Libmonster ID: U.S.-1526

August 16, 2002 marked the 100th anniversary of the birth of Yuri Roerich, a true encyclopedist, who is proud in the West and East, a thinker, a connoisseur of Oriental culture, a scientist who gave his life to science, a wonderful person. Of the 58 incomplete years allotted by fate, Yu. N. Roerich spent the first fourteen and the last three years in his homeland. But he was always with Russia in mind and soul. Wherever Yu. N. Roerich was, he did not ignore orientalist studies in his homeland, was constantly interested in the works of Russian scientists, obtained Russian literature, books, and magazines with all the difficulties, and was aware of the achievements and discoveries of Soviet Oriental studies. Yu. N. Roerich, a Mongol scholar, Tibetologist, indologist, Sanskrit scholar, and an outstanding orientalist, brilliantly combined knowledge of the history, philology, and philosophy of the East in his works, and was a worthy successor to the traditions of his family. The Roerich family was distinguished by high spirituality, deep knowledge, true professionalism, dedication to universal ideals, and service to the common cause. Human decency, absolute morality, and purity of thought in everything were inherent in every member of this great family.

Yu. N. Roerich, the eldest son of the famous academician of painting, archaeologist, and historian Nikolai Konstantinovich Roerich and his wife, close friend and assistant Elena Ivanovna Roerich, was born in 1902 near the village of Okulovka, Novgorod province, where N. K. Roerich conducted archaeological excavations. The Roerich family united amazingly beautiful and harmonious people. The Roerich family was marked by brave soldiers and statesmen. Nicholas Roerich's father was a well-known lawyer and owned a large notary's office in St. Petersburg. The maternal line was also famous for its ancestors. Elena Ivanovna was the great-granddaughter of the war hero of 1812, Field Marshal M. I. Kutuzov, and the composer M. P. Mussorgsky was a great-niece. Her father was an academician of architecture. E. I. Roerich received a brilliant education. She spoke many foreign languages. She played the piano very well. She was attracted to Eastern philosophy, as evidenced by the books she translated and wrote. She published some of them anonymously. For example, her book "Fundamentals of Buddhism"was published in Mongolia. Buddhist motives were not alien to Nikolai Konstantinovich either. He participated in the construction of a Buddhist temple in St. Petersburg, which was solemnly consecrated in 1913 (N. K. Roerich was a member of the committee headed by Professor V. V. Radlov, who supervised the construction. Among its members were well-known Orientalists-Professors V. L. Kotvich, S. F. Oldenburg, A. D. Rudnev, F. I. Shcherbatskoy, as well as Khambo Lama Agvan-Dorzhiev, etc.).

The attraction to the East united the Roerich family not by chance. While still in his father's house, Nikolai Konstantinovich listened to the stories of the famous Mongol scholar of the XIX century K. F. Golstunsky, the memoirs of Professor A.M. Pozdneev about the years spent in Mongolia. The interest in Asia was also reinforced by geography lessons at the gymnasium. They were led by Director K. Mai, who pictorially introduced students to different countries and great travelers. Probably, this played a role in the fact that N. K. Roerich also sent his son Yuri to study at the K. May Gymnasium. Parents were attentive to their sons ' hobbies. Both Yuri and the younger Svyatoslav started drawing early. As a child, the eldest son was even predicted the future of the artist. He was really good at drawing. But the younger one became a professional artist. The atmosphere in the house, which was created by their parents ' constant work, did not allow them to live in any other way than in everyday life.-

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think about it, listen to yourself, to your interests and hobbies. In his determination, the eldest son was not inferior to his father. It wasn't just family ties that bound father and son. They were like-minded people. When young Yuri wanted to study the Mongolian language, his desire was approved and the Mongolist A.D. Rudnev was invited as a teacher, who knew the language, music, and literature of the Mongols perfectly, and at that time was a private associate professor at St. Petersburg University. During his high school years, Yuri Roerich learned the basics of Egyptology under the guidance of the famous orientalist B. A. Turaev. Yuri Nikolaevich kept a good memory of his teachers for the rest of his life. (In letters from India, he inquired about the fate of A. D. Rudnev, not knowing that his teacher, living in Finland, left without his library, without books and materials on Mongolia, gave himself up to music classes and was a professor at the conservatory.) In Paris, Yu. N. Roerich published an article about B. A. Turaev as a great Orientalist (1923).

A year before the October Revolution of 1917, the Roerich family left St. Petersburg due to N. K. Roerich's chronic illness and went to live in the part of Karelia that later became part of independent Finland. In 1919. The Roerichs settled in London. There's Yu. Roerich enters the School of Oriental Languages, where he studies Persian and Sanskrit. After finishing his second year, he moved to the United States with his parents, became a student at Harvard University and attended classes in the Department of Indian Philology. In 1922, after receiving a bachelor's degree in Indian philology, Yuri Roerich returned to Europe and spent another year studying in France at the Central Asian and Mongol-Tibetan departments of the Sorbonne School of Oriental Languages. He knows that he will have an active and long-term job in the expedition planned by his father to India and Central Asia, and therefore additionally attends classes in the military and legal and economic departments. In 1923, Yu. N. Roerich was awarded a master's degree in Indian Literature. As an expert in the Eastern languages, religion, customs and culture of the peoples of the countries through which the expedition route was supposed to pass, he was ready for it. Soon Yu. N. Roerich is reunited with his entire family, who have arrived in France to begin their journey to Asia.

In November, the Roerichs were already in India. In December, they arrived in Darjeeling and found themselves at the foot of the Himalayas for the first time. From here, the journey of a large expedition to the depths of Asia began. The Principality of Sikkim in the Eastern Himalayas, which has preserved monuments of ancient Buddhist culture, has become a place of study for Yu. Roerich of Tibetan iconography. The results of these scientific studies were summarized in the work "Tibetan Paintings" ("Tibetan Paintings"), published in 1925 in Paris. It should be noted that in the early 1920s, in France, according to the bibliographic information kindly provided by S. D. Miliband to the author of the article, Yu. N. Roerich published his first works of Oriental studies. Among them is the program article "The Rise of Orientalism" 1 . Based on his fundamental knowledge of works on the history and culture of Eastern countries, Yu. N.Roerich offers future directions in the development of Oriental studies: the creation of generalizing works on the history of Asia in ancient times, the Middle Ages and modern times, the study of the psychology of ancient peoples, the nomad civilization. "A new stage in orientalism," writes Yu. N. Roerich, " is a general synthesis that, meeting the requirements of modern science, would reflect the historical development of the Eastern countries in aggregate. A multi-colored line of peoples would unfold before our eyes: one after another would follow all those nations that only yesterday lived only by the memory of their great past. " 2 In the aspect of studying the cultural relations between the Greeks and the Ancient East - this problem is also outlined in the above - mentioned article-Yu. N .Roerich two years later separately publishes the article "The Influence of the Hellenes on the art of the East" 3.

An expedition to Central Asia led by Nicholas Roerich lasted for several years (1925-1928). Day after day, year after year, the route and activities of the expedition, difficulties and successes, finds and discoveries-everything was recorded in the notebooks of the diaries that Yuri Nikolaevich kept. Yuri Nikolaevich Roerich, who was gifted with various talents, turned to the study of the ancient culture of Tibet and shared his father's views on the importance of establishing the true picture of ancient culture with the help of various materials - archaeological finds, chronicles, folklore, monuments of applied art, architecture. As an orientalist, he applies his knowledge to expeditions and, together with his father, searches for hidden treasures of history and folklore in the lands of Central Asia. Their joint activities have borne invaluable fruit. The route of the expedition was captured in hundreds of paintings by Nicholas Roerich. Scientific material collected by Yu. N. Roerich, comprehension of different dialects of Tibetan

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His future works were based on the study of the Mongolian language, observations of the performance of various ancient customs, theatrical performances, and linguistic training in Mongolia.

The first generalization of the results of the expedition, which "twice circumnavigated the lands that make up the heart of Asia", was made by Yu. N. Roerich in 1929 in the lecture "Expedition of Academician Roerich to Central Asia". It began with the following words: "Since the great conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, the vast Asian continent has attracted the attention of the civilized world. The great past of Asian cultures, the greatness of Asian nature and the powerful influence it exerted on the ancient Mediterranean world and medieval Europe justify the great interest that Asian research has attracted in recent decades. " 4 The lecture outlines the goals and objectives of the expedition. The main goal was to create a unique scenic panorama of the lands and peoples of Central Asia. The next task was to explore the possibilities of new archaeological research. Finally, the third, in our opinion, main task for Yu. N. Roerich "was to study the languages and dialects of Central Asia and collect a large collection of objects illustrating the spiritual culture of these regions. Central Asia was the cradle and meeting place of many Asian civilizations, and many priceless linguistic and ethnographic materials that can serve as a reconstruction of Asia's past have been preserved in the remote mountain valleys to this day. " 5 The above was not a simple declaration of intent. Yu. N .Roerich devoted an extensive monograph "Trails to Inmost Asia" to the Central Asian expedition. 6

The Roerichs ' expedition managed to penetrate into remote areas completely unknown to world science, and, not least, thanks to the erudition of Yuri Nikolaevich, his knowledge of the languages and customs of local peoples, to accomplish something that no traveler had ever managed before. Ladakh, Tibet, Western and Northern China, and Mongolia. He met different people, talked to them in their own language. No matter what religion or social stratum they belonged to, there was always mutual understanding between them and Yuri Nikolaevich. He was akin to the high humanity that was felt by everyone who communicated with him, whether it was a representative of the East or the West. The works of Yu. N. Roerich, which are based on the field materials collected during the expedition, confirm the foresight, deep knowledge of the scientist, and the inescapable value of his observations and research. In this regard, it is enough to name only a few of his major linguistic works. "The Tibetan Dialect of Lahul", " Text-Book of Colloquial Tibetan (Dialekt of Central Tibet)", "Le parler de Amdo". A monograph on the Amdo dialect was published in Rome in 1956 in French. Yu. N. Roerich introduced the" Main problems of Tibetan Linguistics " presented in Russian in his publication on the pages of the journal "Soviet Oriental Studies "(1958, N 4) and in the already posthumously published monograph "The Tibetan Language" (1961).

Equally proficient in the Mongolian and Tibetan languages, Yu. N. Roerich fruitfully dealt with the problem of various connections between these languages. He was interested in Tibetan loanwords in the Mongolian language, which he associated with the arrival of Buddhism in Mongolia. Using a large number of examples, the author demonstrates the phonetic adaptation of Tibetan words to Mongolian pronunciation. It also reveals the character of Mongolian loanwords in the Tibetan language, which in turn reflected the phonetic structure of the Mongolian language at the time when the Mongols extended their power to Tibet. At the First International Congress of Mongolian Philologists in 1959 in Ulaanbaatar, Yu. N. Roerich made a report on "Mongolian borrowings in the Tibetan language". Studying Tibetan sources, Yuri Nikolaevich discovered new data about the writings of the Tibetan scholar Choiji-Odzer (XIII century), about the origin of the Mongolian alphabet.

Yu. N. Roerich published many articles based on the ethnographic material he collected. One of them - "The Ceremony of Breaking the Stone" - is full of original Tibetan texts accompanying the event with a parallel translation into English, as well as his own photographs of the scenes, participants and performers of the ceremony. Yu. N. Roerich wrote the article "Les troupes alanes a l'epoque mon-gol" ("Alan squads in the Mongol era"), immediately noticed in Ossetia, in the homeland of Ala-

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nov 8 . Articles of an ethnographic nature continued to be published in scientific publications of the USSR even after the author's death. These are "The Tangut title of Ja Gambu of Kereit" ("Brief Reports of INA", 1961, N 4), " Nomadic tribes of Tibet "("Countries and Peoples of the East", II, 1961), "Mention of Bunchuk in the Rig Veda" (1962), "Memory of the Tochars in Tibet" (1965).

In July 1928, at the end of the expedition, the Urusvati Institute of Himalayan Studies was founded in Northern Punjab, India, by the Roerichs - the father and the eldest son - whose work was defined as "a new type of scientific research based on archaeological search and immersion in natural sciences." It was headed by Yu. N. Roerich. The Institute first operates in Darjeeling, and in December moves to Naggar in the Kullu Valley, it establishes its own publication - the Journal of Urusvati Himalayan Research Institute. During the two decades of the Institute's existence, Yu. N. Roerich has been actively and fruitfully working in it, constantly giving lectures, publishing articles, reviews, and monographs.

An important area of scientific activity of Yu. It was connected with the problem of finding evidence for the existence of a single great nomadic civilization in Central Asia. Yu. N. Roerich tirelessly collected this evidence. In an article titled "Cultural Unity of Asia", he wrote about the cultural ties that"once united Asia along the caravan routes of Central Asia and were severed by the tenth century AD, after both parts of Turkestan turned their eyes towards the holy places of Islam." In the same place, Yu. N. Roerich points out another line of cultural ties, which "ran through the inhospitable Tibetan Plateau to Mongolia and Buryatia in Siberia and began to operate quite late, approximately in the VII-VIII centuries, but it operated longer, until the XVIII-XIX centuries."

In the context of the development of cultural ties between these countries, Yu. N.Roerich provides brief information about the arrival of Buddhism in Mongolia. "The Mongols have long been introduced to Buddhism through the Uyghurs and Chinese," Yu writes. Roerich. - During the reigns of the great khans Mongke (1251-1259) and Kublai (1260-1294), who showed remarkable religious tolerance, Buddhism in its Tibetan form consolidated its position in the Mongol Empire. Since the 16th century, as a result of repeated trips of the Third Dalai Lama of Tibet, Sodnam Gyatso, to the headquarters of the Tumet Mongol ruler Altan Khan (1532-1585), the latter was converted to Buddhism. Prince Avtai Khan of the Khalkha Mongols, who was visiting the Tumets during the visit of the Dalai Lama, became a devout Buddhist and upon his return to Northern Mongolia in 1586 built the first Buddhist monastery in Khalkha-Erdeni-Dzu, located on the site of ancient Karakorum, the capital of the Mongol Empire. After the Mongol princes recognized the power of the Manchu dynasty in 1691, Buddhism, now allied to the Manchu throne and with the powerful support of the Manchu emperors, began to spread rapidly across the vast Mongolian steppes. In the XVIII century. Tibetan and Mongolian preachers began to infiltrate the surrounding areas of Southern Siberia among the Buryat-Mongol tribes of Transbaikalia... " 9 .

In his research, Yu. N. Roerich supported the idea of interpenetration, mutual influence of cultures, which in the modern world seem to be separated due to their geographical remoteness. The scientist, whose erudition from childhood in the family was fed by a special attitude to culture and its boundless possibilities, and then multiplied by independent everyday studies, had enough knowledge to authoritatively confirm the processes of cultural penetration from the West to the East and back.

The education received in Western higher educational institutions did not remove Yu. N.Roerich from Russian historical and Oriental studies. An excellent example of combining their own discoveries with the achievements of world science is the work "Animal style among the nomads of Northern Tibet" 10 . Yu. N. Roerich took into account new finds, publications of archaeologists, works of historians, up to expedition reports. In this connection, the part of the study where Yuri Nikolaevich refers to an article by the Hermitage curator, Dr. G. I. Borovka, one of the students and followers of the greatest researcher of Scythian culture, M. I. Rostovtsev, is noteworthy. G. I. Borovka participated in excavations in the mountains of Noin-Uly (Northern Mongolia), which were conducted under the direction of S. A. Kondratiev and were marked by sensational finds that testified to their belonging to the Scythian-Siberian culture. Analyzing everyday objects and weapons of Tibetan nomads, Yu. N. Roerich compares the figure of a swan depicted on a silver-plated iron pencil case made of Derge with the figure of a long-necked bird (swan?). with outstretched wings, found on a piece of embroidery that was found in the mountains

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Noin-Ula. Yu. N. Roerich refers to the Tables published by the USSR Academy of Sciences 11 .

In another case, when examining a sample of the Tibetan "animal" style - an iron silver-plated relief plate with the image of a lion from the collection of Svyatoslav Roerich, he compares it with a relief metal plate depicting a bull - one of the objects also found in the mounds of Noin - Ula. "When comparing these plates," writes Yu. N. Roerich, " a great similarity of compositions is obvious. On both plates, the main figure is an animal standing with its left side facing the viewer and its head turned towards it. It is difficult to say whether the plate depicts a yak. I'm inclined to think it's a bison. Execution of the animal skin in both cases is similar. Both plates have a background of two stylized trees... It seems that both plates convey the "animal" motif common in the art of the nomads of Inner Asia, but the plate with the lion was made in the southern part of this province with its artistic traditions, and the plate with the bison-on its northern outskirts " 12 . Yu. N. Roerich did not accidentally pay great attention to the archaeological finds of P. K. Kozlov's expedition. He shared the opinion of scientists that these ancient monuments, found in burial grounds near Mount Noin-Ula, were of great importance. For the first time, they shed light on the cultural and historical conditions in which Central Asia lived about 2000 years ago. Yu. N. Roerich wrote about the nomad culture, presciently predicting a new branch of historical science - nomad studies, which "should in the future restore the picture of the nomadic world, this link between the cultures of Ancient China, India and the basin The Mediterranean Sea " 13 .

Russian orientalists are struck by the fact that Yu. N. Roerich, despite his isolation from Russia, was well acquainted with the works of Soviet indologists. His article "Indology in Russia" (1945) "... has not lost its significance in our days, "writes indologist and Tibetologist M. I. Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya," and is perceived as one of the pages of Russian indology, written with knowledge and respect " 14. as a continuation of the previous work, he compiles a bibliography of works on Soviet Indology from 1918 to 1958 and considers it his duty to acquaint the scientific community of India with it .15

Yu. N. Roerich's work "The Epic of King Kesar of Ling" ("The Legend of King Kesar of Ling"), published in 1942, remains rare in its scientific significance. For the first time in Russian (in an abridged version), it was published in 1995 in translation by V. S. Dylykova-Parfionovich on the pages of the magazine "The Epic of King Kesar of Ling" ("The Legend of King Kesar of Ling").Decorative art-a dialogue of history and culture "(N 1-2), almost entirely devoted to the epic "Geser". Based on the vast amount of information about the existing versions of the epic, on reliable insight into the texts personally recorded by the storytellers, on the found manuscripts that served as a source of individual oral tales, and on their analytical interpretation, this work of Yu. N. Roerich is considered by modern epic scholars as the first serious study of the Tibetan Heseriad and its connections with the Mongolian version. Now the" Legend of King Caesar of Ling " by Yu. N. Roerich is on a par with the study of the Mongolian academician Ts. Damdinsuren, who collected Mongolian versions of the Legend of Gesar and traced the "Historical Roots of the Geseriad" on their basis 16 . The names of Yu. N. Roerich and Ts. Damdinsuren in connection with their writings on the Ramayana. The former wrote an article entitled "The Tale of Rama in Tibet", which concluded with the following suggestion:: "Further searches are likely to reveal The Tale of Rama and In the Mongolian Steppe." 17 Monograph of Ts. Damdinsuren's Ramayana in Mongolia (1979)confirmed this prediction.

More than anyone else, Nicholas Roerich knew the value of his son's knowledge and work. He dreamed of his family's return to their homeland and of his son's service to the Oriental science of the fatherland. In 1947, in a reply letter to the artist I. Grabar, who reported on the passing of many famous Russian Orientalists, Nikolai Konstantinovich wrote:: "Your information about the extinction of Orientalists is very sad-Yuri and all of us were very upset. Why, they are alive, like Kozin, Krachkovsky and others, already in our years. Just as you need Yuri, an Indologist, Sanskritist, Tibetologist, and Mongolist who has not only thoroughly studied the sources, but also speaks languages-an unprecedented combination, so necessary with the increased importance of Asia...

You write that the Academy of Sciences is now publishing a lot of works - I'm glad to hear it! How long will Yuri's works be hidden - "History of Central Asia", "History of Tibet", Tibetan Dictionary, studies on dialects, on art, on our expedition, on animal style, on Gaia-

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sarah and many posts made in the Asian Society. Why should all this valuable material accumulated over a quarter of a century lie under a bushel, and not please our Homeland... " 18 .

Yu. N. Roerich and E. I. Roerich, wishing to fulfill the will of Nikolai Konstantinovich to return home not only his family, but also his artistic heritage - paintings and archive, hoped to be in the USSR already in 1948, the year after his death. But the realization of these hopes was not easy. Yu. N. Roerich in India continued to vigorously engage in scientific and teaching work. This is eloquently evidenced by his recently published letters to G. V. Vernadsky, a well-known Russian historian who worked in America. In July 1948, Y. N. Roerich wrote from Bombay: "My translation of the Tibetan Blue Book is being printed and a copy will be sent to you as soon as the publication is published. In the future, a translation of another Tibetan chronicle, Tu-rwan riu-po-cho- (late 17th - early 18th centuries), is being prepared."

Yu. N. Roerich shares his thoughts on reading G. V. Vernadsky's work on the Mongol era in a letter to the author in 1953: "I was glad to learn that you also disagree with the opinion expressed by the late Pelliot about the origin of the name Genghis. Of course, Rashid al-din is right, who derived this name from the Mongolian cingva "strong, firm, bold". The word as a household name exists among the Western Mongols, as Khara-Davan correctly noted. Among the eastern Mongols, it is not currently used, but the word cinhgva (ch'anga zaluchud) "brave fellows" [is]. The ban on the name of a great man after his death is still found in yellow-capped monasteries in Tibet and Mongolia... I enjoyed reading the chapter on the Khans, Kublai's successors. So far, this period has been treated somewhat schematically. Do you know what happened to Dr. Haradawan? Where is he? I hope that the second volume of my Blue Devter will be published soon, and it will give me great pleasure to send you a copy. The history of the Sakyan and Karmapa hierarchs and their relations with the Khan's court will be of some interest. Also in 1954, my monograph on the Amdo dialect will be published in London, with an appendix of texts from the legend of Gesar. I think you will be interested in some features of the nomadic life of the Amdo nomads."

A month later - a new reply letter: "I read with interest in your letter that you are going to release the second edition of your first volume "Ancient Russia". Of course, I'm always happy to be helpful. Moreover, nomadic studies is one of my closest interests, and in addition to what I wrote in my last letter about the name of Genghis, I can also add that among the Sinjiang Kalmyks (Torguts), the word changa is found in the meaning of bold - changa-ta zalu, "brave fellow". I enclose an impression of my review of Hermanns ' book Die Amdopa... I have long been trying to find out the fate of A.D. Rudnev (a Mongolian), who lived in Finland."

In 1956, in another letter to G. V. Vernadsky, Yu. N. Roerich reports: "I finished my new book" Going to India Chag-lo-tsa-vy " (a Tibetan author of the beginning of the XIII century, a witness of Muslim raids in Bihar). Published by the Patna Research Institute... Several of my articles will be published in the near future. I'll be happy to send you the prints as soon as I get them.

All The Best To You.

Sincerely yours Yu. Roerich" 19 .

In August 1957, Yuri Roerich returned to his homeland. (E. I. Roerich died in 1955)

N. K. Roerich was right. The demand for Yu. N. Roerich's knowledge in the USSR was extremely high. Yu. N. Roerich, with his characteristic energy, joined the scientific life of the Institute of Asia of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Having headed the Department of Culture and Philosophy in India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Nepal, Yu. N. Roerich pays great attention to the development of Tibetology, the study of monuments of Buddhist literature, contributes to the restoration of the publication of the book in the Bibliotheca Buddhica series after a break of almost a quarter of a century (the last-XXX volume was released in 1937), acts as a responsible editor of the XXXI volume, which includes the monument of Buddhist literature "Dhammapada" (1960) translated by V. N. Toporov from the Pali language; works with young Orientalists, conducts classes in Oriental languages. Yu. N. Roerich writes articles on Tibetan-Mongolian relations and is responsible for editing the books of Soviet Tibetologists: the posthumous edition of A. I. Vostrikov's" Tibetan Historical Literature "(1962) with its afterword and " Essays on the History of the Tibetan People "(1962) by V. A. Bogoslovsky and T. Ya. Elizarenkova

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"An aorist in the Rig Veda", (1960), Arya Shura's book " Garland of Jatakas or Tales of Bodhisattva exploits "(1960), reviews the works of foreign orientalists 21, directs the work of graduate students (among them was Sh. Vira, who later became a full member of the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia), opposes the defense of dissertations. Yu. N. Roerich's reviews and scientific reviews were extremely concise and at the same time comprehensive, the comments were specific, confirmed by sources, their own analysis, and provided with important instructions on details. In Yu. N. Roerich, the opponent, it was amazing how one could say so much in a short speech, so deeply penetrate the essence of the work and appreciate it at its true value. As a member of the delegation of Soviet scientists, Yu. N. Roerich took part in the First International Congress of Mongolian Philologists in Ulaanbaatar (1959) and immediately shared his impressions on the pages of the journal "Problems of Oriental Studies" (1960, No. 1).

In Moscow, Yu. N. Roerich continues to work on the brought manuscript of the Tibetan-English dictionary with Sanskrit parallels, which began in 1931. The dictionary was preceded by manuals for reading literature in the Tibetan language, which Yu. N. Roerich compiled back in the 1920s. Proficiency in the living Tibetan language, a huge amount of materials collected during expeditions, personal communication with highly educated Tibetans, and excellent knowledge of many languages contributed to the fruitful work on the dictionary. Now he wants to supplement the dictionary with Russian equivalents of Tibetan words, as well as vocabulary from new Tibetan dictionaries published in Beijing in the 1950s. The untimely death of Yu. N. Roerich interrupted the work on the dictionary. Fellow Tibetologists and students took the trouble to complete it and prepare the dictionary's manuscript for publication. General editing was done by Yu. M. Parfionovich and V. S. Dylykova. It took ten years to publish 11 issues of the dictionary 22 .

It is known that most of Yu. N. Roerich's works are devoted to his favorite field of science-Tibetology. This love, as soon as possible, brought him back to Mongolia. In July 1958, Yu. N. Roerich went on a two-week research trip to the Mongolian People's Republic, where he was given access to the richest Tibetan and Mongolian funds, the treasures of which allowed the scientist to further develop his research in the field of Tibetan - Mongolian cultural relations. Yu. N. Roerich's brief report on the trip contains the results of acquaintance with the Tibetan collections of libraries in the Mongolian capital, their high appreciation and expression of the need to publish a catalog of manuscripts and woodcuts of the State Public Library fund. "Moreover, it is desirable to publish two catalogs - a catalog of works of Mongolian scientists in the Tibetan language (philosophy and history) and a general catalog of the entire Tibetan Library collection. Such publications will be of exceptional importance for Tibetan studies and related Oriental studies, Indology, Sinology, and Mongolian studies. " 23 This report contains one detail characteristic of Yu. N. Roerich: In the evenings in Ulaanbaatar, he taught phonetics of the Tibetan language with employees of the Tibetan department of the Mongolian State University.

Yu. N. Roerich also taught the Tibetan language to Mongol scholars at the Institute of Oriental Studies until his death. He taught grammar classes at the same time as reading texts. Classes in Tibetan were combined with studies in Buddhist philosophy. These were lessons in getting into the texts of Buddhist writings, discovering the invisible Buddha in them, and understanding the essence of his instructions. In the last classes, the Tibetan text of the Chapter on Flowers from the Dhammapada was analyzed. "Dhammapada" was then available to many thanks to its publication in Russian. Fortunately, Yuri Nikolaevich managed to hold this book in his hands.

More than forty years have passed since the death of Yuri Roerich. Death hadn't managed to take him away forever. All these years the life of Yu. N.Roerich's works continues. His scientific legacy is still alive. The first publication of Yu. N. Roerich's works in the USSR was a collection of selected works published in the original language, mainly in English, with a foreword by indologists E. S. Semeka and A.M. Pyatigorsky, Tibetologist V. A. Bogoslovsky, and Mongol scholar N. P. Shas-tina (1967). In 1982, Yu. N.Roerich's monograph on the expedition to Central Asia was published in Russian. It was reissued in 1995. An excellent supplement to Yu. N. Roerich's book about the expedition can be found in his photographs and drawings taken during the expedition. They were discovered in 1992 in Kulu together with the manuscript of the diaries of the expedition doctor K. N. Ryabinin, also published by the Samara publishing house "Agni" (1996). 1990-th year dates back to the publication of the work "Towards the study of Kalachakra; Paralokasiddhi". At the very end of the 20th century, several more books by Yu. N. Roerich appeared in Russian. In sodruzh-

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Together with the Orientalists of St. Petersburg, the Agni publishing house published a collection of Yu. N.Roerich's works "Tibet and Central Asia", which included his lectures, articles, translations (1999), and the monograph "Tibetan Painting" (2000).

Yu. N. Roerich is not forgotten. He lives in his disciples and the disciples of the disciples. His office at the Institute of Oriental Studies in Moscow is open to scientists, where thousands of books from his unique library are stored in cabinets. Every year, at the end of autumn, the Institute hosts "Roerich Readings", where Russian orientalists report on their discoveries in archeology, on a new reading of Sanskrit monuments, on works that add to our knowledge of Tibet, and on the study of another Buddhist text... So it was from year to year in the XX century. The works, ideas and name of Yu. N. Roerich continue to live in the new, XXI century.

notes

Roerich G. 1 L'essor del orientalisme / / La vie des peuples. No. 44. P., 1923. P. 258-266. Roerich Yu. N. Tibet and Central Asia. Articles. Lectures. Translations. Samara, 1999.

Roerich G. 3 Les influences helleniques dans 1'art oriental. // Revue des arts asiatiques. T. 1. P., 1925, No. 1. P. 10 - 18.

Roerich Yu. N. 4 Decree. soch. P. 236.

5 Ibid., p. 237.

Roerich George N. 6 Trails to Inmost Asia (USA). 1931.

Roerich G. 7 The Ceremony of Breaking the Stone // Journal of Urusvati Himalayan Research Institute. Calcutta. 1932. V. II.

Roerich G. 8 Les troupes alanes a Pepoque mongole / / Oss-Alanes II ume trimestre. P., 1953. P. 30-34; Roerich Yu. N. Izbrannye trudy. Moscow, 1967. pp. 241-246; Alanskiye druzhiny v Mongol'skuyu epokhu // Osetia, 1933. N 4-6; 2nd ed. Daryal. Vladikavkaz, 1991. N 4. pp. 244-248-In Russian.

9 Cit. by: Roerich Yu. N. Tibet and Central Asia ... p. 25.

Roerich George N. 10 The Animal Style among the Nomad Tribes of Northern Tibet. Prague, 1930.

11 Brief reports of expeditions to explore Northern Mongolia in connection with the Mongol-Tibetan expedition by P. K. Kozlov. L., 1925.

12 Cit. by: Roerich Yu. N. Tibet and Central Asia ... p. 25.

13 Ibid., p. 29.

Vorob'eva-Desyatovskaya M. I. 14 Preface / / Roerich Yu. N. Tibet and Central Asia...

Roerich G. 15 A Bibliography of Soviet Indology 1918 - 1958 //Journal of Oriental Research. Madras, 1960. V. 27. Pt. 1 - 4. P. 48 - 73.

Damdinsuren Ts 16 Istoricheskie korni "Geseriada" [Historical roots of the "Geseriada"]. Moscow, 1957.

17 Cit. by: Roerich Yu. N. Tibet and Central Asia ... p. 121.

18 Cit. by: Knyazeva V. P. N. K. Roerich, Moscow, 1963, p. 99.

Velichko E. M., Drozdova-Chernovolenko M. F. 19 Scientist, thinker, translator / / Delfis, 2001. N 2-4.

20 Roerich Yu. N. Mongol-Tibetan relations in the XVI and early XVII centuries / / Scientific Notes of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1959. XXIV (Mongolian collection).

Roerich Yu. N. 21 Helmut Hoffman. Die Religionen Tibets / / Soviet Oriental Studies. 1958, N 2. pp. 186-187.

Tibetan-Russian-English dictionary with Sanskrit parallels. Issues I-II. Moscow, 1983-1993.

23 Otchet o poezdke v Mongol'skuyu Narodnuyu Respublika [Report on a trip to the Mongolian People's Republic]. Bulletin of the Society of Mongol Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1993, pp. 90-96.


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