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V. A. USTINOV. The Application of Electronic Computing Machines in Historical Research
The article discusses the possibility of applying electronic computing machines for the solution of a number of historical problems. The author is a scientific worker of the Siberian branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences conducting research into ancient writings and manuscripts with the aid of computing machines.
The ancient Mayan manuscripts were singled out as the first object of research. The investigations carried out in a comparatively short period made it possible by the close of 1960 to decipher 40 per cent of the text of the Madrid and Dresden manuscripts. The research material consisted of more than 12,000 characters, calendar dates and drawings accompanying the text of the aforementioned manuscripts, extensive lexical material from the "Chilam-Balam" books and the Motul dictionary containing about 100,000 words, information from diverse historical and ethnographical sources as from numerous researches devoted to the language, system of writing and history of the ancient Maya tribes, etc. It was necessary to process on the computing machine and analyze all useful information, inasmuch as careful examination of the works pertaining to this question clearly showed that the narrowing of its volume hampered the solution of the problem and impeded the deciphering of the manuscripts for many years.
The article points out that in the process of deciphering ancient texts any conclusions on the meaning of one or another manuscript character should be preceded, in the first place, by extensive preliminary work aimed at obtaining the necessary quantitative and qualitative indicators characterizing the texts of the ancient manuscripts and the language in which they are written, and, in the second, by the processing and classification of information relating to the given system of writing as well as to the language, character and content of the analyzed texts. This aspect of research work, consisting of numerous computations, processing of extensive data, selection and arrangement of material for drawing comparisons, etc., is non-creative in character and requires a lot of timer Electronic computing machines are capable of carrying out this purely technical aspect of work in a few hours and, moreover, without the errors that inevitably arise when the work is done by the researcher himself.
Besides, the author writes, the computing machines make it possible to apply more complex and efficient methods which are inconceivable in manual labour. For instance, if the text does not contain bilingual inscriptions which permit to establish the exact phoneticat correlation between manuscript characters and lexical elements, the electronic computing machine enables the researcher to verify, by a series of tests, the numerous hypothetical variants of identity existing between words and characters of the text, The effectiveness of this "rebus" method depends on the fullest possible utilization of the entire lexical material. The number of identification variants can run into tens and even hundreds of thousands. The employment of this method without the application of electronic computing machines is, of course, out of the question.
In the final stage the most important part of research work is creative in character and is performed by man. But even in this stage it is possible, in individual cases, substantially to facilitate the scientist's intellectual work by combining it with the skilful and effective application of electronic computing machines. In this "man-machine" scheme, as this combined research process has come to be called, the most important part of work is performed by man, and the electronic computer is used as an instrument of research.
The author believes that electronic computing machines can be effectively applied in a number of branches of historical research. This refers, in particular, to epigraphy and paleography, where the researcher often has to operate with large quantities of homogeneous elements (hieroglyphs, letters and other elements of writing), which at the same time differ from one anether. The processing and classification of the texts of inscriptions and their specific elements, the arrangement of the material according to different indications and its quantitative appraisal, diverse comparative analyses of the mass of information with the aim of bringing out mutually exclusive or supplementary data can be performed by electronic computers in a few hours. All that is left to the researcher is a purely creative part of the job, namely, deciphering the historical sources on the basis of the results furnished by machine-processed material. Similar work can be done by electronic computers in musical paleography researches.
In numismatics it is also necessary to analyze vast amounts of homogeneous material. With the aid of definite programs it can be processed on computing machines and the necessary data obtained on chronology and the history of material culture. It is likewise expedient to use electronic machines in archeological research based on the comparative-typological method. The application of electronic computers enables the researcher to obtain a precise classification of huge amounts of analyzed monuments according to categories, groups, classes and types -far more quickly and reliably than manually. Moreover, the computing machine can arrange and systematize practically limitless amounts of material required for a comparative analysis. The latter aspect is particularly important because a larger volume of information makes it possible to establish much more accurately the significance of the analyzed monuments and to trace cultural inter-influences more reliably. Ethnography is yet another field where electronic computers can be effectively applied, especially when it is necessary to process numerous and diversified data (ethnic anthropology, archeology, linguistics, geography, etc.).
In conclusion the author writes that with the continued development of electronic computing techniques and broader experience in their utilization the sphere of application of electronic computing machines in the humanities will undoubtedly be greatly extended and this, in its turn, will exert a beneficent influence both on the progress and scientific level of research.
V. P. VOLGIN. Weitling's Social Teaching
The article is devoted to an analysis of the views of Wilhelm Weitling, one of the most prominent representatives of German Utopian communism of the first half of the 19th century. The development of Weitling's social views dates back to the period when Germany lagged considerably behind the leading European countries in her economic and political development. Feudal relationships predominated in her agriculture. Small handicraft and domestic establishments prevaited in her poorly developed industry. In those years Germany was divided into 38 independent states which up to the late 1830's were separated from one another by customs barriers and by differing commercial and industrial legislation. The exploitation of workers reached extreme limits. They lived in appalling conditions and did not earn enough to feed themselves and their families. The Silesian weavers' rising in 1814 was a spontaneous reaction of the German workers to their inhuman conditions.
The spread of communistic ideas in Germany dates back to the 16th century and is associated with the names of Thomas Munzer, Melchior Hoffmann, John of Leyden, Thomasius, Leibnitz, Frohlich, Ziegenhagen, Gall, etc. In the early forties many representatives of the so-called "true Socialist" groups were inspired by the ideas of a specific, non-capitalist development of Germany.
Wilhelm Weitling was bora in 1808 in Magdeburg. In 1828, at the age of 20, he began to work as a handicraft apprentice, moving from place to place in search of a job. In the course of his wanderings Weitling visited a number of European countries and spent many years in France, where, as a member of the revolutionary "League of the Just," he was requested in 1838 to write his first work, "Humanity as It Is and as It Should Be." In 1943 Weitling published another book entitled "The Gospel of a Poor Sinner." In 1849 Weitling left Europe for America where he spent the rest of his life.
Like the doctrines of other Utopian communists of his time, Weitling's philosophical views contain many theses resembling the concepts of 18th-century social thinkers. Weitling did not show particular interest in the philosophical systems expounded by his contemporaries. Like many 18th century theoreticians, Weitling based his criticism of the existing order on opposing this order to "nature," to the natural laws of beng. The idea of natural law is regarded by him as the underlying idea of his social teaching.
All that conforms to the laws of nature is a boon. "Everything created by Nature is good and useful." But the paradise created by Nature has been turned by man into a place of suffering. Movement is the fundamental law of nature. Hence the conclusion that the basic immutable law of human society as a component element of Nature is progress, and the motive force of progress is the growth of knowledge. The aim of progress is the advancement of mankind to its ideal, to perfection.
Social institutions are the embodiment of ideas. The perfection of ideas must go hand in hand with the perfection of social institutions. Social progress is manifested precisely in the consistent change of social order. Ability to perfection has been given to man by nature. Any violation of the process of perfection, any attempt to impede it is the cause of many sufferings that afflicted mankind from time immemorial. The powers that be are closely connected with the old customary order by their personal interests and resort to every conceivable means to perpetuate that order.
The chief role in man's actions is played by his aspirations and passions. Weitling singles out three types of human aspirations: the urge for knowledge, the urge for acquisition and the urge for enjoyment and delight. The urge for knowledge is the mainspring of the social organism. A normal society is characterized by the harmony and parallel growth of aspirations and abilities. Every society must satisfy the requirements of each individual
and ensure the development of his abilities. Social inequality is a distinctive feature of contemporary society. As a result of this inequality the propensities of one man are curbed in favour of another, which makes it necessary to introduce special laws and punishments. Proceeding from his theory, Weitling seeks the roots of existing inequality in the fact that the urge for acquisition and delight triumphed over the urge for knowledge. But the power of knowledge cannot be destroyed. If the urge for acquisition and delight distorts it and does not give it a direct outlet, it will, sooner or later, find roundabout ways to break through and emerge victorious. No individual can satisfy all his desires or realize his aspirations without forming a society. The great advantages offered by the combination of abilities constitute, as it were, a natural invitation to man to create a social organization.
According to Weitling's theory, the history of mankind begins with a mythical golden age resembling, in its basic features, the "natural state" of Mably or Morelly. This was a period when private property was still unknown to mankind, when the general welfare was created by equality, not by abundance. Gradually there originated "classes" in society, which differed from one another by professional indications. The interests of these classes often clashed and this gave rise to a feeling of ownership. There appeared personal property and real estate the cause of unceasing social calamities and bitter struggle for the possession of property. The individuals defeated in this struggle were deprived of their property, and abject poverty became the lot of many generations of their descendants. Social inequality was further aggravated by the appearance of money, which made it possible to employ hired labour. With the establishment of the monetary system everything became the. object of purchase and sale. All human aspirations and desires are subordinaied to the lust for gold.
The history of mankind as a whole, in Weitling's opinion, is an undoubted departure from natural laws.
Under private ownership the successes of man in his struggle to subjugate nature do not ensure general welfare and the triumph of justice. The harmony between the progress of knowledge and the growth of well-being is violated. People cannot feel happy as long as society is divided into the privileged and the oppressed. The chief function of the state in modern society is to serve the interests of the rich. The fatherland exists only for the propertied classes, not for the dispossessed proletarian. In order to eliminate the tyranny of the rich and put an end to social inequality it is necessary to destroy the old social system and build a new one corresponding to the interests of all.
It is easy to discern in Weitling's works the contours of his Utopian concepts of a future ideal society, which he calls "The Great Family Union." "The Great Family Union," according to Weitling, is the most perfect organization of society which ensures a harmonic combination of the abilities of its members and satisfaction of their requirements, a society where harmony does not violate the freedom of the individual. It is founded on common ownership of property. The guiding role in this new society is played by science - philosophy, medicine, physics and mechanics. Accordingly, the supreme governing body of "The Great Family Union"-the Trio-consists of three persons: a medical man, a physicist and a mechanic, who direct social institutions and social institutions and social production.
Weitling sees the climax of social development in a universal human society uniting all the nations into a harmonious whole, irrespective of existing distinctions in language and customs. Having reached that height, mankind will forget about the frontiers that still divide it and will renounce wars and armies once and for all.
Weitling believed that these aims could be achieved by carrying out a social revolution. He addressed his revolutionary appeal to the poor and disinherited, reposing particular hopes in the lumpen-proletariat. Humanity, in his opinion, is always ready for a revolution as a result of the growing poverty and despair. However, in Weitling's disquisitions revolution assumes the character of a spontaneous riot of unorganized masses. Revolutionary struggle is depicted by him as essentially anarchic in character. It should be noted also that side by side with revolutionary declarations Weitling's works contain many statements of a rationalist and pacific-utopian character. An important place in Weitling's works is devoted to his religious views. The works written by Weitling in the thirties and early forties of the past century clearly reflect the low level of class consciousness of the German proletariat which was just beginning to rid itself of the petty-bourgeois tendencies typical of handicraft apprentices. Weitling was unable to attain the theoretical heights of scientific communism, but for all that K. Marx highly appreciated his early works, regarding them as "an unparalleled and brilliant literary debut of the German workers."
A. L. MILSTELN and M. M. OLSHANSKY. From the History of Teams and Shock Workers in the Communist Labour Emulation Movement in the U.S.S.R.
Drawing on a comprehensive analysis of the materials furnished by numerous Party, trade union and Young Communist organizations and industrial enterprises of Leningrad, the authors cite interesting statistical data graphically illustrating the character, scope and stages of the latest development in the life of Soviet society-the movement for Communist Labour.
Born on the eve of the Twenty-First CPSU Congress, the movement of Communist Labour teams and shock workers soon developed into a great force, becoming a school of mass labour heroism, a school for educating Soviet workers in the spirit of Communism. As in other parts of the Soviet Union, the new patriotic movement has become very widespread in Leningrad - a city famed for its glorious revolutionary and labour traditions. Examining the process of the emergence and development of the Communist Labour movement at Leningrad's enterprises, the authors of the article make an attempt to generalise the experience gained by its participants and reveal, on the basis of concrete material, the distinguishing features of this new and higher form of socialist emulation movement. A comprehensive analysis of these problems is of great interest because it gives a better and deeper understanding of the essence and significance of this movement as a natural development in the life of Soviet society, engendered by the requirements of extensive communist construction.
The article shows that from its very inception the new form of socialist emulation movement has been developing under the leadership of the Communist Party. The authors cite numerous factual data illustrating the extensive organizational, political and educational work carried on by local Party, trade union and Young Communist organizations in directing the movement of Communist Labour teams and shock workers.
The authors single out three principal stages in the development of this movement in Leningrad and reveal the characteristic features and peculiarities of each of these stages. The article also analyzes the practical activity of the participants in this movement - their sustained effort to achieve higher labour productivity and introduce new Communist elements in the Soviet people's everyday life. This enables the authors to bring out the characteristic features and peculiarities that distinguish the new form of the emulation movement from the preceding ones and to show the gradual triumph of the new, Communist elements in the everyday life of the Soviet working class. The authors reveal the creative character of the labour contributed by the participants in the emulation movement and show their unflagging concern for technical progress, for the introduction of most up-to-date industrial equipment and production technology, for the dissemination of progressive experience, for higher quality standards and lower production costs. The article depicts the nationwide effort for pre-schedule fulfilment of the seven-year plan and shows how the upsurge of creative activity prevailing among the participants in the new movement is giving rise to new patriotic undertakings and moral incentives to labour, whose role in the process of communist construction is steadily rising.
The main distinguishing feature of the Communist Labour movement, the authors write, is that it organically combines the struggle for higher labour productivity with the shaping of a new, harmoniously-developed personality. Bringing out this distinctive feature by analyzing the experience of Communist Labour teams in Leningrad, the authors show how the new form of the emulation movement contributes to the gradual elimination of essential distinctions between mental and physical labour by stimulating the workers' urge for knowledge and culture, how it helps to foster in every competing worker the lofty principles of Communist ethics-a new attitude to labour, the spirit of collectivism and comradely mutual assistance, a high degree of consciousness, concern for the welfare of society, a clear understanding of one's duties and the interests of society. The brilliant example set by one of the foremost detachments of the Soviet working class enables the authors to show how the new form of the emulation movement in the period of the extensive building of communist society helps to shape a new type of man guided by the prinzciples of Communist ethics.
G. G. MOREKHINA. Restoration of the Soviet Union's National Economy in the Liberated Territory in the Period of the Great Patriotic War.
The article examines one of the major problems concerning the activity of the Soviet rear during the Great Patriotic War. Drawing on extensive sources furnished by the central department archives, the author shows the economic rehabilitation effort in the Soviet districts that were temporarily occupied by the nazi invaders.
Having launched their perfidious attack on the U.S.S.R., the German fascist invaders pursued the aim of destroying the Soviet state and exterminating the Soviet people. Confronted with the failure of their sinister plan to make the industry in the temporarily occupied Soviet areas serve their ends, the nazi aggressors barbarously devastated and plundered the economy of these areas. The damage done by the nazi hordes to the Soviet industry was truly immense. They destroyed and pillaged 31,850 industrial enterprises. But the Soviet Union proved strong enough to begin large-scale restoration of the enemy-ravaged economy in a considerable part of the liberated territory while the war was still in progress. This work was launched at the turn of 1942.
Of great economic significance was the restoration of the Moscow Coal Basin. The author vivbdly depicts the unparalleled heroism and patriotic devotion displayed by the miners of the Moscow Coal Field in rebuilding the destroyed and damaged pits. The
article graphically illustrates the rapid progress made in the restoration of the Moscow Coal Basin.
The vast scale of rehabilitation work carried out by the Soviet people in the early, most difficult period of the war has no parallel in history. It testifies to the invincible strength of socialism, the limitless potentialities latent in its planned economy, the supreme moral fortitude and staunchness of the Soviet working class and the entire Soviet people.
In the heavy battles at Stalingrad and Kursk fought at the close of 1942 and in 1943 the Red Army routed Hitler's fascist hordes and, having firmly seized the strategic initiative, mounted a mass-scale offensive to expel the aggressors from the Soviet Union. The offensive operations launched by the Red Army were reinforced by farreaching economic measures, of great significance among these being the restoration of industry, agriculture, railway transport and municipal economy in the liberated areas.
Of vast importance for enhancing the Soviet Union's military might was the rebuilding of the Donets Coal Basin and the major industrial enterprises in the southern part of the country.
The article stresses that one of the most difficult problems facing the country from the very first days of the rehabilitation effort launched in the Donbas was that of training skilled miners. An important part in its solution was played by women's patriotic movement to master miners' professions, which was supported and encouraged by Party organizations. Working in most difficult conditions, the Donbas miners succeeded, towards the close of 1943, in rehabilitating 610 small-scale and 22 major pits and supplying the country with 4,2 million tons of coal.
In 1944 the Red Army liberated the entire Soviet territory from the nazi invaders. The scale of rehabilitation work was steadily growing and expanding. The extensive organizational activity of the Communist Party and the labour heroism of the masses were the powerful factors that ensured the unprecedented tempo of rehabilitation effort in the Donbas. This tempo was 7 - 8 times higher than the rate at which the rehabilitation of the Southern coal industry proceeded in 1920 - 1925.
The article briefly describes the restoration of the war-ravaged economy in Byelorussia, Latvia. Lithuania, Estonia, Moldavia and Karelia and the nation-wide effort at rebuilding Leningrad, Stalingrad, Sevastopol, Odessa and other destroyed cities.
Although the war inflicted enormous material losses on our country and exacted a heavy toll in" human life, the author writes in conclusion, the Soviet state found the strength and resources needed for the economic rehabilitation in the liberated areas. This fact furnishes one more striking confirmation of the great vitality of the Soviet political and social system and clearly reveals its advantages over the capitalist system.
N. L. RUBINSTEIN. Disintegration of the Peasantry and the So-Called Initial Accumulation in Russia
Proceeding from the Marxist-Leninist theory, Soviet historical literature has shown the formation of capitalism in Russia within the feudal serf-owning system. The article is devoted to the basic problems of research into the genesis of capitalism and the development of the capitalist system the stratification of the peasantry and the so-called initial accumulation. The author reveals the sum and substance of these two interconnected processes and their determining influence on this development, makes a critical analysis of the latest historical publications devoted to these problems and formulates his positive conclusions based on the materials furnished by Soviet historical science, paying particular attention to essential divergencies in the treatment of these problems and in specifying the time of occurrence of the processes themselves As a result of this the article is written by way of discussion and is directed against the theses advanced in individual research works and contended by the author.
Examining the question of the peasantry, the author points out that V. I. Lenin's works clearly reveal the contradistinction between two basic concepts-property differentiation characteristic of the feudal system and the disintegration of the peasantry, its class decomposition resulting in the appearance of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie a process indicative of the development of capitalist relations. The diametrically opposite nature of the phenomena denoted by these concepts is defined as a "quantitative" distinction in the first case and as a "qualitative," complex distinction in the second. Any other terminological definition must, in the final analysis, be reduced to one or another of these two principal categories. The "social stratification" concept is merely a concrete manifestation (an early stage) of the "disintegration" process typical of the capitalist period and distinguished by certain incompleteness determined by the predominance of the feudal system. The ogranic nature of these processes determines their essential functional distinctions: the mutability and reversibility of the phenomena of property differentiation, on the one hand, and a tendency towards certain stability, consolidation and further extension of the process of social stratification, on the other.
Proceeding to a concrete analysis of the materials and literature pertaining to the subject, the author shows the clear-cut qualitative and complex characteristic of the social
stratification phenomena given in the works devoted to the second half of the 18th century for different parts of Russia (research works by A. M. Razgon, G. N. Bibikov, E. I. Drakokhrust, V. I. Alexandrova, I. A. Bulygin, E. S. Kogan and the author's own materials). On the other hand, there is a marked tendency in historical literature (especially in recent publications) to shift the beginning of the process of social stratification and, consequently, the genesis of capitalism, to an earlier period of the 17th century. Drawing on diverse historical data, including "The Process of Initial Accumulation in Russia (17th-18th Centuries)"- a collection based on monographic researches by a number of specialists, P. K. Alefirenko's monograph and other resarches, an article by A. A. Preobrazhensky and Y. A. Tikhonov in the second part, etc., the author subjects this concept to a comprehensive critical analysis. In this connection the author also dwells on P. Q. Ryndziunsky's article "The Petty-Commodity System in Russia in the 19th Century," which recently appeared in the "History of the U.S.S.R." magazine, trenchantly criticizing its tendency of denying, in essence, the very fact of the development of capitalism in Russia in the pre-reform period, thereby denying the results of concrete historical research associated with it.
The second part of the article is devoted to the so-called initial accumulation. The author shows that the essence of Marx's teaching on the so-called initial accumulation constitutes, according to K. Marx's and V. I. Lenin's definition, "a pre-history of capitalism." It signified the process of class, structural changes-expropriation of the peasantry, the mass of small independent producers, and turning them into sellers of their labour power, on the one pole, and converting "wealth" into "capital," into the bedrock of capitalist enterprise on the basis of exploiting this labour power, on the other. Of immense significance for defining the real meaning of this concept is the contradistinction drawn by K. Marx between "the so-called initial accumulation" and "genuine capitalist accumulation." Accordingly, the author emphasizes the exceptional importance of strictly observing Marx's precise terminology given in his definition. In this connection the article notes the existence of serious digressions from Marx's precise terminology in historical literature.
Referring to relevant concrete historical literature, the author first of all takes exception to extending the concept of the so-called initial accumulation to the processes representing, in actual fact, feudal exploitation of serf labour (industrial establishments employing serf labour, big landed estates based on corvee, feudal quitrent, etc.). He further points out that all these forms of exploitation can result in the formation of wealth but cannot create "capital" in the full meaning of that term, that this enrichment has nothing to do with capitalist profit and, lastly, that capitalist relations as antagonistic to feudalism cannot arise directly from the latter but appear only in the process of its disintegration. All the above-mentioned phenomena lack the main thing, namely, the formation of the basic diametrically opposite class categories-the capitalist and the worker who is forced to sell his labour power.
Accordingly, the author stresses once again that one of the characteristic features of the process of the so-called initial accumulation in Russia as well as of the social stratification of the peasantry is precisely the split of the economic system, exactly from mid - 18th century, into two diametrically opposite, antagonistic systems, the rise and development of capitalism within the framework of the feudal serfowning system and in antagonism to it. The comparatively limited character of the so-called initial accumulation in the early period of its development is likewise attributed by the author to this fact, which accords with the parallel consistent transition to the process of actual capitalist accumulation in the developing capitalist sector. And the process itself, according to the author, is developing on a broader and constantly expanding basis. Along with a number of other researchers the author believes that the culminating point of this process was the abolition of serfdom, which put an end to the split in the Russian economy and resulted in extensive "purging of the land," as a basis for transition to genuine capitalist accumulation and for transforming "rural" Russia into a capitalist country.
N. S. LARIN. From the History of the Liberation Struggle Waged by the People of Nicaragua Against U.S. - Armed Intervention in 1927 - 1933
The article is devoted to an important and inadequately elaborated historical problem- the heroic national-liberation struggle waged by the patriotic forces of Nicaragua under the leadership of Augusto Sandino against the military occupation regime instituted in their country by American imperialists. The insurrectionary movement led by Sandino was developing in conditions of a backward agararian country with a single-crop, colonial economy, where the working class was woefully small, organizationally weak and strongly influenced by bourgeois ideology, and the land-hungry peasantry and agricultural proletariat were just awakening to political activity.
The article analyzes the most important documents of Sandino's insurrectionist army, which considered the expulsion of American troops from the country and re-establishment of democratic freedoms to be its chief objectives. The author makes a point of stressing the petty-bourgeois character of the movement headed by Sandino. Characterizing the
latter as a petty-bourgeois democrat, the author emphasizes that the insurrectionists renounced class struggle and did not put forward any demands for social-economic reforms. These shortcomings were chiefly responsible for the weak support enjoyed by the insurrectionist movement among the popular masses and prevented it from assuming a broader scope.
The author exposes the treacherous role played by Nicaraguan landowners and bourgeoisie who adopted a policy of directly abetting American imperialists in their struggle against Sandino's patriotic movement.
N. S. Larin points out that Sandino strove to convert the insurrectionist movement in Nicaragua into a centre of the Latin-American peoples' struggle against their chief enemy-American imperialism; although the governments of other Latin-American countries did not respond to Sandino's appeal for united action, his struggle evoked deep sympathy in the hearts of the peoples, as was graphically demonstrated by the wave of protests against the U.S. policy in Nicaragua that swept the Latin-American countries, by the establishment of numerous "Hands Off Nicaragua!" committees, etc.
The author describes the new methods of struggle against the national-liberation movement resorted to by the American occupants in the early 1930's, their chief aim being to organize a mercenary puppet army in Nicaragua consisting of declassed elements with the assistance of the reactionary circles of the national bourgeoisie and the landowning class. Having achieved that goal, the imperialists withdrew their Marine units from the country. Carried away by his petty-bourgeois illusions and anxious to re-establish civil peace in his country, Sandino agreed to disarm his insurrectionist forces and soon fell a prey to U.S. mercenaries. In conclusion the author writes that the valorous feat accomplished by Augusto Sandino, the national hero of Nicaragua, has lost none of its significance in our days. It continues to serve as a shining example of supreme courage and inspires the Latin-American peoples in their fight against American imperialism, for their freedom and national independence.
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