Libmonster ID: U.S.-1259

N. V. GALISHCHEVA

Candidate of Economic Sciences

India Keywords:diasporamoney transfersemigration

More than 25 million Indians currently live outside their historical homeland. Together, they form the second largest diaspora in the world (after China), whose representatives are characterized by high adaptability, entrepreneurship and hard work. Even in a foreign land, Indians preserve and carefully pass on to their descendants folk traditions and customs. They do not break ties with their historical homeland and, having achieved success, share their experience, knowledge and resources with it. The diaspora has a significant impact on the development of the Indian economy.

You can take an Indian out of India, but you can't take India out of his heart.

An Indian proverb.

In the history of the formation of the Indian diaspora, 3 stages can be clearly traced: pre-colonial (until about the middle of the XVIII century), colonial (from the middle of the XVIII century to 1947) and post-colonial (after 1947).

"EMPIRE OF THE INDIAN DIASPORA"

The pre-colonial stage is characterized by minor sporadic bursts of migration of Indians outside the country. These were mainly warriors who conquered "overseas" lands, navigators and merchants who established trade relations with the countries of Southeast Asia (SE) and East Africa, as well as religious ascetics. Meanwhile, it was economic ties with foreign countries that led to the formation of permanent Indian communities in them. The migrants were mostly from the coastal regions of Hindustan.

During the colonial period, the formation of the modern image of the Indian diaspora began. In the first half of the 19th century, the British forcibly exported the Indian population to Africa, the islands of Ceylon (since 1972 Sri Lanka), Mauritius, Seychelles and Fiji, as well as to the regions of Southeast Asia and the Caribbean to work on sugar cane, coffee, tea, etc. In the second half of the same century, three more types of labor exports began to be practiced - "contract emigration", " kangani emigration (kangani - overseer), maistry (maistry-overseer)" and the so-called "free emigration".

The "contract emigration" consisted of Indians who, after signing an employment contract, went to work mainly on the plantations of Latin America and the islands of the West Indies.

The Kangani Emigration was a group recruitment of Indians in the south of the country - in the Madras Presidency - to work on the plantations of Ceylon and the Malacca Peninsula (British Malaya). For each group, whose members usually belonged to the same caste, and sometimes were related, was responsible for a specially appointed head, who was called kangani and who became an intermediary between employers and employees. A variation of Kangani was the "maistri emigration", which involved sending Indians to work in Burma (now Myanmar).1

There was also the so - called free emigration-an unorganized exodus from India in search of a better share of peasants, merchants and small entrepreneurs. It is interesting to note some geographical features of the settlement of "free" Indian migrants: people from Gujarat and Punjab went mainly to South and East Africa, and from the southern regions of India-to Southeast Asia.

In the post-colonial period that began after India's independence in 1947, there were several large waves of emigration. In the 1950s, children born of mixed marriages between the British and Indians left for the UK and Australia. In the 1960s and early 1970s, members of the Indian intelligentsia emigrated to Western Europe for higher wages. In the mid-1970s, due to the oil boom, the bulk of Indian "seekers of a better life" shifted to the Persian Gulf states. Unlike the previous one, this wave of emigration mainly consisted of low-skilled workers. Finally, in the 1990s and 2000s, due to the rapid development of knowledge-intensive industries, hundreds of thousands of Indians, mostly highly qualified specialists, flocked to the United States.

Currently, Indians live in more than 130 countries, with most of them in South and Southeast Asia, East Africa (mainly on the island of Mauritius), as well as in the Middle East, Western Europe (mainly in the UK) and the United States. At the opening of the fifth Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (India Day) in January 2007-

page 39

Russian diaspora)* Indian Prime Minister M. Singh said ," We are all one family. And our home is the whole world. That is why I often say that, unlike the sad end of many great empires, the sun will never set on the "Indian diaspora empire" that currently stretches from Fiji in the east to Los Angeles in the west, from Cape Town in the south to Toronto in the north. " 2

The Indian diaspora was formed on the basis of the regional, linguistic and religious community of migrants. Thus, representatives of the southern states of India are more often found in the countries of South Asia and Southeast Asia, immigrants from West Bengal, Orissa and Bihar mainly settled in Latin America and on the islands of the West Indies, and migrants from Punjab and Gujarat (Sikhs and Muslims)-in Europe, North America, East and South Africa.

Indians are successfully integrating into the economic life of their host countries, while creating their own rather closed communities and zealously preserving national customs and traditions: endogamy**, family priority, helping relatives, learning their native language, and women wearing Indian traditional clothing (saris, shalwar kameez, etc.). Some Latin American countries stand out somewhat separately and the West Indies, where representatives of the Indian diaspora have almost already assimilated with the locals, as well as Mauritius and Fiji, where Indians are one of the dominant groups of the population.

In colonial times, regardless of profession, position and occupation, in most regions of the world, migrants from Hindustan were called coolies (in Hindi, kuli means "longshoreman", "porter"). Today, natives of India are politically correctly referred to with the prefix "Indo" (Indo-Americans, Indo-Britons, Indo-Guyanese, etc.).

Indians living abroad have made significant strides in fields ranging from arts and sports to science, education, business and politics. In 2006, for example, Sir Anand Satya-nand became the first Asian to hold the post of Governor-General of New Zealand, and Ki-ran Desai, who lives in the United States, became the youngest winner of the prestigious Booker Prize for Literature. Indra Krishnamurti Nuyi, a talented and purposeful Indo-American, took over as CEO of PepsiCo TNK in October 2006 and was named the most influential businesswoman in the United States by Fortune. The magazine described her as an "electric guitar-playing financial strategist with a strong will." 3

The Diaspora has become a kind of two-way bridge between India and the rest of the world. For example, Vikram Akula, founder and CEO of SKS Microfinance, a native of Hyderabad, who received a brilliant education in the UK and the USA, has been successfully implementing microfinance in a number of Indian states in recent years in order "to make it accessible in any village". By October 2009, the company, which has almost 1,700 branches in India's poorest areas, had already provided $ 5.5 million in loans. loans to its customers in the amount of about $2.2 billion 4.

In turn, the American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin, which is one of the most influential medical organizations in the United States and currently has over 42,000 members, has already started implementing two projects in the Indian states of Bihar and Andhra Pradesh aimed at improving the quality of medical care.5

The Government of India also pays great attention to the Indian diaspora. In September 2004, the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (MOIA) was established, and in 2006, it was decided to open a university for people of Indian origin, where poor people from India permanently residing in other countries could receive a high-quality education for a reasonable fee.

USA: CONQUERING THE HEIGHTS OF SCIENCE AND BUSINESS

The first Indians arrived on the territory of the modern United States of America in the XVIII century. However, extensive Indian migration to the United States began in the late 19th century by Sikhs from Punjab. They settled mainly on the west coast of the country and engaged in agriculture. In the 1920s and 1930s, Indian immigration declined markedly due to the tightening of immigration laws in the United States, including due to the Great Depression. 6

After the abolition of immigration quotas in 1965, the number of Indians entering the United States, mostly with higher education, began to grow again. In the 1990s, the Indian community grew by more than 350,000 people, reaching 1.679 million by the end of the decade; in 2000-2007, it grew to about 2.8 million people. 7

Among Asian communities in the United States, Indian is the third largest (after Chinese and Filipino). Interestingly, a significant number of Indians came to the United States not from India itself, but from East Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America, as well as the United Kingdom, Canada and South Africa.

Indians are a very well-off ethnic minority in the United States and have one of the highest per capita incomes of any immigrant group. The average Indian in the United States earns 9% more than his Japanese counterpart, and 17% more than those from Europe. 67% of the Indian diaspora has a college degree (the highest rate of any ethnic community in the United States), and 40% has an advanced degree.8

A large group of Indian migrants live in the state of California, and they are mainly represented here by qualified specialists (75% have a bachelor's or master's degree) and are employed in high-tech industries and scientific research, including in the "Silicon Valley". There are also large Indian communities in New York, New Jersey, Texas, and Illinois. There are 17 Indian enclaves in the New York Metropolitan Area alone.


* Indian Diaspora Day is celebrated on January 9.

** Endogamy - marital relations within a certain social group (ethnic group, population, class, caste, etc.) (approx. ed.)

page 40

Table 1

Distribution of the Indian Diaspora by country (beginning of 2006)*

Region / Country

Number of the diaspora (thousand people)

South Asia:

 

Pakistan

7000

Sri Lanka

338

Maldives

9

Bhutan

1,5

Bangladesh

1

Nepal

450

Western Asia:

 

Afghanistan Turkey

1 0,3

Southeast Asia:

 

Myanmar

2920

Malaysia

1670

Singapore

300

Thailand

85

Indonesia

42

Philippines

38

Brunei

7,2

Cambodia

0,16

East Asia:

 

Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

28,5

Republic of Korea

1,9

Taiwan

2

Japan

2,5

North Africa and the Middle East:

 

Saudi Arabia

1300

United Arab Emirates

1200

Oman

338,9

Kuwait

288,6

Bahrain

130

Qatar

125

Yemen

100

Israel

45,5

Libya

12

Lebanon

11

Sudan

1,6

Iran

0,8

Jordan

0,5

Morocco

0,3

South Africa:

 

South Africa

1300

Republic of Botswana

9

Namibia

0,15

West Africa:

 

Nigeria

30

Benin

0,5

Ivory Coast

0,25

East Africa:

 

O. Mauritius

850

Reunion Island

220

Kenya

100

Tanzania

95

Madagascar

27

Mozambique

20

Uganda

15

Zambia

15

Zimbabwe

15

Seychelles

7,5

Rwanda

0,5

Burundi

0,3

Ethiopia

0,125

CIS countries:

 

Russia

16

Ukraine

4

Kazakhstan

2,7

Uzbekistan

0,65

Azerbaijan

0,3

Armenia

0,2

Belarus

0,1

Western Europe:

 

Great Britain

1500

Netherlands

215

Italy

71,5

Cyprus

0,3

Portugal

70

France

65

GERMANY

40

Spain

29

Switzerland

13,5

Austria

12,3

Sweden

11

Denmark

2,5

Irish

1,6

Finland

1,17

North America:

 

USA

2766

Canada

650

Mexico

0,15

Latin America:

 

Guyana

800

Trinidad and Tobago

520

Suriname

160,2

Jamaica

60

Venezuela

3,4

Brazil

1,6

Chile

1,1

Argentina

1

Australia and Oceania:

 

Australia

91,1

Fiji

352

New Zealand

43

Papua New Guinea

0,8



Source: Manorama Yearbook 2005, p. 498-499.


* No more recent data available.

page 41

According to some estimates, up to a third of all engineers in Silicon Valley are Indian - Americans. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, there were about 800 firms in this world-famous area of California (7% of companies) run by natives of India with a total annual income of over $5.5 billion.9

Overall, of the 7,300 U.S. companies created in the field of information technology by immigrants, 26% are owned by Indians. The number of companies they created in 1995-2005 exceeded the number of companies founded in the United States by immigrants from Great Britain, China and Japan combined. An example of successful business management by representatives of the Indian diaspora is the activities of TeleSoft Partners, a venture capital firm with an authorized capital of $625 million, founded in 1996 in California by Arun Gupta, as well as Sun Microsystem and MSN Hotmail™10.

A significant influx of highly qualified Indian personnel to Silicon Valley has a positive impact on the development of the electronics industry in India itself. Returning from the United States to their homeland, many specialists open their own firms and venture funds, invest capital and apply the accumulated knowledge and experience of doing business in the field of high technologies. Currently, with the help of re-emigrants, technology parks have been created in a number of Indian cities that develop projects in the field of electronics and computer programming.

Indians have made great strides in science, medicine, commerce, and some other fields. The Asian Indian Summary of Findings estimates that in 2002* there were more than 223,000 firms founded by natives of India in various sectors of the US economy, employing more than 610,000 people. The annual turnover of these firms exceeded $88 billion. In the US hotel industry, the share of Indo-Americans is almost 40%11.

In the early 2000s, more than 4,000 Indian professors taught at American universities. Among them is Raj Cheti , one of the world's youngest and most influential economists, who became a professor of economics at Harvard University in 2008 at the age of 29.

For two consecutive years, in 2008 and 2009, Coimbatore Krishnarao Prahalad, a professor at the University of Michigan and author of a number of best-selling books on business, was ranked first in Forbes magazine's annual ranking of the most influential experts in the business world.

It is interesting to note that 14 out of 100 discoveries in American pharmaceutical laboratories are made by immigrants from India 12. Among the Indo-Americans, there are also Nobel laureates: geneticist Hargobind Khorana (1968) and astrophysicist Subrahmaniyan Chandrashekhar (1983).13

Immigrants from India have also achieved notable success in politics. Over the years, more than 30 Indian - Americans have run for the U.S. Congress. The first was Dalip Singh Sound, who was elected three times to the House of Representatives and later to the Senate in 1956. But it was Bobby Jindel, a Republican congressman who became governor of Louisiana in January 2007, who reached the highest heights in this area.

Despite the success achieved in the United States, Indo-Americans still have a strong connection with their historical homeland. Thus, according to surveys, 74% of them express their intention to return to India in the future and establish their business there, using the accumulated funds and experience.

WESTERN EUROPE: FROM BONDAGE TO RESPECTABILITY

Immigrants with Indian roots began arriving in significant numbers in Western Europe in the 19th century, moving from the British, French, Dutch and Portuguese colonies to their respective home countries. Most of the Indians who settled in Britain in the twentieth century came from Africa, mainly from Uganda and Kenya.

Currently, more than 2 million Indians live permanently in Western European countries, of which 1.5 million live in the UK (2.5% of the country's population).14. Indo-British settled mainly in London, Birmingham and Leicester.

If the first Indian emigrants in England mostly performed low-skilled work, and sometimes owned small shops, then their descendants have already achieved significant success in business and science. Among them, for example, Robin Singh, who organized fashion tailoring with the Miss Attitude brand; Lakshmi Mittal, chairman of the Board of directors and head of the largest steel company ArcelorMittal; Amartya Sen, professor at the University of Cambridge, who won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1998; writer Vidyadhar Surajprasad Nairul, who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001 G., et al.

The position of Indo-Britons in the restaurant business is particularly strong. In the early 2000s, its annual turnover reached 2.2 billion pounds, and an annual increase of 20%. Currently, there are about 8,600 Indian restaurants in the UK, including approximately 3,800 in London. A native of India, G. K. Noone, who is engaged in the restaurant business, received a knighthood in 2002 for services to the monarchy.

The Institute of Asian Professionals in London estimates that the annual contribution of the Indian diaspora to British GDP is on average about 10%15.

Natives of India have also achieved some success in politics: at various times over the past century, 4 representatives of the Indian diaspora were elected to the House of Commons, and 11 to the House of Lords.

ASIA: FROM PLANTATION WORKERS TO CEOS

The number of the Indian diaspora in South Asian countries is about 8 million people. The migration of Indians within the subcontinent is due to the linguistic, religious, cultural and geographical proximity of the peoples living here. During the sectarian division of British India into two dominions - India and Pakistan-the migration of Indians was widespread and violent.-


* No more recent data available.

page 42

rakter. Later, after these states gained independence, the intensity of flows significantly decreased.

The Indian diaspora in Pakistan is represented mainly by Muslims-natives of Northern India, who were forced to move here in the late 1940s for religious reasons. Their population is estimated to reach 7 million, and their native language is Urdu. Indian immigrants who settled in Pakistan are called Muhajirs (from Arabic. - displaced person).

Indian Diaspora in Sri Lanka (pre-1972 Ceylon) it consists of 3 groups: descendants of Tamils who lived here from time immemorial side by side with the Sinhalese population; "Indian Tamils" brought here by the British colonizers in the XIX century. for work on coffee, tea and rubber plantations, and Moors (Moors- Muslims. The majority of ethnic Tamils who practice Islam do not identify as Tamils. According to official Sri Lankan statistics, they are an independent religious and ethnic group. The majority of Tamils in modern Sri Lanka are Shaivist Hindus by religion. A small part of them are Catholic Christians (since the Portuguese conquest).

Tamils, who traditionally lived on the island, inhabit the Northern and Eastern Provinces and part of Colombo. Most of the "Indian Tamils" are concentrated in the central hilly part of the country. Currently, in Sri Lanka, Tamils make up 18% of the population (3.64 million people), and over 338 thousand of them are "Indian Tamils".

The first migrants from India arrived on the territory of modern Nepal in the XIV-XV centuries. They were Khas fleeing the tyranny of Indian Muslim rulers during the existence of the Delhi Sultanate in India.

The colonization of India by the British spurred the migration of Indians to Nepal. Many went north to the neighboring kingdom, fleeing colonial oppression and seeking a better life.

The Treaty of Peace and Friendship, as well as the Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation concluded between Nepal and India in 1950, contributed to the further influx of Indians. Indian migrants were employed in road construction, construction of hydroelectric power plants and various irrigation systems, construction of residential and industrial buildings. The implementation of these projects required Nepal to have a sufficiently large contingent of skilled workers, which, together with financial assistance, was provided by India.

Moreover, for the effective development of the national economy, the Himalayan kingdom needed foreign investment, and entrepreneurs from India and several other countries invested in its economy. Businessmen and large industrialists began to arrive in the capital of Nepal and its environs. Already by 1961, out of 337 thousand people, More than 324,000 foreigners lived in the Kingdom and were originally from India. 16 In 2005, the number of Indians here reached 450,000 (approximately 2.5% of the country's population). Currently, the largest part of the Indian diaspora in Nepal is concentrated in Kathmandu, as well as in the resort town of Pokhara, located 150 km northwest of the capital.

Indians had a significant impact on the development of the Nepalese economy and the formation of the middle class in the country: with their participation, the foundations of industry were laid, agriculture was modernized, and a network of educational institutions and hospitals was created.

In the Maldives, the Indian community numbers 9,000 people (out of the country's 269,000 population) and mainly consists of doctors, teachers, engineers, financiers and managers.

The foundation of the Indian diaspora in Bhutan was laid in the 19th century. The first migrants to settle along the present-day Indian-Bhutanese border were mainly from nearby areas - the present-day Indian states of Assam and West Bengal.

After the 1949 Treaty of Friendship was signed between India and Bhutan, India's economic assistance to its northern neighbor increased markedly, and the Bhutanese economy began to develop at a faster pace, which led to an increase in the influx of skilled migrants from the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan. Indians in Bhutan are mainly engaged in trade, agriculture, and construction.17 The Indian diaspora is mainly concentrated in the southern part of Bhutan-in the Sarpang, Samtse and Phutsolling districts 18.

Until the early 1990s, about 45,000 Indians lived in Afghanistan, most of them Punjabis who were engaged in trade.19 However, as a result of the deterioration of the internal political situation in the country after the overthrow of the government of M. Najibullah by the Taliban in 1992, the number of Indians here has decreased and now barely reaches 1 thousand people.

Several million Indians have emigrated to the countries of Southeast Asia, where 5.1 million people live, mainly in Myanmar, Malaysia and Singapore (see Table 1). Small communities of immigrants from India are found in the countries of Indochina - Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam.

The Indian diaspora in the Middle East is estimated at 3.6 million people, most of whom come from Kerala. About 30% of the Indians working in this region are doctors, engineers and managers, while the rest are workers of various qualifications. 1.2 million people live in the UAE alone, mainly in the emirates of Dubai and Sharjah. There are about 4.6 million Indian migrants in the total population of the country. There are schools for children of Indian migrants here. Many people from India hold high positions in the country's private companies and even in the state apparatus.

Africa: THE ROCKEFELLERS OF UGANDA

An extensive Indian diaspora has now been formed in East Africa, on the island of Reunion (220 thousand people, or about 30% of the population) and Mauritius (850 thousand people, or 70% of the population). More than 200,000 Indians live in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda (see Table 1). There are small Indian communities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and some other countries on the East African coast.

Large Indian settlements in Africa appeared in the second half of the XIX-early XX centuries, when they came here in search of ra-

page 43

bots began to arrive as contract workers and free migrants. Most of them were Gujarati immigrants who traveled to East Africa via Zanzibar and settled in remote rural areas where they opened shops.

Indians have played a significant role in the development of industry and trade in the region. To a large extent, this was also facilitated by the widespread circulation of the Indian rupee here.

In the 1940s, natives of India founded a number of industrial enterprises in East Africa. The world-famous Birla and Tata families invested in the textile and paper industries of the region's countries. In the 1970s, many sectors of the national economy of East African States were concentrated in the hands of Indian immigrants. In Uganda, for example, the Mehta and Madhwani20 known as the "Rockefellers of Uganda," monopolized the sugar, tea, steel, textile, and food industries; in Tanzania, the Karimji family monopolized certain agricultural sectors; and in Kenya, the Chandari dynasty monopolized the steel and aluminum industries.21

In 1972, during the rule of Idi Amin in Uganda, a significant number of Indians living there were expelled from the country. Most of them could not even use the right granted to them to prepare for departure within 90 days and left the country without any property. If before 1972 the number of Indian diaspora in Uganda reached 80 thousand people, in 2006 - only 15 thousand.

More than 1.3 million displaced persons from India currently live in South Africa22. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mostly contract workers arrived here, followed by merchants and entrepreneurs. Most of the Indian diaspora is concentrated in the province of Kwazulu-Natal. According to L. Hewlett, " the condition of the African colony before the importation of Indian labor was sad; however, later this seaside area developed into one of the most prosperous parts of South Africa."23. Currently, one fifth of South African Indians are middle-class, have higher or specialized secondary education, and are employed in trade or in the production of consumer goods. The rest are mostly small-scale artisans or workers of various qualifications.

caribbean islands: FINDING A "SECOND" HOMELAND

The Indian diaspora formed in the Caribbean has more than 1.1 million people. In Trinidad and Tobago, immigrants from India make up about 40% of the population, in Guiana-more than 50%, in Suriname-35%24. Almost all of them are descendants of migrants who came here for contract work on banana plantations, sugar cane and livestock farms. Most are from Bihar, the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh.

Until the 1940s, many migrants hoped to return to India after their contracts expired. They maintained their ethnic identity and considered themselves temporary residents of these countries. However, most of them (62% in Jamaica and 70% each in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago) remained permanently in Latin America (Chile, Argentina and other countries) for one reason or another25. Currently, only a few call themselves Indians, although they do not forget about their origin. Interestingly, in Jamaica, May 13 is still the Day of arrival of the first Indian immigrants to the island.

The second wave of Indian emigration to Latin America, which was observed in the mid-20th century, was mainly represented by highly qualified specialists - doctors, engineers, etc. Today, the literacy rate among the Indian diaspora is approaching 100 %. Descendants of former contract workers run their own firms, work as teachers, lawyers, in the civil service and in banks.

There are also "reverse" migration flows caused by certain extraordinary events that occurred in the host countries. For example, the "flight" of Indians from Burma on the eve of the Japanese invasion during World War II and from Kuwait in 1990-1991 during its occupation by Iraq and the subsequent Gulf War was notable. In 2009-2010, many Indians from the United States and Western European countries moved to their homeland due to the fact that the global financial and economic crisis affected the economy of these countries to a greater extent than the Indian one.

ASSISTANCE TO THE HISTORICAL HOMELAND

Since 2004. India consistently holds the 1st place in the world in terms of money transfers to its homeland made by representatives of the Indian diaspora. While in the late 1970s, migrant remittances averaged about 0.7% of India's GDP and 19.2% of exports, in the first decade of this century, these figures exceeded 3% and 19.5%, respectively.26

In 2009, money transfers totaled $52 billion. For comparison, it can be noted that transfers of the large Chinese diaspora in the same period amounted to approximately $47.6 billion, Mexican - $21.2 billion, Philippine - $17.4 billion.27 Since 2000, the amount of money transferred by Indian emigrants to their homeland has exceeded the amount of financial assistance provided to India by international organizations and foreign countries.

The role and importance of the Indian diaspora in the development of the economy of modern India is not limited only to the transfer of funds to their homeland, the volume of which has grown more than 20 times since the beginning of liberal reforms in 1991 and now amounts to more than 4% of national GDP. 28 An important contribution to the Indian economy is also made through investment. The Indian Government is doing its best to attract diaspora capital to the country, along with which advanced high-tech technologies are being imported into India. 29 In 2008, the share of Indian expatriate investors in the total amount of investment in the Indian economy was approximately 35%. At the same time, the experience gained by the People's Republic of China, which by the mid-1990s ranked 2nd in the world and 1st among developing countries in terms of the scale of receiving foreign investment, a significant share of which-about 60%-is accounted for by immigrants from China, is also used.

page 44

Table 2

Volume of remittances from expatriate Indians and foreign aid provided to India in 1990-2009

 

1990

2000

2008

2009

$ billion

% OF GDP

$ billion

% OF GDP

$ billion

% OF GDP

$ billion

% OF GDP

Money transfers

2,1

0,7

13,1

2,8

45,0

3,7

52,0

4,3

Foreign aid

3,7

1,2

1,5

0,3

1,1

0,1

-

-



Source: compiled by the author of: Annual Report - http://www.orderannualreports.com/060/UI/GP/home.aspx

The implementation of liberal reforms in India encourages contacts between Indian businessmen living abroad and at home. Joint development of high-tech areas of activity is actively carried out: microelectronics, automotive industry, etc. This trend has intensified as India has made progress towards economic stabilization and a new level of development. Expatriate Indians with substantial funds, well-established product distribution channels, and experience in global markets now have the opportunity to create and expand export-oriented businesses at home.

The main volume of investment in India comes from the countries of Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Mauritius. First of all, this is due to the presence of a large Indian community in these regions, whose influential representatives in India are reasonably considered as agents of the country's interests abroad.

Indians living abroad provide their homeland with new knowledge and technologies, share their experience and skills, advanced ideas and models of modern business management. As Indian Prime Minister M. Singh rightly states, investment in the country is carried out by migrants "not only in the usual-financial-form, but also in intellectual, social, cultural and, moreover, emotional (attachment to the historical homeland - N. G.)"30.

Thus, the part of the Indian diaspora that was formed as a result of a" brain drain " has now become the most important catalyst for India's economic development.


1 The Indian Diaspora. Dynamics of Migration // Ed. by N. Jayaram. Foreword by S.L. Sharma. New Delhi, 2004, p. 20.

Bhuyan Aroonim. 2 Indian diaspora - the bridge that links India to the world // Observer Magazine, 30.03.2007.

Ashish Kumar Sen. 3 Indians in the USA: There is no limit to achievement // India. The prospects. January 2003.

4 http://www.sksindia.com/06may1.htm

Bhuyan Aroonim. 5 Op. cit.; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American Assosiatianof Physicianoflndian Origin

6 Back in 1917, the US Congress passed a law (The Barred Zone Act), sharply restricting the entry of Indians into the United States. It wasn't until 1946 that the US President, George W. Bush, was released. Truman, with his new Luce-Cellar Act, returned the right of Indians to enter the United States and subsequently settle there. A draft of this law was proposed to US President F. D. Roosevelt in 1943 by Republican Clara Booth Luce and Democrat Emmanuel Sellar, but was rejected due to the ongoing World War II.

7 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_American

8 http://www.nriol.com/indiandiaspora/indians-abroad.asp

9 http://www.nriol.com/indiandiaspora/indians-abroad.asp

MSN Hotmail 10 was subsequently sold by its founder Sabir Bhatia to Microsoft for $400 million.

11 http://www.nriol.com/indiandiaspora/indians-abroad.asp

Arvind Panagariya. 12 The Indian Diaspora in the United States // Economic Times, 23.05.2001.

13 Both are currently U.S. citizens.

14 Until 2008, about 164,000 people became Her Majesty's subjects in the UK every year, 9% of whom were from India.

15 http://www.theage.com.au/news/business/uk-indians-taking-care-of-business/2006/03/07/1141 701511987.html

Uprety B.C. 16 Indians in Nepal. A Study of Indian Migration to Kathmandu. Kalinga Publications. Delhi, 1999, p. 32.

17 Under this treaty, Bhutan agreed to be "guided by the advice" of India in matters of foreign policy, officer training, education of Bhutanese citizens, etc. For its part, India has pledged to provide financial assistance to Bhutan.

Uprety B.C. 18 Indians in Nepal. A Study of Indian Migration to Kathmandu. Kalinga Publications. Delhi, 1999, p. 23.

19 Ibidem.

20 The Madhwani family is currently estimated to control businesses that generate 12% of Uganda's GDP. The head of the group, Manubhai Madhwani, settled in London after his expulsion in 1972, but other members of his family returned safely to Uganda, where they continue to conduct business. The tycoon's family wealth is estimated at $550 million.

21 http://www.theage.com.au/news/business/uk-indians-taking-care-of-business/2006/03/07/1141 701511987.html

Hasim is sitting there. 22 Indians in South Africa / / India. The prospects. January 2003.

23 Cit. Po: Hasim is sitting. Decree, op. cit., p. 18.

Ed. by Jayaram N. 24 Foreword by S.L. Sharma. Op. cit., p. 46.

25 Ibid.

Singh Sudama. 26 Migration in the Third World. Views and Reviews. New Delhi, 2001, p. 37 - 38; Annual Report - http://www.orderannu-alreports.com/060/UI/GP/home.aspx

27 www.thaindian.com; www.thefreelibrary.com; www.remit-tances-gateway.org.

28 Annual Report 2009/10. RBI - http://www.orderannual-reports.com/060/UI/GP/home.aspx

Galishcheva N. V. 29 Indiskaya diaspora: rol ' i znachenie v privlechenii investitsii v ekonomiki strany [Indian Diaspora: Role and significance in attracting investments to the country's economy]. BIKI, 1.11.2003, N 125; 4.11.2003, N126; ona. India: encouraging the influx of Diaspora capital into the development of the economy / / BIKI, 10.06. 2003, N 64; 14.06. 2003, N65.

Bhuyan Aroonim. 30 Op. cit.


© libmonster.com

Permanent link to this publication:

https://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/INDIAN-DIASPORA-TIES-WITH-THE-MOTHERLAND-REMAIN-INTACT

Similar publications: LUnited States LWorld Y G


Publisher:

Peter NielsenContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster: https://libmonster.com/Nielsen

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

N. V. GALISHCHEVA, INDIAN DIASPORA: TIES WITH THE MOTHERLAND REMAIN INTACT // New-York: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 10.08.2023. URL: https://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/INDIAN-DIASPORA-TIES-WITH-THE-MOTHERLAND-REMAIN-INTACT (date of access: 18.05.2024).

Found source (search robot):


Publication author(s) - N. V. GALISHCHEVA:

N. V. GALISHCHEVA → other publications, search: Libmonster USALibmonster WorldGoogleYandex

Comments:



Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
 
  • There are no comments yet
Related topics
Publisher
Peter Nielsen
New-York, United States
151 views rating
10.08.2023 (282 days ago)
0 subscribers
Rating
0 votes
Related Articles
A HEAVENLY TREAT WITH A CHINESE TWIST
Catalog: Science 
2 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
MIGRATION TRANSFORMING CHINA
Catalog: Sociology 
14 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
China. KARAOKE EDUCATION
Catalog: Pedagogics 
32 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
QUOTATIONS FROM THE EIGHT BOOKS IN THE EARLY RUSSIAN CHRONICLES, OR HOW THE MEANING OF HISTORICAL MESSAGES CHANGES
Catalog: History 
54 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
ISRAEL-TURKEY: A CONTROVERSIAL PARTNERSHIP
Catalog: Political science 
58 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
WORLD POLITICS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION
Catalog: Political science 
59 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
CHANDRIKA - "MOONLIGHT" OVER SRI LANKA
Catalog: Political science 
61 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
SUMMARY
Catalog: Pedagogics 
71 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Catalog: Ecology 
73 days ago · From Peter Nielsen
A NEW STAGE IN THE PALESTINIAN-ISRAELI CONFRONTATION
Catalog: Military science 
74 days ago · From Peter Nielsen

New publications:

Popular with readers:

News from other countries:

LIBMONSTER.COM - U.S. Digital Library

Create your author's collection of articles, books, author's works, biographies, photographic documents, files. Save forever your author's legacy in digital form. Click here to register as an author.
Library Partners

INDIAN DIASPORA: TIES WITH THE MOTHERLAND REMAIN INTACT
 

Editorial Contacts
Chat for Authors: U.S. LIVE: We are in social networks:

About · News · For Advertisers

U.S. Digital Library ® All rights reserved.
2014-2024, LIBMONSTER.COM is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)
Keeping the heritage of the United States of America


LIBMONSTER NETWORK ONE WORLD - ONE LIBRARY

US-Great Britain Sweden Serbia
Russia Belarus Ukraine Kazakhstan Moldova Tajikistan Estonia Russia-2 Belarus-2

Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of affiliates, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. Once you register, you have more than 100 tools at your disposal to build your own author collection. It's free: it was, it is, and it always will be.

Download app for Android