Analyzing the general conditions of the genesis of anti-immigrant racism in France since the late 1960s, the French sociologist M. Viviorca connects them with significant social changes. The main one was the decline of classical industrial society and, consequently, the weakening of the labor movement. The strength of this movement was its ability to speak out on behalf of all working people and for their interests - skilled and unskilled, women and men, whites and people of color. When it weakens, " many projects and hopes disappear or become artificial... Part of the actors who could find in it ... they seek other landmarks, other meanings, sometimes finding them in ethnicity, nation, identity, roots, and, as an extreme case, in race. " 43 M. Viviorca considers the main feature of racism in modern France to be "the spread to the masses of an updated set of racist sermons and actions that began in the 1970s, but became really visible in the mid-1980s." 44 A manifestation of the "old" racism was the perception of any immigrants by the majority of the population of the host country as a lower social community. "Renewed" racism is mainly directed against immigrants as members of ethnic minorities who are completely incompatible (mentally, culturally, religiously, morally, and otherwise) with the indigenous population .45 The type of racism described above has taken root to some extent in other countries of post-war Western Europe. Of course, the country-specific nature of historical, political and other conditions affected the process of "racialization". But the very fact that xenophobic-racist views, perceptions and moods are maturing in a fairly broad segment of society is beyond doubt. A significant role in this was played by the explicit or implicit fears of host societies for their national and cultural identity in the context of the formation of non-European ethno-confessional enclaves in them. All this contributed to the activation of anti-immigrant ultra-right ... Read more

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