Libmonster ID: U.S.-1503

Introductory article, translation from ancient Greek and commentary by S. M. Perevalov



Greek military literature is poorly known here, primarily due to the lack of modern Russian translations. Alphonse Deng (1896-1964), the greatest expert on this literature, distinguished the following types of treatises on land warfare: strategists, tactics, poliorquetiques, strategemes1 . A Russian-speaking reader who is interested in Greek military theory, but is not equipped with knowledge of the original language, can, using translated sources, form with varying degrees of completeness some idea of three of its four directions. He will get acquainted with what was included in the tasks of the commander (strategy) from pre-revolutionary translations of the works of Onasander and Maurice 2 ; he will learn about the techniques of siege warfare (polyorquetics) from translations of the works of Apollodorus, Athenaeus, the Byzantine Anonymous (VDI. 1940. N 1, 3/4) 3 and Aeneas Tacticus (VDI. 1965. N 1-2); for knowledge of military tricks (strategems) he will have to refer to an old edition of the translation of Polienus the Macedonian 4 . But regarding the most widespread art of field warfare (tactics) in antiquity and the favorite genre of military writers - tactical manuals-the inquisitive reader will remain in the dark: they are not available in Russian, except for minor excerpts from Arrian's "Tactics" in B. B. Latyshev's "Scythica et Caucasica" (SC. G. P. 521; VDI. 1948. N 1. P. 406).

Arriane has another work on tactics - a unique "Disposition against the enemy".

Dain A. 1 Les strategistes byzantins / / TM. 2. R., 1967. p. 318.

Onasander. 2 Instructions to military leaders, St. Petersburg, 1828; Mauritius. Tactics and strategy / Translated from Latinsk. Tsybysheva, St. Petersburg, 1903.

3 Reprinted in: Greek Poliorquetiki. Flavius Vegetius Renat. St. Petersburg, 1996.

Polyen. 4 Strategems. St. Petersburg, 1842.

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alanov". Relatively recently, it was published twice in the translation of B. Bahrakh's book5, but both of these Russian translations, as well as their English prototype, are full of factual errors and unsuitable for historical interpretation.

Lucius (?) Flavius Arrian (c. 86-after 161), Greek philosopher and writer, best known as the author of Alexander's Anabasis. Brief information about his life and work is preserved in Lucian, Dio Cassius, Themistius, John Lida, Photius, Sudas, in separate inscriptions, in his own works. His biography, written by Dion Cassius, has been lost. Arrian was born in the city of Nicomedia (Bithynia) in Asia Minor, in a noble family. In his youth, he studied under the Stoic Epictetus, after whose death he published his own notes of the teacher's lectures. In his" small homeland " of Nicomedia, he served as a priest of Demeter and Cora. During the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138), he made a successful public career, in the 120s he was proconsul of the province of Betica in Spain, around 129-130 he received the post of consul-suffect, from 131 to 137 he ruled the province of Cappadocia Minor with the rank of imperial legate. After the death of Hadrian, he retired from public affairs, lived for a long time in Athens, received citizenship there, and was elected archon (145/146). He died in the reign of Marcus Aurelius (Fot. Bibl. cod. 58. 4).

Arrian wrote two works on military subjects - " Disposition against the Alans "and" Tactics", both written during the years of his Cappadocian governorship. Both are somehow connected with the performance of official duties, as well as the third work of the same period - "Periple of Pontus Euxinus". The Periplus (c. 132) is written in the form of a report-letter to the Emperor Hadrian about an inspection trip along the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in The Tactics (137) Arrian sets out his views on the military experience of antiquity and promotes Hadrian's reforms in the Roman army, in the Disposition describes the marching and battle formations of the provincial army that against the Alans. Monographs from the Cappadocian period are usually regarded as Arrian's first literary experiments .6 A. Bosworth, the greatest contemporary researcher of Arrian's work, on the contrary, believes that Arrian was already a well-known writer and author of at least several historical works, including The Anabasis of Alexander, by the time of his viceroyalty .7 Both points of view are at the level of hypotheses, but Bosworth's position is preferable, and I refer the interested reader to its arguments.

The Dispositio highlights one of the episodes of Arrian's activities as governor of Cappadocia - his actions to repel the invasion of the Alans, as reported by Dion Cassius (LXIX. 15: 1). According to Dio, after the end of the Jewish War (the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132-135), at the instigation of the Iberian king Pharasmanus, a new war broke out, this time with the Alans, who made a devastating raid through Albania and Media (Atropatene) and invaded the Roman-allied Armenia and the province of Cappadocia. The Alans stopped the war and returned to their own land, partly satisfied with the gifts of Vologases (most likely referring to the Parthian king, not the Armenian one), partly afraid of the military preparations of Flavius Arrian, the ruler of Cappadocia. The Disposition against the Alans introduces us to these preparations. The usual date of the "Disposition" is 135 or 136, immediately after the events that caused its appearance.

Byzantine authors report that there was another Arrian work dedicated to the Alans. Writer of the VI century. John Leed (De mag. 3: 53) Patriarch Photius (Bibl. cod. 58) calls it "Alanic History" - "Alanic" In what relation our "Disposition" is to the hypothetical "Alanic" - it is difficult to say, since very little is known about the latter. It is widely believed that the "Disposition" is a preserved part of the "Alanika" 8 . However, the style features of the "Disposition",

Bachrach B.S. 5 A History of the Alans in the West. Minneapolis, 1973; Bahrakh B. S. Alany na Zapad [Alans in the West], translated from English by I. B. Sanakoeva, Moscow, 1993, pp. 147-153. History of the Alans in the West / Translated from English by M. Cherchesova // Daryal, 1994, No. 1, pp. 179-184.

Schwartz E. 6 Arrianus (9) / / RE. 1896. II. Sp. 1232 ff.; Savitsky G. I. Flavius Arrian as a source on the history of Central Asia. Samarkand, 1941. p. 26; Sobolevsky S. I. Flavius Arrian / / History of Greek Literature, vol. III. Moscow, 1960. p. 191 sl.; Bowie E. L. Greeks and Their Past in Second Sophistic / / pp. 1970. 46. P. 25 et al.

Bosworth А.В. 7 Arrian's Literary Development // CQ. 1972. 22 P. 185; idem. Errors in Arrian // CQ. 1976. 26. N 1. P. 118-119; idem. From Arrian to Alexander. Studies in Historical Interpretation. Oxf., 1988. P. 25- 37.

Kulikovsky Yu. A. 8 The Alans according to classical and Byzantine writers. Kiev, 1899. p. 12; Savitsky G. I. Uk. soch. P. 24; Gagloev Yu. S. Alany i voprosy etnogeneza osetin [Alans and issues of Ossetian ethnogenesis]. Tbilisi, 1966. p. 84; Kruger O. O. Arrian and his work "Alexander's Campaign" / / Arrian. Alexander's campaign, Moscow, 1993, p. 13 (reprint of the 1962 edition); Dain. Op. cit. p. 331; Bachrach. Op. cit. P. 126. Evidence in favor of the fact that "Disposition" is an integral part of "Alanic" was given in his dissertation by E. Wheeler (Wheeler E. L. Flavius Arrianus: A Political and Military Biography. Duke University, 1977; still unavailable to me). A brief mention of this: Wheeler E.L. The Occasion of Arrian's Tactica // GRBS. 1978. 19. N 4. P. 352.

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imitating the language of military orders, with an abundance of imperative forms for the 3rd person and infinitive in the imperative sense, a monotonous enumeration of military units and subunits, maneuvers, hardly allow the idea that such an essay could be part of a larger historical (narrative) work 9 . Most likely, this is an independent work, namely, a Greek translation from Latin of a military document made by Arrian to glorify a successful campaign, which has undergone literary processing .10 Arrian did the same when publishing the Peripla in Greek, which was based on an official report to the emperor in Latin (Peripl. 6.2; 10.1).

The genre of Dispositions is unique in ancient literature. It bears little resemblance to the usual military commentarii 11 , but rather to the boring disposition of Weyrother in Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace: Die erste Kolonne marschiert ... die zweite Kolonne marschiert... die dritte Kolonne marschiert... Bosworth points to the dispositions formed in the camp of Darius (Arr. Anab. 3.11.3). Arrian could (we do not have exact data) get acquainted with them when collecting material for the Anabasis, and then use their form in other works 12 . The "Disposition against the Alans" consistently describes the marching (1-10), combat (11-25) order of the Roman army and instructions for action in battle against the Alans (26-31). The marching order generally resembles that known from Josephus (Bell. Jud. 3.115-120; 5.47-50) and Tacitus (Ann. I. 51.5-6), reinforced by measures to provide additional protection of the vanguard and flanks with cavalry. The order of battle is not quite usual for the reader, who is used to the standard formation of legions in three lines (acies triplex) - in Arrian it is a phalanx experiencing its rebirth in the second century AD, and a phalanx intended not for attack (like the Macedonian one), but for defense. The terminology and style are deliberately archaic: the enemy-the Alans-are called "Scythians", the legions - "phalanxes", the centurions - "hecatontarchs", Arrian himself is bred twice (10; 22) under the pseudonym Xenophon (the name of his favorite writer and hero). "Disposition" has a great historical value: This is the only source that gives a detailed description of the provincial army in the early Empire era. Almost all of the military units mentioned in Arrian are now reliably identified thanks to the works of K. Grotefend, G. Pelham, and E. Ritterling, A. Bosworth and other scientists 13 .

The Disposition against the Alans is preserved in a mid - tenth-century codex Laurentianus gr. 55.4, along with two dozen other military works by Greek authors. The manuscript, presumably from the scriptorium of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, once belonged to Lorenzo de ' Medici the Magnificent (1449-1492), and is now preserved in the Medicean Library in Florence. The text is placed behind Arrian's "Tactics", has a title that takes up two pages (196r-197v) and breaks off in the middle of a sentence due to the torn out next sheet; the text is sometimes damaged and riddled with lacunae. These features of the text are reproduced in several late manuscripts of the XVI-XVII centuries, dating back to Laurentianus gr. 55.4. "Disposition" was first published in 1664. Based on the now-lost Milanese manuscript 14 , later reprinted by John Schaeffer.

Bosworth A.B. 9 Arrian and the Alani // HSCP. 1977. 81. P. 247.

10 E. Dent's attempts to consider the "Disposition" as a valid plan of attack on the Alans, drawn up in Greek for the needs of Arrian's diverse army, were unconvincing (Dent A. Arrian's Array // NT. 1974. N 24. 8. P.573). Latin was still the official language of the Roman army.

11 The genre of commentary included E. Bovey's" Disposition " (Op. cit. p. 15; cf.Bosworth. Arrian... p. 218).

Bosworth. 12 Arrian... P. 248.

Grotefend C.L. 13 Die Truppen in Arrians Marschordnung gegen die Alanen // Philologus. 1867. N 26; Pelham H.F. Arrian as a Legate of Cappadokia // EHR. 1895. N 44; Ritterling Е. Zur Erklarung von Arrians  // Wiener Studien. 1902. N 34; Bosworth. Arrian...

14 Arriani Tactica et Mauricii Artis Militaris libri duodecim omnia nunquam ante publicata / Ed. I. Schefferus. Upsaliae, 1664. The book is reprinted in facsimile: Arriani Tactica et Mauricii Artis Militaris / Hrsg. von J. Scheffer. Facsimiledruck der Ausgabe 1664 mit einer Einleitung von W. Hahlweg. Osnabruck, 1967.

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repeatedly. The last critical edition, from which the current translation was made, was published in Leipzig, in the Teubner series in 1968,15

Until now, only minor passages in the collection of V. V. Latyshev have been translated directly from the original Greek into Russian (SC. I. p. 521; VDI. 1948. N 1. P. 406). Two recent publications of "Dispositions" in a double translation from English have already been mentioned.

The publication uses the following symbols::

[] in square brackets - words added by the translator for better understanding of the text.

() in angle brackets - words added to the Greek text by publishers.

... a lacuna in the Greek text.

 the text is corrupted and is being restored presumably.


(1) At the head of the whole army go mounted scouts, drawn up two by two with their chief 1 . Behind them are the Petraean mounted archers 2, also two at a time; the decurions lead them, followed by the [horsemen] of Ila, whose name is Avriana 3 . Together with them move the [horsemen] of the fourth cohort of the Rhaetians 4, their commander is Daphne the Corinthian. Behind them are the [horsemen] of Ila called Colon 5 . With them move the Ituraeans 6 , the Cyrenaeans 7, and the [horsemen] of the first Rhaetian 8 [cohort]. Demetrius commands them all. (2) Behind them are the Celtic Horsemen 9 , also two at a time, and they are led by the same centurion as in Camp 10 .

(3) The infantry moves behind them, holding up their badges, Italians 11 and how many are there

15 Acies contra Alanos // Arriani Scripta Minora / Ed. A.G. Roos et G. Wirth. Lpz., 1968. P. 177-185.

* Edited by D. E. Afinogenov.

1 Mounted scouts formed a special unit, the numerus exploratorum (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 370).

2 Riders of the III Ulpia Petraea miliary equestrian cohort of archers-coh (ors) III Ulpia Petraeorum miliaria equitata sagittariorum. Horse cohorts in the Roman army were mixed combat units. In the miliary (thousandth) cohort of the state there were 240 cavalry to 760 on foot, in the quigen (five hundred) cohort-half as many: 120 to 360 (Cichorius. Cohors // RE. IV, 1. Sp. 235; Davies R.W. Cohortes Equitatae // Historia. 1971. N 20. P. 752). Cf. u A. Hyland (Hyland A. Training the Roman Cavarly. From Arrian's Ars Tactica. Stroud, 1993. P. 78): 128 riders for the quingenary cohort and 256 for the miliary cohort.

3 II Ulpieva Avrianova ala-a1a II Ulpia Auriana (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 361). It is mentioned in Not. Dign. Or. 38, 22 and in two inscriptions: Latin (CIL. III. 6743) and Greek (AE. 1968. N 528). The outdated reading of the name of the Ila fighters as "Isaurians (Isaurians)" - a reading quite evidently rejected by Grotefend (Op. cit. S. 22), from time to time reappears on the pages of the press: Bachrach. Op. cit. P. 127; Dent. Op. cit. P. 571. According to the state, the usual, quingenary ala (cavalry unit) numbered 480 horsemen and 544 horses, the miliary-1008 people and 1104 horses (Chichorius. Аlа // Re. I, 1. Sp. 1227). New studies give figures of 512 horses for the quingenary and 768 for the miliary ala (see Hyland. Op. cit. p. 78).

4 IV Rhaetian Equestrian Cohort-con. IV Raetorum equitata (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 369).

5 I Augusta gemina Colonorum (ibid. S. 361).

6 are not exactly identifiable. Since Ekt. 18 mentions Iturian foot riflemen, it is possible to assume that Arrian's army had an Iturian mounted cohort numbered I or III (Davies. Op. cit. p. 754).

7 Horsemen of the III August Cyrenaean Mounted cohort of archers-coh. Ill Augusta Cyrenaica sagittariorum equitata (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 364). Cohort infantrymen are mentioned in Ekt. 3; 14; 18.

8 I Rhaetian Equestrian Cohort-coh. I Raetorum equitata (Retterling. Op. cit. S. 369).

9 I German Miliary Horse Cohort-coh. I Germanorum miliaria equitata. Ritterling (Op. cit. S. 364-365) erroneously concluded that the Greek authors of the first centuries of our era always called the Germans Celts, and the Celts themselves-Galatians. Bug fixed by F. Kiechle F. Die "Taktik" des Flavius Arrianus, who gave examples of the designation of Celts and Germans by their proper names (Kiechle F. Die "Taktik" des Flavius Arrianus // 45. Bericht der Romisch-Germanischen Kommission. 1964. 1965. S. 114. Anm. 18). Probably, in our case we are talking about Celts (Gauls) from the province of Upper Germany (Germania Superior).

10 The camp prefect (praefectus castrorum), appointed from among the senior centurions.

11 The Italian cohort is mentioned in Ekt. 13, the Italian Horsemen in Ekt. 9. Apparently, Arrian's army had a mounted cohort under this name. Most likely, this is the I Italian miliary Equestrian cohort-coh. I Italica miliaria equitata (Davies. Op. cit. P. 754; ср. Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 365; Bosworth. Arrian... P. 232. Not. 62).

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available from the Cyrenians 12 . All are headed by Pulcher, the commander of the Italians. Bosporan Infantrymen 13 follow them, with Lamproclus as their chief, and Nomads 14 follow them, subordinate to their chief Verus. (4) Column (...) there will be four Hoplites [in a row]. All available archers should march ahead of them. The flanks of the column on both sides are covered by their own cavalry 15 . They are followed by the chosen cavalrymen, 16 and then the cavalrymen of the legion, then the catapults, (5) then the banner of the fifteenth legion, 18 and with it the chief of the legion, Valens, 19 iparchus, 20 the chiliarchs, 21 with whom he is stationed, and (five) the centurions, the commanders of the first cohort .22 Spearmen move in front of the infantrymen's banner. The infantrymen themselves go [behind the banner], forming up four [in a row]. (6) Behind the fifteenth Legion is placed the banner of the twelfth Legion23 , and with it the chiliarchs and centurions. And this legion marches in the same order, drawn up in fours.

(7) The Hoplite infantry is followed by the allied forces 24 : those from Armenia Minor and the Trebizondians are Hoplites, and the Colchians and Rhizians are spearmen. Behind them, the 25-man Submarine marines are moving. The commander of the entire Allied army will be Secundin 26, commander-

12 Infantry of the III Cyrenaean Cohort (see note 7).

13 I Bosporan Miliary Mounted cohort of archers-coh. I Bosporiana (Bosporanorum) miliaria sagittariorum equitata (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 363- 364). The Bosporan archers on foot are mentioned in Ekt. 18, the horsemen are implied among the" own riders " of the auxiliary troops (Ekt. 4).

14 I Numidian Horse Cohort-coh. I Numidiarum equitata (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 368). Nomad foot shooters are mentioned in Ekt. 18.

15 That is, the riders of the four equestrian cohorts mentioned above (Ekt. 3-4). Schaeffer's old reading (which was rejected by Grotefend (Op. cit. S. 25) instead of based on a handwritten one) is reproduced again in translations by B. Bachrach (Op. cit. P. 128) and E. Dent (Op. cit. p.571).

16 A special unit of "selected horsemen", consisting of distinguished auxilia soldiers, recruited "one at a time", a kind of horse guard of the Legate of Cappadocia, equites singulares consularis (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 370).

17 Greek authors usually used other words for the Roman legion:  But the word "phalanx" was considered the Macedonian equivalent of the Latin legio (Isid. Orig. 9.3.46), and it is quite possible that Arrian used the term under the impression of his previous work on Alexander's Anabasis (Bosworth. Arrian... p. 249). Suetonius (Ner. 19.2) reports that Nero, preparing to march East, called the newly recruited legion " the phalanx of Alexander the Great." The legion numbered 120 horsemen (Jos. Bell. Jud. 3. 6. 2).

18 Legio XV Apollinaris (XV Apollonian Legion), stationed in Satala (Lesser Armenia). The Legion's banner is an eagle.

19 is known from the inscription as M. Vettius M. f. An(iensi. s) Valens (CIL. XI. 383; see Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 361).

20 Probably the praefectus legionis, which was usually the primipilus, was a centurion of the highest rank. A good illustration of Arrian's construction of the headquarters of the XV Legion is a similar description of the troops of Vitellius in Tacitus (Hist. II. 89.2): "Before the eagles marched the prefects of the camps, the tribunes and the first centurions of the first ten maniples" (translated by G. S. Knabe).

21 "Thousand men", corresponding to military tribunes (six in each legion).

22 The position of centurions of the first reinforced cohort was the most honorable. There were five centurions in it, and six in the other nine cohorts of the legion.

23 Legio XII Fulminata (XII Lightning Legion), located in Militena. As is clear from the text, the XII Legion was not in full strength. The legion commander is not named( missing), he is numerically inferior to the XV Legion (Ekt. 15). E. Dent's suggestion (Op. cit. p.571) that Arrian himself commanded the legion is doubtful.

24 Lists the allied contingents (symmachiarii) that do not belong to the standing Roman army in Cappadocia (exercitus Cappadocicus), but represent the militias of tribes and cities under Roman rule: the inhabitants of Lesser Armenia, then part of the province of Cappadocia, the city of Trebizond on the southern coast of the Black Sea, the Colchians (inhabitants of Colchis), and the Rhizians from The Rizii River Valley (cf. Hagg . Peripl. 7.2). Already Pelham (Op. cit. p.636) suggested that Arrian had attracted additional forces from the territories directly threatened by the Alan invasion.

25 The word "Aplanians" is not clearly read and the identification of the Aplanite group is difficult. It marches with the Allies, consists of heavy infantry, and performs similar functions in combat to the infantry of the Cyrenaean Mounted Cohort (Ekt. 14) of the auxilia. Various variants of correcting the name of the Aplanians were proposed (Grotefend. Op. cit. S. 26; Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 365). The reading of the first publisher of Dispositions, I. Schaeffer (Arriani Tactica... 1664. 1967. P.121), "The Alans", can now be perceived as an incident. Probably, Arrian mentions a cohort that was located in the Troad (Asia Minor) under Augustus and was called cohors Apula, and at the time of the Notitia Dignitatum (c. 400) became known as cohors Apuleta (Bosworth. Arrian... P. 233). See AE. 1974. 1978. Not. 226.

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owned by the Aplanians. (8) The train is moving behind them. In the rear guard is Ila Getov 27 and its ilarch.

(9) The flanks of the infantry are arranged by the centurions assigned to them, and as a guard the Galatian ila 28, formed in a chain one at a time , goes around both sides [of the column], as well as the cavalry of the Italians 29 . Their ilarch 30 oversees [their] flanks.

(10) Xenophon, the commander of the whole army, 31 commands, [standing] mostly in front of the badges of the [legion] infantry, supervises the entire column and sees how the soldiers go in the ranks, returns those who break the order to their places, praises those who go in order.

(11) In this [marching] formation, go. Having arrived at the designated place, the entire cavalry should be arranged in a circle in a square, and scouts should be sent to high places to observe the enemy. At the signal, immediately arm in silence, armed-take a place in the ranks. (12) Let the order of battle be as follows. Both flanks of the infantry occupy heights on the ground, since the disposition is designed for such [terrain]. On the right flank, the armies of Vasacus and Arbel are drawn up, 32 occupying the very top of the hill, since they are all archers. 13 In front of them, the infantry of the Italian cohort is drawn up. All are headed by Pulcher, who commands the Italian cohort. He is subordinate to Vasak, Arbel and the cavalry and infantry attached to them.

(14) On the left, also occupying the top of the hill, are the allies from Lesser Armenia, the 33 hymnets of Trebizond, and the spear-bearers of Riziana. And in front of them line up the Aplanians-two hundred and the Cyrenians-one hundred, so that the Hoplites will be a cover for the throwers who throw over [them] from the top [of the hill]. (15) The entire space in the middle on the right side is occupied by the infantry of the fifteenth Legion, moving out of the center of the entire position, as much more numerous; the remaining section on the left side is filled by the infantry of the twelfth legion to the very edge of the left hill. [They] are formed in eight [ranks] and their formation should be tight. (16) The first four ranks will consist of contofores, with long, tapering points extending far out from the peaks.

26 That is, Secundus held the post of prefect of the Allies (praefectus symmachiariorum).

27 I Ulpian Dacian ala, I Ulpia Dacorum (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 362).

28 II Gallic ala-ala II Gallorum (ibid.).

29 The cavalry of the I Italian Cavalry Cohort, whose infantry (Ekt. 3) is in the vanguard (note 11).

30 Ilarch of the Galatian silt; supposing that the ilarch and silt of the Italians are meant (Cichorius. Ala. Sp. 1258) is considered erroneous (Ritterling. Op. cit. S. 366).

31 This obviously refers to Flavius Arrian, Governor of the province of Cappadocia (legatus Augustus pro praetore provinciae Cappadociae). Arrian repeatedly emphasized in his works the closeness of his" homonym " - Xenophon of Athens ( Arr . Cyneget. 1.4 et al.), later he was willingly called "the younger Xenophon" (Photius, Suda). According to F. Stadter Ph. A. Flavius Arrianus. The New Xenophon / / GRBS. 1967. N 8), Arrian's real name (cognomen) was Xenophon, and the full nomenclature of the name should be: (Lucius) Flavius Arrian Xenophon. However, the nickname Xenophon is not found in inscriptions with Arrian's name. It is more likely to admit that Arrian brought himself out in the " Disposition "under a literary pseudonym (Bosworth. Arian... P. 248; Ameling W. L. Arrianus Neos Xenophon // EA. 1984. 4). Thus, we are once again convinced that the" Disposition " is not an authentic military document, but a literary stylization.

32 This contingent of Armenians, different from the allies from Lesser Armenia (Ekt. 7), most likely came from Greater Armenia, where the Emperor Hadrian (117-138) restored the royal power and which was captured by the Alan invasion. See Mommsen Th. Die romischen Provincialmilizen // Gesammelte Schriften. Bd VI. В., 1910. S. 148; Gallies Н. Die fremden Truppen im romischen Heer des Prinzipats und die sogenannten nationalen Numeri. Beitrage zur Geschichte des romischen Heeres // 45. Bericht der Romisch- Germanischen Kommission... S. 168.

33 i.e. lightly armed, without armor.

34 Researchers translate the word "kontos" in this place in different ways. According to a number of scholars (for example, Parker H. M. D. The Roman Legions. N.Y., 1958. P. 251; Bachrach. Op. cit. P. 129), "kontos" is nothing more than a pilum (pilum) - a heavy dart with a long tip, a typical Roman weapon used for throwing Wheeler E. D. The Legion as Phalanx / / Chiron. 1979. 9. P. 312) believes that this is an ordinary spear (hasta) with a short tip. I accept Bosworth's translation and explanation (Arrian... p. 240; see also Dent. Op. cit. p. 572; Campbell B. Teach Yourself to be a General / / JRS. 1987. 77. P. 26); the first four ranks of legionnaires consisted of pikemen (contophors), the rear four-of spearmen with throwing spears. This formation is most logical when repelling heavy cavalry attacks. The division of the Cappadocian army into kontofors and spearmen is reported in the second half of the second century. Lukian (Alex. 55).

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tips. Those in the first rank hold them ready, so that if the enemy approaches, they will direct the points of the pikes mainly at the chests of the horses. (17) The same... 35 and those standing further back, namely, in the third and fourth ranks, set up pikes for throwing in order to injure the horses and hit the horsemen-in whom they hit, or, when the pike gets stuck in the shield or shell, and the tip bends because of its softness, to make it impossible [for enemy] riding. (18) Next will be the ranks of the spearmen, and the ninth will be followed by the foot archers of the Nomads, Cyrenians, Bosporians, and Ituraeans. (19) [Military] vehicles are positioned behind both flanks to fire at the approaching enemy from a long distance, and behind the entire phalanx .38

(20) All the cavalry, formed up in silts and lochs, eight in number, 39 stand behind the infantry, and behind each of the flanks, with a protection of hoplites and archers in front of them, two lochs, and behind the phalanx in the center - six (other?) 40. then all the mounted archers will be placed directly behind the phalanx to shoot over it; and all the spearmen, pikemen, sword-bearers, and axe-bearers who are present will be deployed facing the flanks, 41 and waiting for the signal to be given. 22 The chosen horsemen will be with Xenophon himself, as will the two hundred men of the legionary infantry, [his] 42 bodyguards, centurions assigned to selected [legionaries], otherwise-the head of the bodyguards, and decurions of selected [cavalrymen]. (23) Let him have... 43 a hundred light-armed spearmen with him, so that he can go around the phalanx formation, find out where the weakness is, go there and help. 24 The entire right flank with cavalry is commanded by Valens, who is also the legate of the fifteenth Legion, and the left by the chiliarchs of the twelfth.

(25) Thus forming up, keep silent until the enemy is within firing distance; and when they are near, all raise the loudest and most terrifying war cry, and let loose shells from cars and stones, as well as arrows from bows, and the spearmen, both light - armed and shield-bearers (?) 44 will throw spears. Stones from the heights of the Allies will also be thrown at the enemy, and the general bombardment must be carried out from everywhere and be so thick as to cause confusion among the horses and the death of the enemy. (26) It is hoped that under the indescribable hail of projectiles, the attacking Scythians will not be able to escape.

35 The manuscript is followed by a gap of approximately 20 letters before the word (see critical apparatus in the Roos-Wirth edition). In one of the editions of Dispositions (Muller, 1889), this gap was ignored, as a result of which the word ("standing in the second row") appeared, distorting the meaning of this place. Bosworth, who studied the manuscript in 1975, suggested reading instead ("those who stand behind"). This translation accepts this amendment. Bosworth's reconstruction of the missing text is as follows: " the same ones (from the second rank aim their pikes at the riders themselves), and those standing further away", etc. (Bosworth.Arrian... p. 238-239).

36 Bosworth suggests the translation "lunging" (Arrian... p. 241), suggesting that the usual meaning of the word - "throwing" - is not suitable for the situation of a fight in a tight formation using heavy kontos. Still, there is nothing improbable about this. Strabo (X. 1. 12. p.448) noted that kontos is suitable for both hand-to-hand combat and throwing.

37 Ranks from the fifth to the eighth.

The 38th phalanx in this case is a tight battle formation of heavy infantry from both legions.

39 The Ili - the four Alas listed above, the lochs-are apparently groups of horsemen from mounted cohorts. There were nine mounted cohorts in Arrian's marching army, but the Cyrenaean cohort was not complete (Ekt. 3) and their riders could be included in the Iturian loch; there were thus eight lochs in total (Bosworth. Arrian... p. 249-250).

40 There is a lacuna in the manuscript.

41 For the actions of this cavalry unit, see Ekt. 31 (repelling a detour by enemy cavalry).

42 Bodyguards are not beneficiaries (permanent retinue under the general), but temporary guards from the legio-narii (Bosworth. Arrian... P. 250).

43 Lacunae (9-10 letters).

44 In the text, the Word is corrupted, restored and translated presumably.

45 The designation of the Alans as "Scythians" is caused by the archaizing orientation of the work.

page 242

[manage] to get close to the infantry phalanx. If they approach, they will move their shields and press their shoulders together to meet the onslaught with the strongest possible resistance, bringing the first three ranks close together as tightly as possible, and with as much force as possible. The fourth [rank]...? 46 throws spears   mercilessly with the pikes of horses and men. (27) When [the attack] is repulsed, if [among the enemies] there is a strong flight, the infantry ranks will open and let out horsemen on them, but not all the suckers, but half: those who are lined up first will be the first to attack. (28) The other half follows the attackers, being in a battle formation and not being completely carried away by the chase, so that if the flight increases, they can reinforce the previously left chase on fresh horses, and if [the pursued] try to make any turn [to resist], they can attack the ones who are turning around. (29) At this point, the Armenian archers involved in the pursuit must shoot to prevent the runners from turning, while the unarmored spearmen catch up with them as they run. The marching infantry no longer remains in place, but advances at a rapid pace, so that, if there is stronger resistance on the part of the enemy, they will again become a barrier in front of the mounted ones.

(30) This is the way to proceed if, after the first attack, the enemy is in flight; but if they turn around in an arc and try to attack the flanks, then the flanks of light-armed archers [have] to be stretched further to even higher places. I do not approve of this, knowing from experience that [enemies], seeing the flanks weakened due to the stretching [of the line], immediately rush in and cut down the infantry. (31) But when they go around both sides or one of the flanks, it is certain that their horses will turn sideways, and their pikes will also be on the side. Then the horsemen will attack them, no longer with throwing weapons, but with the swords they have, and some with axes. Since the Scythians themselves and their horses are not protected by carapaces ... 49

46th Place, apparently, is ruined. Bosworth suggests a lacuna not noted in Roos-Wirth (1968). Earlier (Ekt. 16) it was said that the first four ranks are armed with kontos, and here the fourth rank throws spears At Bosworth (Arrian... P. 240) after the word - " fourth (rank)" there should be a description of the actions of the fourth rank, omitted by the scribe. Throwing spears over heads refers to the actions of spearmen in the fifth and subsequent ranks (see Ekt. 17). See also Dent. Op. cit. P. 572. Bosworth Redevelopment:   

47 Bosworth's amendment (Arrian... P. 240) is accepted in accordance with the text of manuscript F ("third "row instead of "first").

48 See note 36.

49 The sentence ends, and in Bosworth's opinion, at a very important and controversial point for understanding. He thus reconstructs the following text:  - "horses are not protected by carapaces (only on the thighs and bellies...)" (Arrian ... p. 236). The general meaning of the phrase is to point out the most vulnerable places (thighs) of horsemen. Cf. Plut. Luc.28.



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