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In 2004 Dalnauka Publishers put out a monograph authored by two research fellows - Drs A. Kalyagin and V. Abramov - of the V. Ilychev Pacific Oceanological Institute (Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences). The title of this publication: Fundamentals of Trans-structural Geology in Oceanology and Metallogeny. In April 2005 the Pacific Academy of Ecosciences and Life Security awarded it a Diploma First Class in the nomination Earth Sciences. The newspaper Dalnevostochny ucheny (Far Eastern Scientist) has published a long interview with the authors on some of the problems of the earth sciences and transplanetary geoecology.
Their theory of transstructural geology is quite consistent with the canonical laws of general and regional geotectonics. On the other hand, their approach enables earth scientists to undertake comprehensive studies of forms now of much interest, namely the linear or banded dislocations (displacements) of the earth, both of the disruptive and plicative type. The authors speak of the current trends in sciences concerned with general and regional geotectonics in respect of plutonic matter and also bearing on the dynamics, evolution, geoecology and metallogeny of our planet's linear "transstructures". In the texture of this new theory the concept of a transstructure applies to a specific spatial-geological form of the deposition of crustal and upper mantle rock as a linear megasystem of deformations manifest in the tectonosphere in the course of its activation and relative quiescence spells. Besides, the trans-structures are not homogeneous both in the chronological and in the ecological aspects. The lithosphere of the World Ocean includes linear structures of the transformatory type faults. The largest cross latitudinally the floor of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, and divide it into segments differing from the very moment of their formation in the history of geotectonic and geoevolutionary development.
The authors say their new theory will help solve a vital problem of spotting ore-bearing, nonmetallic and oil-and-gas provinces and regions rich in unique raw material deposits, for the present, state-of-the-art methods of prognostication and control of metallization and mineralization are not productive enough.
The authors of the monograph under review have analyzed a body of materials on the Pacific Region and contiguous continental areas; they single out transcontinental, transoceanic and transplanetary geologic systems. Their number includes a banded (ribbon-like) latitudinal megazone stretching from the Asian continent across the Pacific platform to the American continent. This helps understand the feature of the plutonic matter structure as well as the interdependent system of real-structural inhomogeneities, and elements of the accepted model of geodynamics and metallogenic zonality. It will thus become possible to upgrade the geologic-geochemical, geophysical and other criteria of prediction relative to abysmal deposits in the area of the sublatitudinal segments of the Asian and American parts of the Pacific mobile belt and its platform.
This megazone, which spreads from the foothills of the Great Khingan across the northern part of the Pacific platform to the American Rocky Mountains, is dubbed by the authors as Calabrian. Structurally it is a single and dynamic system of longitudinal and transverse dislocations of the disruptive and plicative kind, and its history is traced back to the Archean.
Its tectonic, geodynamic, stress-ecological and ore-magmatic activity goes as deep as 300 km and more. Violent disastrous earthquakes occur along its strech, accompanied by landslides, tsunamis and other ecologically destructive events.
Such megazones are characterized by certain regularities in the distribution of endogenic mineral deposits and unique oil-and-gas bearing regions; the same is true of the over-thrust belts of continental edges. According to the authors, the similar pattern of development of these over-thrust belts and of the metallogenic zones of the Californian Cordilleras and Sikhote Alin is a geodynamic sequel to a transstructural process that took place during the evolution of the marine outskirts of the Asian and North American continents. Hence the coincidence in the distribution of anomalies in the bulk of metalliferous elements within the standard nodes and megablocks of the Calabrian megazone.
The characteristics of transstructural geology is extended from the Calabrian megazone to another four similar transplanetary zones mapped by the authors, who have also identified Ancavanian, Avacanian, Canavakian and Abracalian zones stretching from north to south.
Their structural-tectonic characteristics includes both common and individual features. Here the fundamental theoretical principle proceeds from the theory of megacorrelational retrospective reconstructions of across-the-border lithospheric deformations in the "continent-ocean" geosystem.
The authors - A. Kalyagin and V. Abramov - hope that their principles suggested as a novel subject of research may help earth scientists in the exploration of Russia's mineral and raw material reserve, and raise the safety of people's life on the globe.
Dalnevostochny ucheny (Far Eastern Scientist) newspaper, No. 11/12, 2005
Prepared by Andrey BIRYUKOV
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