-9896&article=345653#.USEzxZbcjSs

5 Version of the movie title in French. The original title of the film in Arabic is "As-sawha al-ahiira" ("The Last Page"). - http://www.turess.com/alchourouk/161029

6 http://www.euromedaudiovisuel.net/p.aspx?t-news&mid=21&cid-12&l-en&did-745


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