Libmonster ID: U.S.-1494
Author(s) of the publication: M. C. Gadzhiev

In 1996, the Derbent archaeological expedition of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Dagestan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences conducted visual surveys of the Derbent fortifications in parallel with the excavations of the Sasanian fort (1). As a result of these investigations, five previously unknown Middle Persian inscriptions of the 6th century AD were found on the northern city wall, which were added to the corpus of the Middle Persian epigraphy of Derbent and received numbers 26-30 (2). In June 1997, together with Dr. D. Huff (German Archaeological Institute), while studying the defenses and ancient inscriptions of Derbent, another inscription was discovered, designated No. 31. At the same time, prints of inscriptions were made.

All newly discovered inscriptions are vertical (as previously discovered) and are located on the outside of the northern defensive wall of the city, with the exception of

1. Gadjiev M. S. Excavations of the fort of the Derbent defensive complex / / AO 1996, Moscow, 1997. pp. 200-201; Gadjiev M. Studies of the Fort of the Derbent Fortification Complex and Identification of the "Fortress Sul" / / Archeology of Caucasus: New Discoveries and Perspectives. Intern. Scient. Session: Abstracts of Papers. Tbilisi, 1997. P. 27-28.

2. We adhere to the numbering of inscriptions according to E. A. Pakhomov (Pakhomov EL. Pahlavi inscriptions of Derbent / / Izv. Society for Survey and Study of Azerbaijan. Baku, 1929. N 8. Issue V. pp. 13-18) in contrast to the numbering recently proposed by S. Y. Kasumova (Kasumova S. Y. Middle Persian epigraphy of Caucasian Albania (Derbent). Baku, 1994. p. 6).

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Figure 1. Derbent. Middle Persian inscription No. 26 (photo and drawing)

inscriptions N 30, 31 located on the inner facade of the wall. Below is a description, transliteration, and translation of these labels.

The inscription N 26 is located on the front face of the rectangular tower 36 (according to the numbering of E. A. Pakhomov), at a height of 0.4 m (the second row of masonry) from the modern day surface (further, all heights of the inscriptions are given from the modern one

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day surface), on a block measuring 65 x 82 cm (Fig. 1 a, b). The inscription is single-line, 44 cm long, 4 - 5 cm high in lowercase letters. Its text is identical to that of inscription No. 11 (3), although it differs in its straightforward writing style:

(1) dlyw? DariuS "Dariusz"

G. S. Nyberg suggested reading blzny? or blzn? (Barzni? or BarzemS) in Derbent inscriptions with the mention of this name and its etymology as " the one whose sign (banner? a shield?) high or raised" (4). K. V. Trever suggested in the name Barznish "the local sound of the name Burzan", which was borne by the marzban of Armenia and Albania (5). V. G. Lukonin initially suggested the probability of reading "Burzish" or" Burznesh " (6), and later, in an unpublished review of the article by A. A. Kudryavtseva (7) along with a new reading of the date suggested reading the name "Dariush" (8). At the same time, G. Gropp proposed his disclosure of this name as dlywS (DariuS) "Dariush" (for the inscription N 1-dlyywS () 9)). S. Y. Kasumova criticized G. Gropp's version and supported opinion of G. S. Nuberg (10). F. Gignoux also spoke about this word, who first read it as drgwS 'pauvre (11), and later suggested the proper name Driyos (12).

Writing letters in the inscription N 26 and in other Derbent inscriptions with the mention of this name, their possible phonetic meanings allow you to adhere to certain versions. But note that the initial letters of this name in the inscriptions have a similar or the same spelling as in the word dly'p (drayab 'sea') in inscriptions N 8 and 913, the reading of which is generally accepted. Taking into account the paleographic uniformity of the Derbent inscriptions, it was possible to assume that in the personal name under consideration the first sign is revealed as d (daleth). The current discovery of inscription No. 29 (see below) clearly indicates this and confirms the correct reading of V. G. Lukonin and G. Gropp, which we adhere to.

The inscription No. 27 is located east of the Dash-kapa gate (Shurinsky Gate), on the curtain between towers 16 and 15, 25.4 m from the first and 17.3 m from the second, at a height of 0.5 m (the second row of masonry), on a block measuring 61x58 cm (Fig. 2). The inscription is three-line,

3. Pakhomov. Pahlavi inscriptions of Derbent. Table I, 77.

4. Nyberg G. S. Materials on the interpretation of Pahlavi inscriptions in Derbent. Society for Survey and Study of Azerbaijan. Baku, 1929. N 8. Issue V. pp. 27-28.

5. Trever K. V. Ocherki po istorii i kul'tury Kavkazskoy Albanii [Essays on the history and culture of Caucasian Albania], Moscow, L., 1959, p. 348. At the same time, K. V. Trever refers to F. Justi, which is given the form Burzan (Justi F. Iranisches Namenbuch. Marburg, 1895. P. 73). S. Y. Kasumova noted that in the Armenian text of the "History of Armenia" by Vardapet Chamcheyan, to which F. A. is referring. On the interpretation of the Middle Persian inscriptions from Derbent / / VDI. 1979. N 1. p. 121. Note 56). Note that Giuansheriani, when describing the events of the late fifth century, mentions a Zoroastrian adherent, " the king (tepe) Movakan" (one of the central historical regions of Caucasian Albania), whose name-Borzo-is rendered in the Georgian form and is associated with the word-Iran. burz 'high' (Giuanscheriani. Juansher. The Life of Vakhtang Gorgasal. and note by G. V. Tsulaya. Tbilisi, 1986. p. 76, 126).

6. Lukonin V. G. Srednepersidskiye napisisi iz Kara-tepe [Middle Persian inscriptions from Kara-tepe] / / Buddhist caves of Kara-tepe in Stary Termez, Moscow, 1969, p. 45. Ed. 23; same name. Ancient and early medieval Iran. Ocherki istorii kul'tury [Essays on the History of Culture], Moscow, 1987, p. 274. Note 23.

7. Kudryavtsev A. A. On the dating of the first Sasanian fortifications in Derbent / / SA. 1978. N 3. pp. 256-257. Note 69.

8. This reading was kindly provided by V. G. Lukonin to A. A. Kudryavtsev, who later published it (Kudryavtsev A. A. Drevny Derbent, Moscow, 1982, pp. 95, 168. Note 46, 48); at the same time, a typo crept into the publication - "Darpush" instead of "Dariush".

9. Gropp G. Die Festung Derbent zwischen Hunnen und Sassaniden // ZDMG. 1977. Suppl. 3/2. S. 1620.

10. Kasumova. To the interpretation ... pp. 120-121; it is the same. Middle Persian epigraphy ... pp. 6-12, 15-19; it is the same. New Middle Persian inscriptions from Derbent // Ethnocultural processes in ancient Dagestan. Makhachkala, 1987. p. 102-105; ona. New finds of Middle Persian inscriptions in Derbent / / VDI. 1988. N 1. pp. 91-92.

11. Gignoux Ph. Glossaire des Inscriptions Pehlevies et Parthes. L., 1972 (СИ. Suppl. Ser. V. I). P. 21.

12. Idem. Review on Kasumova, 1987 // Abstracta Iranica. 1988. 11. P. 27.

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2. Middle Persian inscription No. 27

the height of lowercase letters is 2.5-3 cm. Its text is identical to the text of inscriptions N 7, 10, 24:

(1) dlywg ZY Darius i

(2) 'twrp't[kn] Adurbad [agan]

(3) 'm'lkl amargar

"Dariush, amargar of Adurbadagana".

The inscription No. 28 is located on the western side of the semicircular tower 8, 3.1 m from its junction with the curtain, at a height of 1.9 m (the fifth row of masonry), on a block measuring 52 x 89 cm (Fig. 3a, b). The inscription is three-line, very defective, half-erased, has a shallow thread; the height of lowercase letters is 2.5-3.5 cm. Its text is restored from the same text as the previous one and other labels.:

(1)dlyyw[s]ZY Dariiu[s]i

(2) ['tjwrp'tk'n [Adjurbadagan

(3) ('m)'l[k]l (am)ar[ga]r

"Dariush, amargar of Adurbadagana".

Earlier, I proposed a slightly different structure for this inscription: (1) dlyywS [ZYjpt] (2) wrp'tkn (3) 'm'lk (14). Poor preservation of the text, cracks on the surface of the stone create the illusion of the presence or absence of certain signs. However, a second inspection of the inscription and its print made it possible to clarify the text.

The inscription No. 29 is located on the curtain wall between towers 11 and 10, 35.1 m from the latter (on which the lighthouse is located), at a height of 2.1 m (the fifth row of masonry), on a block measuring 54 X 85 cm (Fig. 4a, b). The inscription is three-line, the height of lowercase letters is 1.5-3 cm, it is defective in some places, and some letters are erased. Its text is identical to the text of the previous two and other inscriptions:

(1) dlyw? ZY Dariu? i

(2) 'twrp'tk'n Adurbadagan

(3) OmOlkl (a) m(a) rgar "Dariush, amargar of Adurbadagana".

This inscription stands out from the rest of the Middle Persian inscriptions of Derbent by its graphic features - writing both individual letters and words. First of all, you should pay attention to the fact that in the stk. 1 the first two characters from-

13. Pakhomov. Pahlavi inscriptions of Derbent. Tables II, 8; III, 8, 9.

14. Gidzhiev M. S. Nakhodki srednepersidskikh napisisei v Derbent [Finds of Middle Persian inscriptions in Derbent]. VII Donskoy arkheologicheskaya konf. "Problemy arkheologii Yugo-Vostochnoy Evropy", Tez. dokl. Rostov-on-Don. 1998. p. 122.

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3. Middle Persian inscription No. 28 (photo and drawing)

clearly read as d and ////-. Moreover, they have a form that is not typical of other Derbent inscriptions, but more traditional, typical of Middle Persian inscriptions, legends on Sasanian coins and gems. For example, such graphics of the letters daleth and ge? have on coins in sigla DR, where they denote the Darabgard mint (15), and in

15. GoblR. Sasanidische Numismatik. Braunschweig, 1968. Taf. XVI.

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Figure 4. Middle Persian inscription No. 29 (photo and drawing)

inscriptions on bullae with impressions of gemstones of the VI ~ early VII century from the excavations of the Takht-i Suleiman archive (room Z) (in particular, impressions N 694, 704: digwn / / dlygwn) [16].

Stable lettering of the letter II Ir in the inscription is present in all words. The clear spelling of the initial letter d - (daleth) in this inscription in the form of "H" excludes who-

16. Idem. Die Tonbullen vom Tacht-e Suleiman. Ein Beitrag zur spatsasanidischen Sphragistik (Tacht-e Suleiman. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen / Hrsg. von R. Naumann. Bd I). V., 1976. Taf. 51-56.

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the possibility of its meaning as/?- (beth) (in contrast to other Middle Persian inscriptions in Derbent) makes it obvious that V. G. Lukonin and G. Gropp suggested reading the name as dlywS (DariuS, Dariush).

Earlier, S. Y. Kasumova rejected this reading as completely unacceptable, "since the ending-S characteristic of the Old Persian language could not be preserved in the Middle Persian language," referring to the Middle Persian spelling of the name Darius - (RRu (Darai) [17].

However, it should be recognized that in the Middle Persian in the Sasanian era, along with the forms Darai and Dara, the form DariuS was also preserved, which is later recorded by Arab-Persian authors (at-Tabari, al-Beruni, Ibn Miskawayh, Abu-l-Fida) (18). For example, Ibn Miskawayh (433. 4; 434. 4) and Abu'l-Fida (2. 112. 5) mention a certain Bagdadi, Khalid, son of Dariush (Xalid b. ad-DariuS), at the beginning of the ninth century. This seems to provide sufficient grounds for adhering to the reading Dariush rather than Barznis, which is not recorded in the Iranian (including Middle Persian) onomasticon. Note that in the Syriac sources of the late-non-Sasanian period (Chronicle of the city of Karkah de bet Seloh, late V-VI centuries (19)) this name has a close form Daryavush (DaryavuS), almost identical to the old Persian. The above examples indicate the stable use of this name in the Sasanian and Early Arab times in a form close to the traditional (Old Persian) form, along with the new one.

This inscription is also notable for the fact that, unlike other Derbent inscriptions, in the word 'twrptk'n (Adurbadagan), the letter t has a different spelling, and in the toponymic affix-k'n there is a long-a-. At the same time, the considered inscription indicates the simultaneous use of two orthographic systems in the Middle Persian epigraphy of Derbent.

Inscription No. 30 is located at the very beginning of the northern city wall, 6.3 m from its junction with the north-eastern corner tower of the Naryn-Kala citadel, at a height of 0.6 m (third row of masonry), on a heavily damaged block measuring 51 X 65 cm (Fig. 5a, b). The inscription is 5-6-line, very defective, but on the surface of the stone (shell rock) individual letters and ligatures are quite clearly visible. In the 1st line, there may be a numeric date designation (...7?) - seven short straight lines. In stk. 2, it seems to read dlyws ZY. In stk. 3 of the inscription there is an ideogram ZNH (en), and in stk. 4 - the end of the same ideogram (H) or the ideogram MN(az). On the basis of the preserved signs, it can be assumed that the text of this inscription was similar in content to the text of inscriptions N 1 - 6 and especially to inscription N 3, which has a date.

The inscription N 3J is located near the inscription N 30, above it through two rows of masonry at a height of 1.75 m (the sixth row of masonry), 5.5 m from the north-eastern corner tower of the citadel, on a partially damaged block measuring 104 X 47 cm (Fig. The inscription is one-line, fragmentary, and the final signs are 4 and 7 cm high. The text is restored based on similar labels N 11 and 26:

(1) [dr] (y) wS [Dar](i) uS "Dariush".

The revealed Middle Persian inscriptions of Derbent are of undoubted interest for studying Late Sasanian epigraphy; let us again emphasize the special significance of inscription No. 29 for correctly reading the name of the financial controller (amargar) Shahr Adurbadagan, on whose behalf more than half (17 and 31) of the currently known Middle Persian inscriptions of Derbent are composed.

All the inscriptions of Amargar Dariush are carved on the northern wall of the city, where there are 22 inscriptions in total (Fig. 7). According to their formula, they represent four

17. Kasumova. Novye nakhodki... p. 92; ona. Middle Persian epigraphy ... p. 16.

18. Justi F. Iranisches Namenbuch. Hildesheim, 1963. S. 78.

19. Pigulevskaya N. Istoriya osnovaniya goroda Karaka de bet Seloh [History of the founding of the city of Karaka de bet Seloh]. 1954. Vol. 179, Issue 4.

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Figure 5. Middle Persian inscription No. 30 (photo and drawing)

groups: 7) first name (N 11, 26, 31); 2) first name and title (N 7, 10, 24, 27-29); 3) construction details, name and title (N 1, 2, 4-6, 25); 4) construction data, date, name and title (N 3, 30?). It is possible that it is also mentioned in inscriptions No. 8 and 9, which were located on the inner lining of tower 9 and are now lost. At the same time, in these inscriptions ("From the seashore to the interior along with thirty... from the royal (?) property... made" (20)),

20. Kasumova. To the interpretation ... p. 124; Lukonin. Middle Persian inscriptions ... p. 45. Ed. 23. Later, V. G. Lukonin proposed a different translation of this group of inscriptions, published without transliteration of the text by A. A. Kudryavtsev: "From the coast of the sea and beyond, up to the" passage "("connection, fetters, lock", sometimes" gate") at your own expense ... From here up made " (Kudryavtsev. Ancient Derbent, p. 168. Note 46). It is possible that the archive of V. G. Lukonin contains materials justifying the proposed translation.

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Figure 6. Middle Persian inscription No. 31 (photo and drawing)

Obviously, the towers of the northern city wall are mentioned as containing a digital ideogram. This can be confirmed by the correspondence of these inscriptions to the number of large hollow towers of the northern wall (not counting 14 small blind tower projections with a distance of 1-2 m located in the western part of the wall), which numbered 36-37 (currently - 32).

There is no clear system in the arrangement of Middle Persian inscriptions on the northern city wall. Inscriptions are not evenly distributed: there are significant areas where they are absent, and there are areas with a high concentration of inscriptions,

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7. Plan of the northern city wall of Derbent with the location of the Middle Persian inscriptions N 1-13, 23-31

for example, between towers 8 and 10, where there are seven inscriptions (N 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 28). The extreme inscriptions are located, respectively, almost at the citadel (N 30, 31) and not far from the seashore (N 10). The height of the labels is also different. Half of them (11 inscriptions) are located at the level of human height (0.9-2.1 m from the modern day surface, but slightly higher from the ancient surface, given the thickness of cultural strata), and they were probably designed for their clear visual perception. Multiple labels (X" 2, 5, 13, 26, 27, 30) now they are located at the level of the lower part of the wall, at a height of 0.3-0.6 m. Three inscriptions (N 7, 24, 25) are located at a height of 2.6 m and 3.3 - 3.4 m from the modern day surface. And the inscriptions N 8 and 9 were installed in the very top row of masonry and, judging by their position and the preserved text, it is obvious that after the construction of the northern wall of the city was completed.

Many stone blocks with carved inscriptions were installed during construction work, but in some cases (for example, inscriptions N 1-6), the text was probably applied to the already installed block after the construction of a certain site was completed. This can be confirmed by the fact that the plates with inscriptions N 1-6 containing a similar text and beginning with the words " en ud az en abarbar "("This and from this up [did]...") are located exclusively in the lower part of the defensive wall, on

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kurtinakh, at a height of 0.3-1.9 m (21). It is natural to think that such a text could have been composed after the construction of the corresponding curtain. At the same time, the location of two such identical texts on the same site remains unclear: inscriptions N 1 and 2 are located on the curtain between towers 18 and 19, inscriptions N 3 and 5 are located between towers 9 and 10. However, in both cases, the inscriptions are located at opposite ends of the curtains. In this regard, we note the opposite direction of the construction of one curtain by two construction groups, fixed in separate places by the nature of masonry and the joining of rows of blocks.

The dependence of the location of the inscription on its content is probably also observed in inscription No. 23. The latter contains one word ab (water) and obviously indicates the presence of a water supply system here: at a distance of about 50 m from the inscription, behind the defensive wall, in the medieval Shahristan (which was also settled in the late Sasanian period), there was a large underground water tank (22), built on lime mortar from large stones. S. Y. Kasumova noted that it is possible that "below the inscription there was a spillway for periodic cleaning of an underground well, or pipes were laid nearby" (23). In 1997, this conjecture was confirmed: next to the inscription, 4.2 m from it, there was a city water spillway for periodic cleaning of an underground well. outside of the medieval city, an early medieval water conduit-a keriz made of ceramic pipes, laid parallel to the defensive wall-was identified in the cross-section of the cultural layer [24].

A pattern noted by E. A. Pakhomov (25) is observed in the arrangement of inscriptions N 14-21 located on the outer lining of the southern wall of the citadel of Naryn-kala between towers 2 and 3 (according to the numbering of E. A. Pakhomov) (Fig. 8). At the same time, they give a clear example of the preliminary application of texts on blocks and their subsequent installation in masonry during construction. These inscriptions represent two groups of texts:/) MoSig kard "made Moshig" (N 14, 15, 17, 19, 20) and 2) Adurgu?nasp kard "made Adurgushnasp" (N 16, 18, 21) (26). They are arranged in a certain order-from the bottom up from the modern day surface (the first row of masonry-inscription N 21) to a height of 6.0 m (the eleventh row-inscription N 20), in each row on adjacent blocks or through the walls. a row with some alternation of the Moshig and Adurgushnasp inscriptions (in the following sequence - N 21, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20). All inscriptions are applied vertically from top to bottom at the edges of the blocks, with the Mushegh inscriptions located exclusively at the right edge of the spoon blocks, and the Adurgushnasp inscriptions-at the left edge of the poke blocks.

21. K. V. Trever, based on the approximate data of E. A. Pakhomov (Pahlavian inscriptions of Derbent, pp. 13-15) on the height of these inscriptions (approx. 1.5 m), incorrectly assumed that " at Barznish ... we started working when the lower rows of masonry were already brought to a height of 1.5 m "(Trever. Uk. soch. p. 352).

22. Kasumova. New finds ... p. 90. Balami, who revised the text of at-Tabari and showed knowledge of the topography of Derbent, calls various water supply system structures that existed in the city by the time of the Arab conquests and were built "by Anushirvan, the son of Kubad": chashmi - i ab Water source, spring', khouz 'reservoir, pool, pond', joi (lei) 'reservoir, reservoir' (Shikhsaidov A. R. Arab sources of the IX-X centuries and issues of socio-economic and military-political situation in early medieval Dagestan // Source studies of medieval Dagestan. Makhachkala, 1986, p. 11).

23. Kasumova. New finds... p. 90.

24. The pipes of the water pipeline have the usual truncated-conical shape and a roller for stopping at a narrow hole; the length of the pipes is 46 cm, the diameters of the holes are 10 cm and 14 cm, the diameter of the roller, which is separated from the edge of the pipe by 6.5 cm, is 11.5 cm. Such pipes have a wide chronological range of existence, and once constructed the water pipeline functioned, as a rule, for a very long time with periodic replacement of pipes that have become unusable or clogged with salt deposits.

25. Pakhomov. Pahlavi inscriptions of Derbent, pp. 17-18. They, however, noted "strict systematicity".

26. For the reading of these inscriptions, see Nyberg, UK. op. p. 32; Lukonin. Middle Persian inscriptions ... pp. 45-46, Ed. 23; Gropp G. Die Derbent-Inschriften und das Adur GuSnasp // Monumentum H.S. Nyberg. I (Acta Iranica. 4). Tehran-Liege, 1975. S. 318; Kasumova. To the interpretation ... p. 125; it is the same. New finds... pp. 85-90.

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8. Plan of the citadel of Derbent with the location of the Middle Persian inscriptions N 14-22

Inscription No. 21 was discovered by A. A. Kudryavtsev in 1979, when a stratigraphic excavation was laid here, close to the citadel wall, in order to study the cultural strata, the basement of the Early Medieval walls, and possible identification of other Middle Persian inscriptions and pre-Sasanian fortifications. Later, this inscription was read and published by S. Y. Kasumova. During the excavations, it was found that the ancient day surface, corresponding to the time of completion of the citadel in the VI century and fixed on the blind area that covered the construction trench under the citadel wall, was 3.1 m lower than the modern one [27]. Thus, the lowest inscription No. 21, now located at a height of 0.2 m, was originally (in the VI century) located at a height of 3.3 m from the daytime surface (4.7 m from the bottom of the wall), and the topmost inscription No. 20 - at a height of 9.1 m (11.5 m from the bottom of the wall). Naturally, all the inscriptions written on behalf of Mushegh and Adurgushnasp were carved on the blocks before they were installed in the masonry of the wall and document the construction of this site under their supervision (28).

In my opinion, the following facts indicate that Mushegh and Adurgushnasp were not ordinary participants in the grandiose fortification construction undertaken in Derbent, but perhaps architects or high-ranking caretakers-supervisors. Their inscriptions are concentrated in one small area, and these are the only Middle Persian construction inscriptions in Derbent that were not written in the name of the main construction manager, such as Amargar Shahr Adurbadagan Dariush, who financed and controlled the fortification works on behalf of the state. These inscriptions are in a certain opposition to the inscriptions of Dariush: the texts of its inscriptions are located only on the northern city wall and along its entire length, while the inscriptions of Mushegh and Adurgushnasp are located only on the citadel and in a limited space. It should be noted that archaeological research has established the simultaneous construction of the northern city wall and the citadel [29].

At the same time, in contrast to these relatively few registered names, there are-

27. Kudryavtsev. Report on the work of the Derbent archaeological expedition in 1979. Rukop. fond IIAE. F. 3. On. 3. D. 464. pp. 48-54. Fig. 7.

28. In the name of Mushegh, the inscription No. 22 is also written, located on the adjacent site, at the entrance to the corner south-western tower of the citadel (Kasumoni. New finds... p. 90).

29. Kudryavtsev A. A., Gidzhiev M. S. et al. Research in Derbent / / AO 1977, Moscow, 1978. p. 126; Kudryavtsev. Ancient Derbent, p. 103.

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According to the letters that seem to emphasize the high social status of the persons mentioned in them, we have on the walls of Derbent hundreds of "autographs" of nameless ordinary participants of this "construction of the century" in the form of carved signs - symbols, tamgas, neshans.

In the course of surveys conducted in 1992, 1996-1997 on the defensive walls of Derbent of the VI century, more than 520 signs were identified, the bulk of which (about 450), allocated according to certain criteria, are signs of builders [30]. Of these, 83 are located on the same sections of fortifications (curtins and towers) as the Middle Persian inscriptions, and the concentration of signs in these areas is different. For example, on the curtain between towers 15 and 16, where the inscription N 27 is located, not a single sign was found, and on the curtain with three Dariush inscriptions (N 3, 5, 11) there is only one sign. In contrast to these examples, on the carapace blocks of the curtain wall between towers 18 and 19, where inscriptions N 1 and 2 are located, 18 characters representing 8 types are carved, and on the curtain wall with the inscription N 24-13 characters also of 8 types. At the same time, a comparative analysis of the topography of signs and Middle Persian inscriptions in Derbent showed that there is no correlation or interdependence between them.

Only in a few cases is there a conditional correlation between inscriptions and signs. Thus, the block with the inscription N 24 ("Dariush, Amargar Adurbadagana") shows a hectogram (sign N 155); the same emblem (sign N 100) is found (along with eight other signs) in the area where the inscription N 23 is located. In this case, we can cautiously assume that the master who carved the inscription in the name of Amargar Dariush also put a sign of his religious affiliation on the slab.

Other examples: different types of signs N 182 ("right angle with a point") and N 183 (F-shaped) are carved on both sides on blocks adjacent to the inscription N 1, and the sign N 192 ("oblique cross") is carved on an adjacent slab under the inscription N 2. Both inscriptions are written in the name of Dariush and, as shown above, after the construction of these sections of the defensive walls. The connection of adjacent signs with them is either random or relative. As in the previous case, it is possible to assume that these are signs of a master carver, but rather they were applied during the construction process, before the appearance of these inscriptions, since similar or typologically similar signs belonging to builders-stonemasons or masters-leaders of groups - "brigades" of builders (31) are also found on the site. in other areas, where there are no inscriptions.

Finally, on the wall of the citadel, where the inscriptions of Mushegh and Adurgushnasp are located, construction signs N 22-28 are carved on the masonry slabs, located at a height of 1.2-1.9 m (third - fourth rows). Four characters (N 25-28) are of the same type. In the same masonry belt, in the fourth row, there is also one of the Mushegh inscriptions (No. 15), but it has no other connection with the signs, except for its close location (as in the above cases).

As you can see, there is no clear connection between the inscriptions and building signs, they were applied to the defensive walls independently of each other. Data on the topography of Middle Persian inscriptions show that they were made and installed not purposefully, but sporadically during construction work. There is no strict order in the location of the inscriptions of Amargar Dariush, they are located inconsistently and extremely unevenly throughout the northern wall of the city. Only a group of inscriptions N 1-6, united by a similar text ("This and from this up [did]..."), which records the volume of construction work performed, is characteristic of-

30. The publication of signs is being prepared. For preliminary messages, see Kudryavtsev A. A., Gadzhiev M. S. Znaki na stenami Derbenta [Signs on the walls of Derbent]. Based on the results of expedition studies of the Institutes of the IAE and YALI in 1992-1993. Makhachkala, 1994. p. 18-19; Gadzhiev M. S., Huff D. Construction signs of Derbent of the VI century AD (preliminary message). Caucasus - 1. Short form. content. dokl. Tbilisi, 1998, pp. 66-68.

31. Gadzhiev, Huff. Uk. op. p. 67.

page 128

used by the system in the location. They are located in the lower part of the defensive walls, which indicates that they were applied after the work was completed.

Dariush's inscriptions are of an inspection and memorial nature. Based on the analysis of their location in the masonry system, it can be assumed that he controlled the construction of the northern city wall from the beginning of work to its completion. At the same time, inscription No. 3, which contains the date (32), does not record the intermediate stage of work, but the final date of the wall's construction. A certain regularity is also noted in the location of the inscriptions of the citadel No. 14-21.

It is interesting to note that, in general, the same phenomenon is observed in the topography of building signs in Derbent, which, like the Middle Persian inscriptions, do not have a clear order of arrangement, do not reflect the metric system (like Pliska signs (33)), but in some cases show some periodicity and regularity (for example, drawing signs of the same type through a block, on the same level) (34).


M.S. Gadjiev

The article publishes 6 recently found Derbent Middle Persian epigraphic objects of the 6th. c. AD (No 26-31). The inscription No 29 with well legible letters d and /?//, makes it possible to conclude that the name mentioned in this inscription and some parallel ones must be read as Darius (as it was suggested by V.G. Lukonin and G. Gropp), not Barzms (H.S.Nyberg, S.Yu. Kasumova). Another particular feature of the inscription is that, unlike other Derbent inscriptions it spells the word twrpWn (Adurbadagan) with a different variant of the letter / and without the long 'd in -kn suffix.

Topography of Middle Persian inscriptions shows that they were made and installed occasionally during the construction works. There is no regularity in the location of amargar Darius's inscriptions, they were made without any order or system along the whole of the northern wall. Only one group of inscriptions (No 1-6) with similar text ("This and upwards from this [was made]...") fixing the volume of the work done, displays a sort of regularity in their location along the lower part of the defensive walls (at the height of 0.3-1.9 m). This regularity, as well as the text itself, accords well with the fact that these incriptions were made after the construction works had been finished. The inscriptions of Darius are inspectoral and memorial in character. Their place in the masonry system proves that Darius controlled the building of the northern city wall from the beginning to the end. At the same time the inscription No 3, bearing a date, fixes the final date of wall construction, not an intermediate point. Some regularity is to be seen in the citadel inscriptions No 14-21 with names of architects or high rank supervisors Moslg and Adurgusnasp. Their inscriptions were carved on the blocks before they were placed into the wall masonry; originally (6th с. ВС) these inscriptions were at the height of 3.3-9.1 m above the earth level (now 0.2-6.1 m). The article proves that there was no interdependence between the inscriptions and mason's marks on the walls.

32. For the reading of the date, see, for example: Nyberg. Uk. op. p. 29; Pakhomov E. A. On the interpretation of the Pahlavi inscriptions of Derbent. Baku, 1930. Vol. I. Vol. 2. Pp. 14-15; Gropp. Die Pestung Derbent ... S. 1621-1622; Kudryavtsev. On dating... pp. 256-257; Kasumova. To the interpretation ... pp. 123-124.

33. Makarova T. N., Pletneva S. A. Typology and topography of signs of masters on the walls of the inner city of Pliska. Sofia, 1984. pp. 212-223.

34. Gadzhiev, Huff. Uk. op. P. 68.


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M. C. Gadzhiev, NEW FINDS AND TOPOGRAPHY OF MIDDLE PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS IN DERBENT // New-York: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 17.06.2024. URL: (date of access: 24.07.2024).

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