T. DEITCH, Candidate of Historical Sciences
At the creation of the United Nations, peacekeeping was declared one of its main functions. Under the UN Charter, the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security rested with the Security Council( SC). Since 1945, the UN has assisted in the negotiation of more than 170 peace agreements. 1 Since 1948, 60 UN peacekeeping operations have been conducted; of these, 47 have been conducted by the Security Council since 1988. about 130 countries were sent to the operations (105 countries send peacekeepers constantly). The missions included more than 750,000 military and civilian personnel. Almost 2,000 peacekeepers have been killed in UN operations in various parts of the world2.
UN peacekeeping and international security activities include preventive diplomacy, peace-making, peace-keeping, and peace-building. Preventive diplomacy includes actions aimed at preventing disputes between the parties, preventing disputes from escalating into conflicts, and limiting the scope of conflicts. In recent years, its arsenal of tools has been expanded by such a mechanism as the preventive deployment of UN Forces (UNPRO).
Peacemaking refers to actions aimed at bringing warring parties to an agreement through mediation, reconciliation, arbitration, good offices, and enforcement of peace and sanctions. The dispute resolution body is the International Court of Justice in The Hague. It has helped resolve conflicts between Mali and Burkina Faso, Chad and Libya, Cameroon and Nigeria, and Ethiopia and Eritrea, among others.
The purpose of sanctions is to change the behavior of the state and warn that sanctions may be followed by tougher measures. Recently, the range of application of sanctions has been expanding: they are used not only against States, but also against one of the opposing groups. An example is the UN embargo on the import of weapons and ammunition, military aid and fuel supplies to the UNITA group in A ... Read more