Libmonster ID: U.S.-1429
Author(s) of the publication: M. S. KALANDAROVA
Educational Institution \ Organization: Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

"Numerically, the Parsis are not worthy of attention, but in terms of contribution, they are beyond comparison."

M. K. Gandhi

According to official data, today there are less than 100 thousand Zoroastrians (Parsis*) in the world, people who profess one of the oldest religions in the world - Zoroastrianism. Of these, according to the 2001 Indian Census, more than half, almost 70,000 people, live in India, with the largest number in Mumbai (before 1995, Bombay) and surrounding areas .1

A higher level of Parsi population was observed in 1940-1941 (114890 people), including the population of British India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. A significant part of the Parsis currently live in the UK. Data after the partition of India are available only for India, and they show that the number of Indian Parsis decreases by 9% every ten years, excluding emigration processes.2

IRAN-GUJARAT-BOMBAY

The Indian Parsis are descendants of the Iranian Zoroastrians who migrated to the Hindustan Peninsula after the Arab conquest of Persia (633-644). Until the mid-ninth century, there was no mass forced conversion of Zoroastrians to Islam in Iran. When the struggle for a unified faith took harsh forms, temples and altars of fire and Zoroastrian shrines were destroyed in order to preserve their faith, the Zoroastrians were forced to seek shelter outside their ancestral homeland. In 936, ships with Parsis arrived on the coast of Gujarat, where, with the permission of the local ruler, they founded the city of Sanjan, their first settlement in India. Gujarati became their mother tongue, and saris became everyday clothing for Parsi women. Here the Parsis built their first fire temple, which became the religious center of the community in their new homeland and served for more than 800 years.

Sanjan remained the religious center of the Parsis until the Muslim attack on the city in 1465 (according to other sources, in 1490).-

Zoroastrianism (or Mazdeism) is one of the oldest religions, originating in the revelation of the prophet Spitama Zarathustra (approximately VI-first half of the V century BC), received by him from the God-Ahura Mazda. Zarathustra's teaching is based on the free moral choice of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. In ancient times and the early Middle Ages, Zoroastrianism was widespread mainly in the territory of Greater Iran. By now, mostly displaced by Islam, small communities have survived in Iran and India. 9 fundamentals of Zoroastrianism: Faith in Ahura Mazda - the "Wise Lord" as a Good Creator. Belief in Zarathustra as the only prophet of Ahura Mazda who showed mankind the path to righteousness and purity. Belief in the existence of the spiritual world and in two spirits (Holy and Evil), on the choice between which depends the fate person in the spiritual world. Belief in the original universal Law of righteousness and harmony established by Ahura Mazda, which must be maintained by the efforts of a person who has chosen the good. Faith in the human essence, which is based on faith, conscience and reason, which allow each person to distinguish good from evil. Belief in the seven stages of development and disclosure of the human personality. Belief in the mutual support of people. Belief in the sanctity of the natural elements and wildlife as the creations of Ahura Mazda (fire, water, wind, earth, plants and livestock) and need to take care of them. Faith in the eschatological miraculous transformation of existence, the final victory of Ahura Mazda and the expulsion of evil, which will be accomplished thanks to the joint efforts of all righteous people led by Saoshyant-the Savior of the world. - zoroastrian.ru>node/37


* The Parsis are an ethno-confessional group of followers of Zoroastrianism in South Asia (India and Pakistan), which is of Iranian origin.

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whether to flee to other Gujarati settlements. In the cities where they settled, trade and crafts began to revive. The Parsis became richer by occupying a high position in society. In the sixteenth century, a major Parsi settlement was in Surat, a port city on the west coast of India. The English and Danish trading posts that worked here were willing to conduct business negotiations with the Indians through the Parsis, who knew the local customs and languages. Gradually, Surat lost its leading position, and Bombay, handed over by the Portuguese to the British, turned into an economic, political, administrative and cultural center on the west coast of India. Business people from all over the subcontinent flocked to the city. The first wave of Parsis migrated to Bombay as early as 1790, fleeing famine in Gujarat. In 1837, the second wave of Parsis migrated to Bombay after the terrible fire in Surat.

Bombay, like many other Indian cities, experienced an influx of refugees during the partition of the country. In 1950, Gujarat suffered from drought and crop failures, and a new flood of refugees rushed to Bombay. The city's population has increased sevenfold. The bright lights of advertisements and the desire to find work attracted new refugees. The Bombay Parsi community grew so rapidly that it was necessary to build not only the Baug residential quarters, but also the dahm, burial towers, which were called "Towers of Silence"by English journalists. However, Bombay, a city on the islands, despite the influx of refugees, could not grow significantly: in 30 years, the city's territory has grown by less than 10%.

The movement of Parsis from Gujarat to Bombay was observed throughout the twentieth century. Mobile youth moved to Bombay in search of work, leaving the elderly, women and children helpless in the deserted villages. The once influential and wealthy community was shrinking and falling into poverty. The Bombay people, taking advantage of the benefits created by the visiting Parsis, condescendingly called them Jangli ("people from the jungle").

With the support of the World Zoroastrian Organization (WZO) and the Surat Panchayat (a local government body in India), a report on the situation of Parsis in agricultural areas was prepared, confirming the fact of a significant reduction and impoverishment of the Gujarati Parsi community. The measures taken have led to some changes, such as in the field of education, but poverty remains a big problem.

AFTER THE PARTITION OF INDIA

Although the Parsis believed that their high position in Indian society was due to the British, they were actively involved in the country's independence movement and were at the origins of the Indian National Congress (INC)*.

The President of the Bombay Parsi Panchayat (BPP), Shapurji B. Billimoria, in a speech on Indian Independence Day in 2002, highlighted the contribution of the small community to India's history, and also mentioned Parsis who have held high positions in the Indian Armed Forces, such as Aspi Air Force Engineer Marshal (1960), Sam Manekshaw Field Marshal (1969), awarded the insignia for the success of the Indian Army in the conflict with Pakistan in


* The Indian National Congress (INC) is a major political party in India, founded in December 1885.

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1971, Jal Kursetji-Marshal of the Navy (1976).

Firuz Gandhi (1912-1960)is the first in a series of political figures in India. He was an INC activist in the 1930s, working with Mahatma Gandhi, who valued the young man for his business qualities. "If I had seven guys working for me as Firuz, I would spend swaraj* for seven days," M. K. Gandhi used to say. In 1935, Firuz Gandhi studied political science, economics and journalism at the famous London School of Economics. Here, in London, he developed a relationship with his future wife Indira Nehru (later an Oxford student). Their engagement took place in 1937, and they were married in 1942. Two years later, in 1944 they had their first child, Rajiv, and in 1946 - Sanjay. In 1952, Firouz was elected to the National Assembly, where he was rumored to be a constant source of irritation to his father-in-law, J. R. R. Tolkien. Nehru for corruption cases that led to the conviction and resignation of the Finance Minister. The Gandhi couple separated, but did not officially divorce. Firuz died in 1960.

It is known that Indira Gandhi respected the Parsi community, which enjoyed her support. In 1982, the Cabinet of Ministers of I. Gandhi was preparing a law on the adoption of children. The Parsis, who opposed the extension of the law to the community, were accepted by the Prime Minister, and their demands were met. Indira and Rajiv visited the Parsi fire temples in Delhi during the holidays. Mourning meetings were also held there on the occasion of their deaths.

You can list a number of Parsis-prominent Indian politicians, diplomats, businessmen. To name just a few names.

Mainu Masani (1905-1998) - founder of the Congress Social Party and Swatantra**, held responsible posts-from the mayor of Bombay to the Indian Ambassador to Brazil.

Homi Modi (1881-1969) held various official positions, including Head of the Minority Commission and Governor of Uttar Pradesh. He also held senior positions at Tata and the Central Bank of India, and was President of the Federation of Entrepreneurs of India.4

Nani Polkhivala (1920-2002)resigned from the leading party during the State of Emergency and supported the Janata Party. Polkhivala is a former tax lawyer, was a director of several Tata companies, a member of the legal commission, and an ambassador to the United States5.

Homi Teilarkhan (? - 1998) - First Governor of the new state of Sikkim. He served two terms in Libya as the Indian Ambassador, during which he improved India-Libya relations; and was a member of the Commission on National Minorities.

This political mosaic illustrates a characteristic feature of Parsi participation in politics, namely that they were not members of the same political group. Each of them made their own political choice. This is evidenced by the fact that Parsis are elected to various parliamentary institutions. Since independence, five Parsis have been in the Lower House of Parliament, while three Parsis have been in the Upper House of Parliament, being appointed by the President or the Regional Assembly.

John Hinnels, a well-known scholar who has studied the history of the Parsis for many decades, shares his observations in one of his works: "When I first visited Bom-


* Swaraj ( Sanskrit for one's own rule)-the programmatic political slogan of the national liberation movement in India, which called for self-government.

** Swatantra-Independent Party - a far-right party in India that has existed since 1959. In 1974, it became the basis of the new Bharatiya Lok Dal party, which in 1977 merged with a number of others into the Janata Party.

*** State of Emergency - In 1975, the Uttar Pradesh Supreme Court in Allahabad found Indira Gandhi guilty of electoral violations in the 1971 elections and ordered her to resign, with a ban on political activity for six years.

**** The Janata Party is an Indian political organization. It is based on a bloc of mainly new Hindu parties, the core of which was founded in 1951. Jang Sangh (Indian People's Party).

page 69

Even in the early ' 70s, they still looked back to the days of British rule, even though they were loyal to India. However, by the turn of the new century, I found the community clearly focused on India. " 6

Not only in politics, but also in the field of economics, the Parsis occupy high positions, owning the largest Indian firms. Among them is the Tata conglomerate founded in 1868, which is engaged in a wide range of activities, from tourism and information technology to the production of steel and chemicals; the largest private company in South Asia, Gordredge, produces metal products, from safes and office furniture, refrigerators, forklifts to high-tech products.

One of the brightest representatives of Parsis in the Indian economy is Ratan Tata, who headed the Tata Sons conglomerate in 1991. Thanks to his far - sighted economic policy, he united numerous subsidiaries under the single Tata brand, which earned international recognition, becoming a kind of guarantee of success and quality. Today, Tata Group owns $22 billion and 96 companies that produce a variety of products-from cars to watches, steel and mineral fertilizers. Today, the calm, courteous introvert R. Tata has turned into an aggressive and ambitious businessman, whose strategic vision has shifted from a local business to a global one. These changes began in February 2000, when Tata bought English tea company Tetley for $400 million. In fiscal year 2005 - 2006, Tata Group acquired 14 businesses worth $1.5 billion. In 2007, Tata Group acquired the Anglo-Danish steel company Corns for $11.3 billion. The European public was stirred up by the announcement of Tata's acquisition of the English Jaguar and Land Rover plants in 2008. This news was followed by the takeover of Spanish bus manufacturer Hispano Carrocera S. A. in 2010.Tata Group owns its plants in Spain and Morocco. Today this company is called Tata Hispano Motors Caroccera S. A. In 2009 Tata begins to actively cooperate with the Brazilian company that produces buses Marcopolo Motors. Today, on the streets of many Indian cities, you can meet new environmentally friendly buses manufactured at Tata factories using advanced technologies of Brazilian specialists. In Asia, Tata acquired a truck manufacturing company. This list can be continued, but it is sufficient to show the scope of Tata Group's activities.

Is R. Tata a billionaire? No. R. Tata runs his huge empire, but he's not a billionaire. 65% of the shares belong to the Tata Sons group, 18% of the shares are solely owned by the tycoon of Parsi-Irish origin Pallonji Shapurji Mistry, known as the head of the company Phantom of Bombay House. The share of the Tata family itself, according to various sources, is 1-1.5%. However, despite this fact, R. Tata was still included in the Forbes 2010 list, which included heads of state, prominent religious and political figures, entrepreneurs - only 68 people out of the 6.8 billion. R. Tata was ranked 61st and was named "India's best brand ambassador".

Parsi firms, especially Tata and Wadia, are constantly engaged in charity work. They have made substantial contributions (over $ 6 million). Rs.) to the M. K. Gandhi Foundation. During the India-China border incident*, a country defense fund was set up at the Prime Minister's call, and various Parsi firms made large contributions to the fund.

The pride of the Parsis is the famous scientist and researcher Homi Bhabha, a pioneer of Indian nuclear power. The Parsis are also proud of the outstanding world-renowned conductor Zubin Mehta (b. 1936). His father, violinist and conductor Mehli Mehta, organized the first Bombay Symphony Orchestra in Bombay. Zubin was a conductor of orchestras of the Israel Philharmonic, New York, Montreal and others. Zubin's teacher, the late Hans Swarovski, at the Vienna Academy of Music predicted in 1963 that his former student would be "a preeminent figure in the history of music."7. Arrival of Z. Mehta in Mumbai is always an event in the cultural life of Indians. Among the Parsis there are talented writers, artists, famous lawyers.


* The Indo-Chinese border incident (October 20-November 22, 1962) between India and China in a region of the Himalayas, which China believed was unfairly transferred to India during the McMahon Line in 1914 (author's note).

page 70

The Parsi community at one time refused to register and receive minority status, as did other communities and tribes in India. But since the 1990s, with the growth of communalism*, the Parsis have felt aggrieved in the social sphere. One example is access to higher education, where 50% of the country's university places are reserved for registered castes and tribes in popular specialties such as engineering and medicine.

PASSIONS AROUND THE "TOWERS OF SILENCE"

In 1992, during a religious conflict between Hindus and Muslims, a Parsi couple, Firuz and Mehru Medhora, who were mistaken for Muslims, were killed. The homes and residential colonies of the Parsis are threatened by Hindu rioters looking for Muslims, who often take refuge with the Parsis. Numerous charitable foundations and private individuals are concerned about the situation, a small community can not be a target for aggressive attacks from Hindus, but, as J. Hinnels reports, the Parsis are more concerned about the attitude of Indian society to dahmas - their traditional burial places. For many years, there has been a controversy surrounding the Towers of Silence in India in general and in particular the tower located in the center of overpopulated Bombay. The press has repeatedly raised the issue of the anti-hygienic nature of dakhm, reporting on the human organs scattered on the roads.

The fact is that the Parsis do not bury the dead in the ground and do not burn them on a funeral pyre, so as not to desecrate the sacred natural elements - earth, fire, water and air. According to the ancient Zoroastrian tradition, the dead are placed in towers of a rounded shape, without a roof, which are called dakhma. Depending on their gender and age, they are placed in niches in the tower and secured by their legs and hair, so that the birds, mostly vultures that feed on carrion, can tear the flesh apart and not carry away the remains. When the birds have eaten all the flesh, and the bones are completely cleaned under the influence of the sun, they are thrown into a deep well in the center of the tower.

The mysterious disappearance of vultures worsened the problem. In 1973, a new member of the Board of Trustees of the Bombay Panchayat of Parsis (BPP), R. Shivaks. Vakil has publicly stated the panchayat's responsibility for burial sites. He visited dhahma in Dungerwadi and was convinced of the truthfulness of the Indian press. The corpses were in varying degrees of decomposition (mostly untouched by birds at all), giving off an eerie stench. He blamed the BPP and priests for insisting on the use of dahmas in Bombay and other cities in India, and called for other forms of burial.

The debate had subsided at the time, but it was even more intense in the twenty-first century. Again, articles about the feasibility of dahm appeared in the press. A controversy developed in the community, but not over new forms of burial, but over the issue of combating the smell emanating from dahmas. So, for example, there were suggestions about using herbs with the addition of chemical powder to absorb the smell, or pumping dahmas with ozone to disperse it. There were also proposals to initiate a vulture breeding program led by British specialists. For this purpose, it was proposed to build an aviary where vultures delivered from different countries will be placed. However, opponents of the program said that the idea is meaningless, since the virus that led to the death of vultures was not identified. Another group proposed installing panels that collect solar energy, which, according to the authors, should quickly dry up the corpses, but this idea also did not succeed, the long monsoon season will negate all efforts.

Cremationists organized their own group and actively called for the construction of a crematorium in Dungerwadi with permission to conduct appropriate rituals on the territory before cremation. However, the orthodox part of the Parsis bitterly resists the reforms. "Ahura Mazda, the supreme god in Zoroastrianism, commands all Zoroastrians to follow the dakhmanishini (method of getting rid of the body. - MK), since earth, fire and water should not be polluted by decomposing parts, this ancient method, and not another, was followed by our ancestors for 10 thousand years. The old traditions will stand like a rock and will not be changed by us. " 8

The controversy over the construction of the crematorium was so intense that the BPP decided to call anjuman (a meeting of the Parsi public, similar to the panchayat). Thousands of people present supported the Orthodox decision to build aviaries for birds. It should be noted that the problem of burial is not present for Zoroastrians living outside the country, since they use crematoriums, and in India this becomes a source of tension between the community and the authorities, and in general with the entire population.

The problem in Dungerwadi also has a downside, voiced by the respectable Parsi scholar Khojesti Mistri: "My personal opinion is that the rich and famous Parsis who are crucifying about modernization do not adhere to such high moral principles in relation to the earth. I suspect a handful of realtors have a fifteen-year plan in mind. If dakhmanishini is deemed ineffective, then the vast land in the city center can be gradually transferred to the construction of buildings. " 9

The local authorities of Dungerwadi adopted a resolution allowing those present at the crema-


* The term communalism is used to refer to social movements that focus on local communal self-government (author's note).

page 71

They continued to pray, but after a protest from the clergy, the decision was suspended. Conservatives hope that the vultures will partially solve the problem. However, while the problem is being solved, more and more prominent Parsis are bequeathing themselves to their relatives to be cremated.

PUBLIC AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS OF THE PARSIS

The religious, social and cultural life of the Parsis in India is governed by the Bombay Parsi Panchayat (BPP). Initially, it was a semi-governmental paternalistic organization. In the XX century. it evolved into a charitable organization. Donations raised by the BPP and the Bombay Parsi Trust have been used to build homes, as well as invest in areas ranging from education to religious causes. In addition to housing, the panchayat also operates temples, rest homes and sanatoriums, dormitories, schools, a college of commerce, and an employment office. BPP makes efforts to develop social work with young people, creates summer camp programs.

In 1987, during the election to the Board of Trustees, there was a confrontation over the right of women who were married to a non-Parsi man to participate in the elections. Unlike the Parsi men in the same situation, women were denied the right to vote. This problem goes back to the beginning of the 20th century. In 1906, the Bombay High Court ruled that a child born in a marriage where the father is a Parsi, having passed the appropriate religious rites, is considered a Parsi and will inherit the rights and inheritance of his parent. However, this law did not apply to women who were married in this way. In 1981, a group of women called for a review of the issue, accusing the BPP of gender discrimination. The Electoral Rights Committee (TRC) supported women and campaigned for their rights and won the 1981 election. The Bombay High Court also voted for TRC, confirming the right to vote for women in mixed marriages.

In 1972, the various Panchayats and Anjumans merged to form the Federation of Parsi Zoroastrian Anjumans of India. The Federation started its activity in 1972-1973, but in 1978 the BPP temporarily left the federation due to internal disagreements. Today, the federation represents 50 Anjumans and Panchayats covering approximately 90% of India's Parsi population. The Chairman of the BPP is ex officio Chairman of the Federation, and his deputies are representatives of Delhi and Kolkata.

The Federation focused on solving social problems: employment of Parsis, support of contacts between small, scattered groups, solving key current issues and, of course, an acute demographic problem. Religious issues were excluded from this list to avoid controversy. The Federation studies small communities outside of Bombay and is also involved in the planning of World Congresses and, in particular, the All India Parsi Youth Festival, which has been held since 1986. Since April 1981, the Federation has published its own periodical, Newsletter, covering news from the Diaspora abroad. Federation meetings are held in different centers of India. In addition to the national assemblies, zonal assemblies are held in the four main regions where the Parsis live.

MIXED MARRIAGES AND COMMUNITY REDUCTION

Mixed marriages and the decline of the Parsi population as interrelated phenomena were in the focus of the community's attention until the 1990s, when an episode that went down in Parsi history as Kama Baug occurred. A Parsi man was denied the initiation of his daughter at the fire temple in Kama Baug because he had married a member of another community. He was allowed to perform the ceremony in a temple in another colony where the Delhi Anjuman law was in effect, allowing non-Parsi wives to use temples and dahmas.

page 72

Around this time, the well-known lawyer of Pars Homi P. Ranina published a pamphlet in which he clearly defined the Orthodox point of view on issues of mixed marriage. Marriage outside the community, according to the author of the pamphlet, is a direct path to adultery, since it is not sanctified, according to the rituals and traditions of the Zoroastrian religion, and if a woman declares that she will continue to observe the faith, then this is a lie and hypocrisy.: "I would like to emphasize that such a marriage is not sanctified by our religion. Any child born in such a marriage will be considered illegitimate. " 10

The number of Parsis is constantly decreasing. Based on records of deaths exceeding the birth rate and data on the gender and age structure of community members published monthly in the journal Parsiana, the scientists concluded that the decline will be permanent.

In 1982, the BPP commissioned Malina Karkol, a non-Parsi professor at the International Population Institute in Bombay, to conduct a study of the Parsi population in Bombay. It conducted a sample survey of 2,000 Parsi families from seven electoral districts. Karkol, using various parameters such as respondents ' physical characteristics, property ownership, and income, concluded that Parsis have a significantly higher standard of living and education compared to the general population of Bombay. However, Karkol confirmed the trend of declining Parsi population in Bombay in the second half of the 1990s. The age category "youth" from 1961 to 1982 decreased from 37.21% to 22.92%. Thus, the community continued to age without reproducing itself.11

As already mentioned, according to the 2001 Census of India, Parsis numbered 69,601 people across the country. Questions about the decline in the number of Parsis and the loss of their influence in Indian society are most often discussed by leading organizations of Indian Zoroastrians.

The Institute for the Development of the Zoroastrian Community in its open appeal notes the gradual movement towards a reduction in the middle class, the actual increase in poverty of the community; financial difficulties of community institutions, the lack of better management of property, both public and private, the reduction of adherents to religious traditions and customs of the Parsis; the decline in knowledge and understanding of Zoroastrian ideas and ethics; the weakening of the lack of competent priests and a declining population, the growing influence of other religions, their gods and saints, and the slow disintegration of Parsi families all point to the need for a modern, well - planned program to improve the community.

The National Commission of Minorities noted a number of reasons responsible for the constant decline of the community : childlessness, refusal to accept converts to the community, emigration. Demographic studies show that by 2020 the number of Parsis will be 23 thousand people. The Parsis will cease to exist as a "community" and acquire the status of a "tribe". To solve the problem of reproduction, a reproductive clinic has even been set up in Mumbai. However, educated Parsis emigrate, form families with representatives of other religious denominations, and thereby accelerate the process of reducing the number of their co-religions12.

Parsi publications such as Jame and Parsi Voice claim that young male Parsis, unlike young Parsi women, are less focused on achieving success, are less hardworking, and prefer safe work in the office rather than risky entrepreneurship. Anthropologist Tanya Luhrman notes that during the British rule, the Parsis followed the English role model and made an impression (in contrast to the image of Indians in general)of courageous, dynamic, powerful, strong, progressive people, whereas in independent India, the Parsi community in general and young people in particular now make the opposite impression.

The famous playwright, pars Adi Murzban wrote: "British rule treated the Parsis so well that we began to multiply as a generation of wealthy Parsis. The British are gone, and so is the wealth... Young Parsis today are a strange mix of pseudo-westerners trying to absorb Indian culture. " 13 And Murzban considers parents to be the culprits of this situation.

With concern, Parsis note phenomena that were not typical of the community in the 19th century, namely, the increase in the number of poor, beggars, especially near temples, burial sites, during religious holidays, the increase in divorce among Parsis; prostitution-from sex escorts in high society and working in luxury hotels to legally operating brothels.

And yet, despite the unresolved problems and declining numbers, the Parsis make a significant contribution to the development of the country that has become their second homeland.


1 http://www.unescoparzor.com/project/demographics.htm "UNESCO ASSISTED PARSI ZOROASTRIAN PROJECT"

2 http://www.unescoparzor.com/parsis.ppt Growth of Parsi Population in India

Nanavutty P. 3 The Parsis. N. D., 1980, p. 77.

4 For more information, see: Mankakar D. R. Homi Modi. Bombay, 1968.

5 For more information, see: Ray M. R. The legend of Nani Palkhivala. Mumbai, 2002.

Hinnels John R. 6 The Zoroastrian Diaspora. Religion and migration. The Ratanbai Katrak Lectures. The Oriental Faculty. Oxford 1985. Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 62.

7 http://wwwiozubinmehta.net

8 http://www.the south-asian-com/April2001/Parsis...

9 Ibidem.

Hinnels John R. 10 Op. cit., p. 123.

11 Ibid., p. 47 - 52.

12 http://www.unescoparzor.com/project/demographics.htm "UNESCO ASSISTED PARSI ZOROASTRIAN PROJECT"

Hinnels John R. 13 Op. cit., p. 89.


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