Libmonster ID: U.S.-1518
Author(s) of the publication: T. I. VINOGRADOVA

Until now, the only work on the Soviet periodical press in Chinese remains an article by L. I. Chuguevsky, published on the pages of the journal "Problems of Oriental Studies" more than forty years ago .1 In various collections, as well as according to historical sources, L. I. Chuguevsky managed to identify 22 newspapers, of which only one was published before the revolution as an organ of the Vladivostok Chamber of Commerce.

(L. I. Chuguevsky, although at that time he was an employee of the Leningrad branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences, where a representative collection of Soviet newspapers in Chinese is kept, did not use its materials in his article).

Newspapers in Eastern languages came to the Asian Museum and Institute of Asian Peoples from different countries of the East and the outskirts of the Union as a mandatory copy. Some newspapers were immediately bound and catalogued, while others, for one reason or another, were found not to correspond to the profile of an institution engaged in classical Oriental studies, and were formed unencrypted. The Chinese - language Communist and trade union newspapers of the 1920s and 1930s suffered exactly this fate. The first attempt to catalog them was made only in the late 1960s, during the inventory of the Chinese collection of the Institute's library, a working file was created, newspapers were prepared for binding, but for reasons that are not clear now, all this work was not completed. Later, part of the newspaper collection, including those in Chinese, was damaged in a fire in 1988 in the Library of the Academy of Sciences, in the building of which part of the Institute's funds were then located.

When, after the fire, Soviet newspapers were selected from the mass of other newspapers, it turned out that some of the issues listed in the file cabinets of the 1960s were missing, but new ones appeared, previously unaccounted for.

It became obvious that it was necessary to record the current state of affairs, to acquaint the reader with poorly studied materials that represent a historical source, and to supplement the information of L. I. Chuguevsky with specific information.

Chinese-language newspapers were published in various cities of the Soviet Far East and in the capital. Moscow's newspapers were very different from those in the Far East. In Moscow, the Chinese press was made by people who found themselves in the Soviet capital as a result of a conscious political choice. The press of ethnic Chinese in the Far East was an attempt to self-organize former otkhodniks and laborers, and now full-fledged representatives of the ruling class, which, according to various sources, numbered from 100 to 300 thousand people. As a rule, these were trade union newspapers, which later became party and Soviet press organs. In total, the library's collection now contains 15 newspaper titles, not counting appendices, while L. I. Chuguevsky has 22 of them in the list, and some " our " publications are not included in his list.

This review provides detailed factual information about each edition that you can hold in your hands. In general, I really hope that this article will ever have-

1 Chuguevsky L. I. Periodical press in the Chinese language in the USSR (1918-1937). Problemy vostokovedeniya [Problems of Oriental Studies]. 1959. N 4. pp. 71-76.

page 182

Be happy, for I am sure that once the library is given proper storage space for the newspapers, they will all be sorted out, catalogued, and we will find the missing copies again. All names and titles are reproduced in the form they are used in newspapers.

The largest Chinese-language newspaper in the Soviet Far East was Rabochy  Put (Gongren zhi lu ). Since 1929, it has also become the press organ of the Far Eastern Committee of the CPSU(b).

 It was published from March 1922 to 1934. In our collection there are numbers from 1927, although according to the file of the 1960s, there are several numbers for 1924-1925. The first issue of our collection is 186, dated May 1, 1927, editor-in-chief Zhao Ye-zhen (no hieroglyphic spelling). The year 1929 and the first half of 1932 are most fully represented, the last issue is 1092 dated December 8, 1933. The frequency changed: at first it was published every Wednesday, but from 1928 it began to be published twice a week: on Thursday and Sunday or on Wednesday and Saturday. The print run ranged from 1,600 to 7,000 copies. Initially - 4, less often - 2 strips in the format of 41 by 27 cm, later the format became 49 by 33 cm. From the very beginning - a great typographic set, illustrations.

It began publishing in Vladivostok, and in the spring of 1929, the editorial staff moved to Khabarovsk with the preservation of the Vladivostok office. The largest trade union newspaper of Far Eastern Koreans, Avangard, 2, which is similar to Rabochy Put, has made the same journey . Address of the editorial office in Vladivostok: Chinese Workers ' Club May 1, corner of Pekinskaya and Koreiskaya streets.  Address in Khabarovsk: 24 Shevchenko Street. 

The longest-serving editor-in-chief was Ting-Shan (Ding Shan), a figure in the movement for the introduction of a new Romanized alphabet.In the 1930s, he was the editor-in-chief of the newspaper For a New Alphabet. Anisimov, Chugunov, Mitskevich, and Schmidt worked as executive editors at various times. The last page of the newspaper is devoted to the promotion of a new alphabet based on the Latin alphabet.

There were appendices to the newspaper, organized according to a narrow professional principle: we have a leaflet under the title "Working way in the gold mines" No. 37 of May 13, 1932. It is 2 strips of hard-to-read text of a manuscript reproduced on a steklograph. Executive Editor-I. S. Sosnovsky Content - a few specific documents regulating gold mining, a quarterly report, a short article about the victories of the Chinese Red Army.

A Chinese-language newspaper called Rabochy Put, with the same title font and cap design as the Vladivostok Rabochy Put, was published in 1942 in Mongolia, in Ulaanbaatar in Chinese: Mongol Uyldverchny evleliyn sar tutam zurgan uda havlane Ulan Batar khoto. The editor - in-chief, Wang Xi, was published on Saturdays. The print run is not specified. The date of the beginning of the issue is not indicated anywhere, but if the stated periodicity existed from the beginning of publication, based on the fact that 350 through issues were published at the beginning of 1942, it can be assumed that the Mongolian Rabochy Put began to be published in 1935, a year after the Russian one was closed. The colophon has both the old Mongolian font and the Cyrillic alphabet, and the Mongolian language has errors corrected by hand right in the text, even in the headings. We have issues of this newspaper - from 346 No. 2 of January 16 to 409 No. 65 of December 31, with lacunae. The pre-war profile of the newspaper is unclear, the issues for 1942 are devoted to the war, and to a greater extent to the war in the USSR than in China, but it also has a literary page.

Shakhtar.  (Kuangun). The city of Artem, an organ of the Artemovsky district Committee of the CPSU (b), the Regional Trade Union and the City Council. Artem, Rabochy ave., 9, 2nd floor. It was published twice a month in 1929-1932 with a circulation of 500-1000 copies. Executive Editor-A. Kositsky 

The newspaper is distinguished by its good typographic quality. It ran in two lanes. On the last page, one column was always typed in the Latin alphabet. The issues for 1929-1930 were not found, but there are issues: 1931-issues for October 15, 30 and two issues from December 11, ordinary (70) 40 and special issue (69) 39, dedicated to the fourth anniversary of the Canton commune.

2 Vinogradova T. I. Rossiiskie i sovetskie gazeta na koreiskom yazyke v biblioteka Sankt-Peterburgskogo filial'ya Instituta vostokovedeniya RAN [Russian and Soviet newspapers in Korean in the Library of the St. Petersburg Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. Issue 5-6. SPb., 2003, p. 375.

page 183

1932-issues dated May 30, June 15, July 30, and December 8.

 (Hongse yunshu gongren) ("Red Transport Worker") - without the Russian version of the title. Vladivostok, newspaper of the trade union of transport workers of Vladivostok.  It was published in 1929 with a circulation of 2000 copies. The fund has an issue dated August 1. This publication is not included in the list of L. I. Chuguevsky. Typographic reproduction of handwritten text is of very poor quality.

"Portovik".  (Matou gongren). Vladivostok, organ of the PC of the CPSU (b) and the district water committee, 44 Beregovaya Street. Published every 5 days from 1931 to 1932, sometimes every 2 weeks, circulation-2000-2500 copies. Executive editor: M. Sui-Fu-Ting (1931), Valetsky (1932). Good typographic set, drawings. 4 strips, in N 6 and 7 on the last strip - the rules of Romanization set out in hieroglyphs, in 1932. the last strip is all typed in the Latin alphabet, articles explaining the rules of its application are printed. The last page is provided with its own header in the Latin alphabet - "Matou Gungrhen", it turns out a two - sided newspaper, part is hieroglyphic, and part is in the new alphabet.

The fund has: 1931-numbers from 7 (N 5), 12 (6), 17 (7) October, 18 (15), 26 (17) and 28 (18) December; 1932-numbers from 1 (44) and 21 (46) August, 1 (48), 15 (49) September, 4 (51), 14 (52) and October 29 (54). Strong discrepancies with the data from the file cabinet of the 1960s. Some numbers are in duplicate.

"Polygraph" (without the Chinese name). (The publication is missing from the article by L. I. Chuguevsky) Organ of cells of the CPSU (b), Komsomol, FZK printing house "Knizhnoe delo" N 2. Khabarovsk. It has been published since 1931 twice a month, with a circulation of 500 copies. The main language of the newspaper is Russian, but it is published with a summary of the main texts in Chinese and Korean.

There is only one issue in the collection-the fifth issue dated March 8, 1931, a holiday issue, the 3rd and 4th pages in Chinese and Korean, respectively, and portraits of Chinese Communist Party figures. These illustrations are not available on the Russian-language pages.

There is also an appendix to the Polygraph of January 5, 1932.:

Leaflet No. 1, " Six conditions of com. We will include Stalin in the practical work of our enterprise." Another leaflet was to be published on January 8. Six months later, Stalin delivered a speech at a meeting of business executives, where 6 conditions were formulated for fulfilling and exceeding the industrial financial plan. Also texts in Chinese and Korean.

"Chinese worker".  "Zhungguo gungrhen". (Zhongguo gongren). Vladivostok.

Body of the VKP(b) Civil Code and the City Council. The May 1 Club.  It was published in 1932-1933 3 times a month with a circulation of 3000 copies. Editor - Valetsky is the same as in "Portovik". On the last page, materials were printed in the new Latin alphabet.

The numbers for December 9, 22 and 31, 1932, February 5 and 14, May 31 and June 23, 1933, which are listed in the 1960's file, are missing. From 1933, No. 7(39) of March 19 was preserved, and also numbers 8, 9 and 10 for March 25 and 30 and April 8, respectively, were found.

(Dongfang gongren),  "Oriental Worker". Dunfang gungrhen, 121 Leninskaya Street, Blagoveshchensk, moved to 131 Zeiskaya Street in 1933. First, in 1930-1931: Organ of the Eastern Workers ' Club in Blagoveshchensk, since 1932-Organ of the City Committee of the CPSU (b) and mountains. Professional Bureau.  . Published 2 times a month in two or more languages.

four strips of 58 x 41 cm and 41 x 30 cm format, respectively, with a print run of 500-800 copies. It was published in Chinese and Korean simultaneously, with the front pages in Chinese and the last pages in Korean. But there are also purely Korean issues-number 115 for 1932, while maintaining the general pagination. Editors-Martynov Denisov, Kulev.

The fund has: 1930-numbers 13, 14, 16-19; 1931-numbers 20 - 22, 26 - 27, 42, 46 - 50, 52, 53, 55, 57, 69, 72; 1932 G.-phone numbers 100, 115, 118, 122, 125, 131, 133 - 135, 137, 147, 149, 151, 155 - 159, 164, 168, 172, 175, 177, 179 - 182, 184, 185.

There are also special editions of Vostochny Rabochy: from November 2, 1930-to November 7 on red paper, and from September 20, 1930-a special issue entitled "Appeal" directed against the imperialist war, in support of the Chinese Red Army.

"Red Banner".  (Hong qi). Not to be confused with the Chinese Communist Party newspaper of the time - ("Hong qi zhibao"), which is also usually translated as "Red Banner". Vladivostok, Leninskaya str., 43. Body of the Vladivostok City Committee of the CPSU (b).   The first issue was published on June 21, 1931. Every 5 days with a print run of 3000 copies. Editors-Kovarsky, Deputy Editor-in-Chief. editor-Kiryuchenko. Holo-

page 184

our typographic set, photos. There are rooms from 1 to 7 and from 9 to 13 (dated August 25, 1931).

(Yonghu Sulian).  "For the Soviet Union." Khabarovsk Shevchenko str., 24, body of the DV Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Political Administration of the EFA (Special Far Eastern Army).

 It was published in 1929-1930 with a circulation of 5000 copies. We have 1929 No. 6 of December 6, No. 13 of December 15, No. 18 of December 21, and No. 25 of December 29. Responsible editor - (And Kali - there is no Russian version of the name).

Periodicals also include (Taipingyang Zhigong daibiao huyi tekan), ("Special Edition of delegates to the Congress of Workers and Employees of the Pacific Region" - no Russian name.). Vladivostok, publication of the Chinese section of the Vladivostok Party Committee and the Maritime Club.  Circulation of 4000 copies. There are 2 issues of 1929: August 18 (4 strips) and August 21 (2 strips). They are designed as newspapers and contain resolutions and documents of the Congress. Typographic set in a column from right to left, which is very rare for the Chinese Soviet press.

In addition to trade union and party newspapers that use and promote the new Latin alphabet on their pages, such as the aforementioned Rabochy Put, Vostochny Rabochy, Portovik, and Shakhter, newspapers were published for which the program for romanizing the Chinese script was the main and only goal.

"For the new alphabet". "Yngxu sin wenz".  (Yonghu Xin wenzi). Khabarovsk, Chinese newspaper of the Far Eastern Committee of the New Alphabet for the illiterate. Later - Educational and political newspaper DVKNA, House of Soviets, Committee of the new Alphabet. Editorial staff-Ting Shan, Bulatov, Martynov, Lubin, Schmidt, Shprintsin. In 1932-1933, a separate page was occupied by lessons in mathematics and Russian, and since 1935-a purely political orientation of the newspaper. It has been published since 1932 every 10 days with a circulation of 2000 copies. We have:

1933 - numbers for February, September, November and December, a lot of lost numbers, judging by the old file; 1934 and 1935 are presented most fully, although with lacunae; 1936-numbers for August, September and October; 1937 - numbers for May and June. The last issue of our meeting is dated March 23, 1938.

There was an appendix to the newspaper Za Novy Alphabit:

Photo newspaper "Two worlds".  (Liange shijie), Yngxu sin wenz fu kan. Appendix to the DVKNA newspaper for illiterate Chinese workers "For a new alphabet". Khabarovsk, House of Soviets. Edition of 250 copies. Executive Editor-Martynov, Deputy Executive Editor-Lubin, Editorial board-Schmidt, Pshenitsin, Liu Shilin, Shprintsin.

There is a number from January 5, 1934.

"Revolutionary writing", Gemindi wenz (without the hieroglyphic version of the title). Khabarovsk, organ of the New Alphabet Committee of the Far East. Typolithography N 1 im. Volina Dalpoligraftresta. Circulation of 3000 copies. Chief editor-B. Smyshlyaev.

In our collection there are two issues-1 from October 26 and 2 from October 28 for 1932. Moreover, N 1 is called "Revolutionary writing", and the second - "Revolution of Writing", at the end of N 2 - a large list of typos to N 1.

Many trade union newspapers in the Far East were published in both Chinese and Korean, and it seems that one editorial office served both diasporas. Some publications existed in either Chinese or Korean versions. In the article by L. I. Chuguevsky and in our old file cabinet there is a Chinese newspaper called "Partucheba".  (Dan ke), published in Khabarovsk in 1932-1933, but in our collection there is only a Korean version of it - In Blagoveshchensk in 1933 the newspaper Vostochnaya Kommuna was published. L. I. Chuguevsky describes the Chinese version of this publication -  (Dongfang Gongshe), we also have a publication under this name in Korean.The already mentioned newspaper Vostochny Rabochy often printed the last page in Korean, and the Russian-language newspaper Polygraph printed some of the materials in Chinese and Korean.

The Chinese-language newspapers published in Moscow were publications related to the activities of the Communist University of Chinese Workers (KUTK) or the Publishing House of Foreign Workers in the USSR. There are few newspapers, and they were published not regularly, but on holiday dates.

One-day May Day newspaper.  ("Wu yi tekan"). Publication of the Central Chinese Club in Moscow. Sale - 13 Herzen Street. Book distribution Sector Publishing House-

page 185

certificates of foreign workers in the USSR. 1500 copies. Issue of May 1, 1933, 2 copies. The executive editor is Wee-jong, and the technical editor is Hyun-il-gu.

"Hands off the USSR".  ("Bu zhong qin fan Xuliang"). A one-day newspaper dedicated to the International Red Day on August 1. Moscow, KUTK Publishing House. Volkhonka, 16. Number 1 August 1929

Among the Moscow Chinese newspapers are also the weekly newspaper "Vperyod"  Shjanjin bao mentioned by L. I. Chuguevsky) and the one-day newspaper "October"  (Shi Yue), which was published by the Publishing House of Foreign Workers in the USSR on memorable dates. They are listed in an old file cabinet, but we haven't been able to find them yet.

Unfortunately, the file of the 1960s contains only the most sparse information about newspapers, and often the place of publication is not even indicated, so that the" Soviet " origin of some undiscovered newspapers can be guessed only by the name. This is one issue of the newspaper  (Yuan-dong bao) ("Far East") for 1926, and the newspaper of 1932 "Udarnik" (Tuzudui). Perhaps this is an Irkutsk publication called "Tuzuduyuan", mentioned in the article by L. I. Chuguevsky.


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