A. M. SHUSTOVA
Candidate of Philosophical Sciences
Russian Oriental studies rightfully occupies one of the leading places in the world science of the East. A number of outstanding scientists have contributed to its achievements. Among them there are special names - those who were Orientalists not only by their education, but also Orientalists by their inner nature, as they say, "by the grace of God", and their education only highlighted their gifted nature as an Oriental researcher. Such scientists undoubtedly include Yuri Nikolaevich Roerich (1902-1960), who is an example of a thinker of the widest palette, without exaggeration - a man-institute.
Yu. N.Roerich's life coincided with a difficult period in the history of his homeland, Russia, and indeed the whole world. He spent most of his life in exile. As fate would have it, he was given unique opportunities to walk "along the trails of Central Asia", to experience the vicissitudes of the difficult life of the Eastern peoples, whose history and culture were at the center of his research interests. Throughout his life, Yu. N. Roerich carried his devotion to the East and Asia, keeping deep in his heart his love for its innermost truths.
How did the young Yuri Roerich develop as an Orientalist?
AWAKENING INTEREST IN THE EAST
Yu. N. Roerich was born on August 16, 1902 in the town of Okulovka in the Novgorod province. His parents were on an expedition at the time. His father Nikolai Konstantinovich Roerich, a famous St. Petersburg artist, conducted excavations, and his mother Elena Ivanovna was engaged in photographing objects, and their son was born, as they say,in the field.
Yuri grew up in a family that had a great interest in the history and spiritual culture of the East. Both the boy's father and mother were interested in the East, read works on Indian philosophy, and studied the works of Vivekananda. Famous orientalists visited the St. Petersburg House of Roerichs: the founder of Russian Egyptology, the founder of the Russian school of the history of the Ancient East B. A. Turaev, a classic of historical and philosophical Buddhology, Academician F. I. Shcherbatskaya, one of the founders of the Russian Indological school, academician S. F. Oldenburg, Mongol scholar A. D. Rudnev, an Oriental scholar, archaeologist, art historian of India V. V. Golubev. There were many stories about the East, and they could not help but interest Yuri.
Yuri received his primary education in St. Petersburg at one of the leading gymnasiums - the K. I. May Gymnasium. Certain interests and talents began to manifest themselves in him from early childhood, especially with regard to ancient history. His mother Elena Ivanovna wrote: "The elder shows a love for history and for tin soldiers. He had thousands of them. His passion for the art of war has remained to this day. Strategy is his strong point. By the way, this talent is innate, and he is very proud of his ancestor, Field Marshal Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov, a hero of the War of 1812."1
In his youth, Yuri also showed promise as a good artist. His drawings, executed in excellent technique, as well as paintings of 1917 - 1918, have been preserved. The writer's talent was also discovered. His poems and essays written in his younger years, as well as a number of essays, are well known.2
Even in his high school years, Yuri began to seriously study languages: modern European, as well as Latin and Greek. At the same time, he began to take lessons from the outstanding Russian Egyptologist Academician B. A. Turaev, to whom he later devoted one of his first scientific articles.3 He also begins to study the Mongolian language and literature with the Mongolian scholar A. D. Rudnev. His interests are increasingly focused on studying the languages, history and culture of the peoples of the East. 16-year-old Yuri chooses for himself the field of Oriental researcher.
Due to the devastating events of the revolutionary years in Russia in the autumn of 1919, the Roerichs were forced to leave their homeland and move to England. In the same year, Yuri entered the Indo-Iranian department of the School of Oriental Languages at the University of London.
university. There he studied Sanskrit and Persian under the British orientalist, Director of the London Institute for Oriental Studies, Professor Denison Edward Ross (1871-1940). Yuri studied for only one year, but with considerable success. When the Secretary of State for India visited the University of London, he was presented as the best student in Sanskrit.
In September 1920, the Roerichs moved to the United States. Yuri is being transferred to the Department of Indian Philology at Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts).
LEARNING FROM A TALENTED MENTOR
For a student, and later for a young scientist, it is undoubtedly very important who will become his scientific adviser, mentor, and the person who will open the doors of the temple of science for him. Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman (1850-1941), a famous indologist and specialist in Vedic and Buddhist literature, became such a teacher for Yuri Roerich. Yuri began studying with him in Sanskrit and Pali.
Yu. Roerich, following the recommendations of his teacher, also planned to go on a research trip to India from Harvard University. But the parents asked their son not to hurry, as they themselves were going to go on a big Indian trip. The fact is that Yuri's father Nikolai Konstantinovich dreamed of following the Great Indian Road at the beginning of the XX century, and even planned to go to the East with the famous orientalist V. V. Golubev, first in 1906, and then in 1914. While living in London in 1920, the Roerich family became friends with the Indian thinker and poet R. Tagore.
It was only in 1923 that the Roerichs ' dream of going to India was realized. On this trip, Professor Lanman advises Yuri to visit his Indian student Dr. S. K. Belwalkar in Pune, who has published a translation of Bhavabhuti's Sanskrit poem Uttara Ramacharita in the United States. In his letter of recommendation, Lanman writes: "I have rarely met a person more eager for knowledge, more enthusiastic in his desire to study and work steadily, than Roerich." 4
In 1891, Lanman founded the Harvard Oriental Series, which was designed to publish translations of ancient Indian literature in English.
Professor of Sanskrit C. R. Lanman was elected in 1929 vice-president of the Urusvati Institute of Himalayan Studies, established by the Roerichs in India in the Kulu Valley, headed by Yuri Roerich. Moreover, Lanman was the subject of the first issue of the Institute's journal, which contained an article by Yu. Roerich, written by him for the 80th anniversary of his teacher 5.
TRANSLATION OF THE UPANISHADS*
At Harvard, Yuri begins translating the Upanishads "Isha", "Katha" and "Chandogya", as well as "Garlands of Jatakas"from Sanskrit into Russian. He completed this work in India, in Darjeeling in 1925, providing the translation with philosophical and philological comments. In the introduction, he writes:
"The Upanishads represent the final chord of ancient Indian thought. Those mystical experiences during which hermits passed on to their disciples the crown of their spiritual quest. This is their inner meaning... The Upanishads and the thoughts contained in them are inseparable from the ancient Indian hermit life. They were created not by a certain epoch of literary development, but by a whole series of epochs during which the saints of India sought unity with God in the quietest forest hermits. The upanishads do not belong to specific authors... Who created the Upanishad "Isha", this gem among the mystical literature of India? Words that are deep in meaning have sometimes lost their meaning and are only difficult to explain... Alongside the exalted worldview of Shandilya or Yajnavalkya, we find such satires, like the story of the hermit Baka Dalbya and the pack of dogs, a story that already attests to the established caste of priests. And next to this we read the story of Satyakama, a hermit from a low family
* Upanishads - ancient Indian treatises, mainly of an ethical and philosophical nature.
6 sudras, which serves as a reminder of the time when India was not yet bound by the caste system. And if the Brahman collections and sutras are often liturgies of this world, celebrated at the hearth of the householder, then the Upanishads retain the remnants of forest liturgies, during which hermits conversed about God."
This passage clearly emphasizes the special emphasis on the problem of the origin and content of the Upanishads that Yuri made. First of all, they relate to the inner meaning of the Upanishads, this ancient monument of spiritual thought in India. Yu. Roerich notes, first of all, their mystical nature, they are closely connected with the ascetic practice of spiritual ascetics. Secondly, the universal character of the Upanishads is noted, they do not belong to a specific period of development of ancient Indian literature, nor to a specific author or authors. Their significance lies in the general spiritual tradition of India, in the practice of teaching students by a spiritual teacher, which goes back centuries. And, finally, third, the non-caste significance of the Upanishads is noted, where the realization of God is considered possible for everyone, and not just for a member of the higher castes.
At Harvard, in addition to studying Sanskrit and Pali, Yu. Roerich takes classical Chinese lessons from Dr. Chao, for whom he himself acts as a teacher. Here is what he writes to his parents: "I am intensively studying Chinese with Dr. Chao. I don't pay for my lessons, because he asked me to give him lessons in Russian and Persian."7
Yuri touches on the theme of concentrated continuous work in a letter to his brother Svyatoslav, written on August 2, 1925 in Gulmarg, at the beginning of the journey along the route of the Central Asian expedition. He writes: "Only through focused work can you achieve great results.8Continuous work is the only salvation from the terrible vulgarity and unnecessary sentimentality that permeate so-called civilized life. There is less of this vulgarity in Russians, and the main task of every Russian is to show the face of true labor, far from the ugly forms of social life. Here we live, far away from these manifestations of modern man, and believe me, it becomes funny when you meet local Europeans who go to pay tribute to the prejudices of vulgarity. You begin to understand the psychology of mountaineers, who look with a smile at the fun of the inhabitants of the valleys. I will say about myself that I will never return to the situation of our "pseudo-civilization"again. I believe that both science and art should be directed to the struggle against vulgarity, and that it is especially worthy of you, who live in the crucible of modern "civilization", to show contempt for the petty life that does not know the conditions of true labor. It will be a great pleasure to meet again at the end of the expedition and other tasks, but in the meantime, let each of us go hard to work."
A SPECIAL LOOK AT FOLK ART
While studying at Harvard, Yuri Roerich, in a letter to his parents, notes that "The course of the history of religions is very easy, because I am well acquainted with the beliefs of ancient Egypt and Assyria"9. This affects his training in this area even in high school years. But the young Roerich attends lectures on "Central Asian influences on the art of the South of Russia" by the Russian historian and archaeologist Professor M. I. Rostovtsev with pleasure.
Yu has an interest in art. Roerich is not accidental. Of course, his father and brother Svyatoslav were artists, belonged to the art world by their professional activities. Nikolai Konstantinovich taught a course on art history at the Art School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in St. Petersburg and was very well versed in this topic.
But Yuri Roerich was concerned about art not only from the side of art criticism, but also for a deeper reason. For him, art was a form of expressing the spirit of the people, it allowed us to see the deep motives of people's life.
In this regard, the report of the young Roerich - "The Origins of Russian Art", which he read in London in 1919 at the meeting of the "Russian Youth Circle", designed to promote communication among Russian youth in exile, is significant. In this report, Yuri Roerich's ability to generalize, synthesize, and see the common roots of seemingly completely different phenomena was well demonstrated.
Here are the lines from his report: "The origins of Russian art are usually found in the art of Byzantium and in the culture of Scandinavia. Now I would like to prove that Byzantium and the Varangians were only routes through which cultural influences passed. The sources of these influences need to be sought deeper. It is our national responsibility to support research in this area. For knowledge of the depths of the national treasury of art is the duty of every Russian person. <...> Byzantium was only the threshold of a vast temple of Eastern culture. The brilliance of Byzantine mosaics and refined luxury were only the first impressions on the great Eastern road. Russia, represented by the Khazars, Pechenegs, and those unknown tribes and peoples who roamed the steppes of our south, accepted the gifts of Tibet, Mongolia, China, and all of Hindustan. Russian art is the concept that has transformed all this conglomerate of diverse influences into one coherent whole. "10
In this report, 17-year-old Yuri Roerich, as an established orientalist, connects the development of Russia with the East, notes the unique nature of Russian art, which has incorporated elements of the ancient cultures of India, China, Tibet, Mongolia, Turkestan, as well as Egypt and Persia,
Assyria, Byzantium. Not so much the West as the East was the main character in the history of the formation of Russian art.
The study of the cultural heritage of the East was continued by Yuri Roerich in the future. Here you can note two directions.
This is a continuation of the study of the history of art. In 1925, his book "Tibetan Painting"was published in English in Paris11. It attempts to systematize the subjects of Tibetan Buddhist iconography in the historical aspect, and also examines the symbolism of Buddhist art. In 1930, Yu. N. Roerich's work "Animal Style among nomads of Northern Tibet"was published. 12 Professor M. I. Rostovtsev's lectures, which sharpened interest in the world of nomads of the Turkestan steppes, bore fruit.
The second direction, and a very important one, was the further development of the question of the synthesis of Eastern and Western cultures. Thus, in 1923 Yu. N. Roerich published his article "The Rise of Orientalism" 13.
SETTING TASKS FOR ORIENTAL STUDIES
The article "The Rise of Orientalism" is in a certain sense programmatic. First, it set the task of generalizing the history and culture of all Eastern countries in Oriental studies. As the St. Petersburg orientalist M. I. Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya writes in the preface to the collection of works by Yu. N. Roerich "Tibet and Central Asia", it is necessary to write " not the history of India or the history of China, but the history of Asia in ancient times, the Middle Ages and modern times. Let this story remain blank spots, not all the facts have yet been collected, but the very juxtaposition of the material will give an incentive to further research. Most of the Asian countries developed in close relationship with each other, the largest religious movements connected them into a single cultural world. Without understanding these processes that began in ancient times, it is impossible to study the history of their culture in the Middle Ages and especially in modern times. " 14
The task of studying the general history of Central Asia became for Yu. N. Roerich the work of his whole life. He meticulously collected materials for this grandiose research in terms of scale and significance. The result of many years of work was the thousand-page manuscript "History of Central Asia", which was published in 2004 (vol. 1) and in 2007 (vol. 2). A third volume is also expected.
Yu. N. Roerich's view of the history of the East, of Asia as a significant planetary center, is also connected with the second very important area of Oriental studies, namely, the study of the relationship between East and West in the context of the development of world civilization. This is a very important topic of mutual influence, mutual enrichment of two equal cultures-East and West.
The ideas of the synthesis of East and West served as the basis for the development of Eurasian thought. Eurasianism is a historiosophical and geopolitical school headed by three prominent Russian scientists in the 1920s: geographer P. N. Savitsky, historian G. V. Vernadsky, and linguist N. S. Trubetskoy. An important problem for Oriental studies, which Yu. N. Roerich and Eurasian scientists tried to solve, was the problem of understanding the nomadic world. What is the role of nomads in the development of the history and culture of large civilizations? What motivated them to seize large centers of settled life? With the study of the nomadic world, a special branch of Oriental studies emerged - nomadistics-the science of nomads, whose history has never been specifically considered by scientists before. Following Yu. N. Roerich, L. N. Gumilev, a prominent representative of the Eurasian trend of Russian historical thought, was engaged in the study of the nomadic world.
Yu. N. Roerich, advocating a generalized, synthesizing view of the history of the East, had his own narrow topic for research. This topic was defined in 1921 while he was still studying at Harvard. It concerns the history of the Central Asian Tochar people.
The Tocharian problem, as the researchers note, remains one of the most difficult to this day. It concerns both the origin of the Tochars and the genesis of their language, as well as the region of their settlement. It is believed that the Tochars belong to an ancient group of tribes that lived in Central Asia on a large territory from the Pamirs to Tibet in the period from the first millennium BC to the first millennium AD. In the second millennium AD, the Tochars dissolved among the Iranian-speaking and Turkic-speaking peoples.
Linguistic analysis of tos-
T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov conducted a study of the Kharian languages, which they published in their work "Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans "(Tbilisi, 1984). A separate 12th chapter of Volume 2 - "Distinguishing Tocharian from the Common European language and migration of Tocharian dialect speakers" -examines the problem of Tocharian migration and Indo-European loanwords in Chinese and Finno-Ugric. The Tocharian languages are a group of extinct related languages belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. Moreover, the self-designation of native speakers of Tocharian languages is not known. There are " Tokhar A "-East Tokhar (the language of Turfan and Karashar) and" Tokhar B " - West Tokhar (the language of Kuchi). The writing system is based on a special version of the Brahmi alphabet.
In one of his letters to his parents in 1921 from Cambridge, Yu. Roerich cites a Uyghur passage, which is accompanied by the following explanations:: "Here we talk about the translation of" Karya-dhara Sanghadasa "from" kuisan " language into Tocharian[yk]. Hence, a distinction is made between the two languages. The difference must be considerable, for the peoples of antiquity did not recognize small dialectical features very well, and almost always noticed the difference only in the case of two languages that were very different from each other. So, for the Chinese, the peoples of the Western Region, that is, Chinese Turkestan, spoke the same language, although we know that there were many dialects. They only pointed out separate groups of languages that were far apart from each other, and did not recognize any dialectical features in individual groups. Now the Kushans (Kuisan) belong to the Yue-tsi peoples, who, according to the now accepted scientific opinion, were Indo-Scythians.15follows from our passage that there were two languages, Kushan and Tocharian, and they were very different from each other. Perhaps my conjuncture will turn out to be nonsense, but for me it is still of interest and is "a problem worth while studying". I have brought this long discussion from the field of Central Asian history, so that you would have an idea of the nature of my work."
And yet, why does Yuri Roerich choose such a difficult and confusing topic?
The turn of the first millennium BC - the first millennium AD was important not only for the West, when Christianity emerged, whose values served as the basis for the development of the culture of Western civilization, but also for the East. This was the time of the formation of new eastern empires in the vast expanses of Central Asia. It was at the turn of these millennia that Buddhism, born in India, began its movement in Asia. In the first century AD, the mighty Kushan Empire was formed, covering a huge part of the Central Asian territory. Buddhism was established here in the Kushan era. Along with it, the position of Sanskrit in this region has also strengthened. Such cultural centers as Khotan and Kucha emerged and flourished, and the pro-Hellenic Parthian kingdom also experienced a cultural boom. The Gandhara culture has spread widely across the regions of Central Asia through caravan routes. Thus, in pre-Muslim times in Central Asia, there was a continuous belt of Buddhist cultures from the shores of the Aral Sea to the Pacific coast. Huge territories were united into a single cultural space.
According to Yu. N. Roerich, the merit of such a powerful cultural rise in this period in the East largely belonged to the Tochars, who at the turn of the new and old eras became the head of historical and cultural creativity. It was they who became the group of peoples who took over the historical baton from even more ancient peoples, maintaining the continuity of Central Asian culture. In turn, when their time was up, the Tochars passed on the historical baton to the groups of peoples following them along the line of historical succession.
It is worth paying attention to one more important point. According to Yu. N. Roerich, the modern era has a special character for Central Asia. Its history has come to the point where a new revival of the East should follow. Today, the vector of historical attention is shifting from West to East, and Asia is once again becoming an important region in the global picture of the world. Not only the economic, but, above all, the cultural unity of Asia should once again become a historical fact. In the work "Cultural unity of Asia" Yu. N. Roerich writes: "In our search for unity, in our attempts to build new bridges for the unification of peoples, we should not forget the lessons of the past, but, on the contrary, we should carefully preserve the remnants of former unity and, wherever possible, rekindle the sacred fire of cultural unity, cultural exchange, which once brought good fruits to humanity and which is so lacking in our own world. to the modern world "16.
The historical lesson of the cultural unity of Asia, which emerged more than two thousand years ago thanks to the historical creativity of the Tochars based on Buddhist values, should not be forgotten. According to Yu. N. Roerich, the recent surge of interest in Buddhism and the East in general, especially in the West, should also be better understood.
Yu. N. Roerich later summarized his research on the Tocharian problem in his articles "The Tocharian Problem" 17 and "The Memory of the Tochars in Tibet" 18.
COMPLETION OF ORIENTAL STUDIES EDUCATION
In the 1920s, the best expert on the Tocharian problem was a French orientalist,
Professor Paul Pelliot (1878-1945).
Yu. N. Roerich intended to continue his research on the Tocharian problem under the guidance of P. Pellio. In 1921, he wrote a letter to the University of Paris:"...I started studying classical Chinese at Harvard. I am currently particularly interested in the tochar problem. My intuition makes it possible to look at the problem from a historical point of view, based on archaeological finds concerning Chinese Turkestan. I am thinking of presenting this work as the thesis of a doctoral thesis at the University of Paris. "19
Yu. N. Roerich also compiled theses on the Tocharian language and sent them to P. Pellio. In a letter to his parents in the autumn of 1921, Yuri writes:: "Have you received my emails about negotiations with Prof [essor] Pelliot? Complete success. It has been decided that I will be in Paris next year. Pelliot is a most remarkable man. "20 " My work on tocharas is developing rapidly. I found new ways. A possible explanation for the similarity of the Tocharian language with the Armenian one was found by me just this evening. " 21
In August 1922, Yu. N. Roerich moved to France to complete his Oriental studies. And, of course, he starts studying with Professor Pellio. "I was at Pellio's. He was awfully nice and had already given me a paper on ancient Chinese. " 22
It should also be noted that in addition to continuing his Oriental studies education, Yuri studied at the military and Law and Economics departments at the Sorbonne in the 1922/23 academic year.
In Paris, in addition to university classes, Yuri Roerich spends a lot of time in libraries and museums, visits the Louvre and the Guimet Museum, which contain masterpieces of Oriental art. "What wonderful things, mystical Buddhas, refined Bodhisattvas, and the fearsome and ferocious kin-kang, the guardian geniuses of the good law. In general, I am terribly attracted to Buddhism. I find a deeply mystical feeling and colorfulness in it. Just read the Mongolian and Tibetan prayers!.."23
In Paris, Yuri's writing talent does not remain in vain. To earn money, Yuri collaborates with the magazine "French Pages", where he heads the department of oriental chronicles. Every week his notes are published in the section "Literary and Political news".
Nor does he abandon his work on Sanskrit translations. Yuri helps translate the Bhagavad Gita to Irma Vladimirovna Manziarli, whom the Roerichs met back in London.
In 1923, on the recommendation of Professor A. Meillet, he was elected a member of the Linguistic Society and began publishing in the Parisian magazine " La Vie des Peuples "(Life of Peoples). Here, in 1923, his articles appeared: an article dedicated to B. A. Turaev, and "The Rise of Orientalism". In these works, Yu. N. Roerich appears as an established scholar of Oriental studies.
In 1923, Yu. N. Roerich received a master's degree in Indian Literature. Thus, by the end of his studies in Paris, he is ready for the broadest scientific activity in the field of Oriental studies. And the future fate of the young scientist provides him with brilliant opportunities for implementing the acquired Oriental knowledge.
At the end of 1923, Yu. N. Roerich left for India with his parents. Thus, a new stage of his scientific activity begins.
Roerich E. I. 1 Letter from Dudko V. L. 25.02.1953. Archive of the ICR-Cit. by: Mikhailova N. G., Knizhnik T. O. ...He was more than a scientist / / Preface to the book. Roerich Yu. N. Letters, Vol. 1. Moscow: ICR, 2002, p. 7.
2 Part of this material is published by: Yuri Roerich: Youth Essays 1920-1921 // Vestnik Ariavarta, 2008, N 10, pp. 15-25.
Roerich G.N. 3 Un grand orientaliste: Boris Touraev // La vie des peuples. Paris. 1923. N 44, p. 964 - 968.
Lanman Ch. R. 4 Letter to S. K. Belvalkar. 15.06.1923-Archive of the Nicholas Roerich Museum, New York. - Cit. Rosov V. A. Molodye gody Yurii Roerikh (1918 - 1923) [The Young Years of Yuri Roerich (1918-1923)]. Vestnik Ariavarta, 2002, No. 2, p. 15.
Roerich George. 5 Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman and His Work in the Field of Indology / / Journal of Urusvati Himalayan Research Institute. Vol. I. New York, 1931. P. 1-6. See also: Roerich Yu. N. Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman and his works in the field of indology / / In the book: Roerich Yu. N. Tibet and Central Asia. Samara. Agni. 1999.
6 Isha Upanishad, translated by Yu. N. Roerich. The manuscript. 1925. Private Archive, Moscow. An autograph. - Cit. by: Rosov V. A. The Young Years of Yuri Roerich (1918-1923).., pp. 15-16.
Roerich Yu. N. 7 Letters. Vol. 1. 1919-1935. Moscow: ICR, 2002, p. 37.
8 Letters of Yuri Roerich to his brother Svyatoslav 1925 - 1929 // Vestnik Ariavarta, 2002, N 2, p. 59.
Roerich Yu. N. 9 Letters, vol. 1.., p. 37.
10 Istoki russkogo iskusstva [The Origins of Russian Art]. 1919. Manuscript, draft. - Notes on Oriental Studies. Notebook 1. Private archive, Moscow. An autograph. - Cit. Rosov V. A. Molodye gody Yurii Roerikh [The Young Years of Yuri Roerich], p. 14.
Roerich G.N. 11 Tibetan Paintings. Paris: Geuthner, 1925 (in Russian, this work of Yu. N. Roerich was published for the first time in 2000 in the publishing house "Agni", Samara).
Roerich G. N. 12 Animal style among the nomad tribes of Northern Tibet. Prague: Seminarium Kondakovianum, 1930. See also: Roerich Yu. N. Animal style among the nomads of Northern Tibet. Moscow: ICR, 1992.
Roerich G.N. 13 L'essor de l'orientalisme // La vie des peuples. Paris, 1923, N 42, p. 258-266. See also: Roerich YUN. Rastsvet orientalizma / / In the book: Roerich Yu. N. Tibet and Central Asia...
Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya M. I. 14 Introduction // Ibid., p. 6.
Roerich Yu. N. 15 Letters, Vol. 1.., p. 32.
16 Kul'turnoe edinstvo Azii [Cultural Unity of Asia]...
17 Tokhar problem / / Peoples of Asia and Africa. 1963, N 6, pp. 118-123. See also: Roerich Yu. N. Tochar problem / / In: Roerich Yu. N. Tibet and Central Asia...
18 Roerich Yu. N. Pamyat' o tochars v Tibet // In kn.: Roerich Yu.N. Tibet i Tsentral'naya Aziya...
19 - Cit. by: Roerich Yu. N.: Proceedings of the Jubilee Conference, Moscow: ICR, 1994, p. 9.
Roerich Yu. N. 20 Letters, vol. 1.., p. 37.
21 Ibid., pp. 37-38.
22 Roerich. 11.08.1922. - N. Roerich Museum. New York, Autographed. - Cit. Rosov V. A. Molodye gody Yurii Roerikh [The Young Years of Yuri Roerich], p. 22.
23 Roerich. 9.11.1922...
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